The Prime Minister is the head of the Government. Article The Government conducts the policy of the Nation. It is responsible before Parliament under the terms stipulated by the Constitution. Article To be appointed Prime Minister, a person must:. Enjoy civil and political rights and never have been sentenced to death, personal restraint or penal servitude or the loss of civil rights;. Article With the approval of the President, the Prime Minister shall choose the members of his Cabinet of Ministers and shall go before Parliament to obtain a vote of confidence on his declaration of general policy.
The vote shall be taken in open ballot, and an absolute majority of both Houses is required. In the event of a vote of nonconfidence by one of the two 2 Houses, the procedure shall be repeated. Article The Prime Minister enforces the laws. He has the power to issue rules and regulations but he can never suspend or interpret laws, acts or decrees, nor refrain from enforcing them. Article The Prime Minister appoints and dismisses directly or by delegation Government officials, according to the provisions of the Constitution and the law on the general regulations for Government operations.
Article The Prime Minister and the Ministers may appear before the two 2 Houses to support bills and the objections of the President of the Republic and to reply to interpellation. Article Acts of the Prime Minister are countersigned, if need by the Ministers responsible for enforcing them. The Prime Ministers may be assigned a Ministerial portfolio. Article The Prime Minister and the Ministers are jointly responsible for the acts of the President of the Republic and of their ministers that they countersign.
They are also responsible for enforcement of the laws in the areas of their competence. Article The duties of the Prime Minister and of a member of the Government are incompatible with membership in the Parliament. If such a case occurs, the member of Parliament must choose one duty or the other.
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The number of Ministers may be no fewer than ten Article Holding a ministerial post is incompatible with the exercise of all other public employment, except for higher education. Article Ministers are responsible for the acts of the Prime Minister that they countersign.
They are jointly responsible for enforcement of the laws. Article Ministers appoint certain categories of Government employees by delegation of the Prime Minister, according to the conditions set by the law on Government operations. Article When one of the two 2 Houses during an interpellation calls into question the responsibility of a Minister by a vote of censure passed by an absolute majority of its members, the Executive shall recall the Minister. Article The Judicial Power shall be vested in the Supreme Court Cour de Cassation , the Courts of Appeal, Courts of First Instance, Courts of Peace and special courts, whose number, composition, organization, operation and jurisdiction are set by law.
No special court may be established under any name whatever. Judges of the Courts of First Instance are appointed for seven 7 years. Their term begins at the time they take their oath of office. Article Supreme Court justices are appointed by the President of the Republic form a list submitted by the Senate of three 3 persons per court seat. Judges of the Courts of Appeal and Courts of First Instance are appointed from a list submitted by the Departmental Assembly concerned; Justices of the Peace are appointed from a list draw up by the Communal Assemblies.
Article The law regulates the conditions required for serving as a judge at any level. A School of the Magistrature shall be established. They may be removed from office only because of a legally determined abuse of authority or be suspended following and indictment leveled against them. They may not be reassigned, without their consent, even in the case of a promotion. Their service may be terminated during their term of office only in the event of a duly determined permanent physical or mental incapacity.
Article The Supreme Court does not try cases on their merits. Nevertheless, in all cases other than those submitted to a jury, when a case between the same parties is tried upon second appeal, even with an incidental plea of defense, the Supreme Court, accepting the appeal, shall not remand the case to a lower court but shall rule on the merits, sitting as a full court. ARTICLE However, in the case of appeals from temporary restraining orders or orders of examining magistrates, grants of appeal pronounced in connection with such orders or from final sentences of the Peace Courts or decisions of special courts, the Supreme Court, admitting the appeal, shall pronounce a decision without remanding the case.
Article The duties of a judge are incompatible with any other salaried duties, except for education. Article Court proceedings are public. However, they may take place in closed session in the interest of public order and good morals, at the decision of the Court. Article All order or judgments shall state the grounds for the decision and shall be handed down in a public hearing.
Acts of notaries shall be put in the same form when their compulsory execution is involved. Article The Supreme Court rules on both fact and law in all cases of decisions handed down by military courts. Article When litigation is referred to it, the Supreme Court, sitting as a full Court, shall rule on the unconstitutionality of the laws. ARTICLE The interpretation of a law given by the Houses of the Legislature shall be imposed for the purpose of that law without retroactively taking away any rights acquired by res judicata.
Article The law determines the jurisdiction of the courts and tribunals, and regulates the manner of preceedings before them. The President of the Republic for the crime of high treason or any other crime or offense committed in the discharge of his duties;. The Prime Minister, the Ministers and the Secretaries of State for Crimes of high treason and embezzlement or abuse of power or any other crimes or offenses committed in the discharge of their duties;. Members of the Permanent Electoral Council and the Superior Court of Auditors and the Court of Administrative Disputes for serious offenses committed in the discharge of their duties;.
Article Members of the High Court of Justice serve on an individual bases, and no opening proceedings, take the following oath;. Article The High Court of Justice shall designate, by secret ballot and an absolute majority of votes, from among its members a Committee of Enquiry. ARTICLE The Court may not impose any other penalties than dismissal, disqualification or deprivation of the right or exercise any public office for no less than five 5 years and no more than fifteen 15 years.
ARTICLE However, the convicted person may be brought before ordinary courts, in accordance with the law, if there is reason to impose other penalties or to rule on the institution of civil action. Article Once a case is brought before the High Court of Justice, the Court must sit until it renders its verdict, regardless of the length of the sessions of the Legislature. Article The Permanent Electoral Council is responsible for organizing and controlling with complete independence all electoral procedures throughout the territory of the Republic until the results of the election are announced.
Article The Permanent Electoral Council consists of nine 9 members chosen from a list of three 3 names proposed by each of the Departmental Assemblies:. The above-mentioned organs see to it as far as possible that each of the Departments are represented. Article Members of the Permanent Electoral Council must:. Enjoy civil and political rights and never have been sentenced to death, personal constraint or penal servitude or the loss of civil rights;. Article Members of the Permanent Electoral Council are appointed for a nine 9 year nonrenovable period.
They may not be removed from office. The President is chosen form among its members. Article In the event of a serious offense committed in the discharge of their duties, the members of the Permanent Electoral Council are liable for prosecution before the High Court of Justice. Its jurisdiction extends throughout the territory of the Republic.
Article Members of the Permanent electoral Council may not hold any other public post, nor may they be a candidate of an elective post during their term.
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In the event of dismissal, a member of the Council must wait three 3 years before he may run for an elective post. Article The Permanent Electoral Council shall rule on all disputes arising either in elections or in the enforcement or the violation of the Electoral Law, subject to any legal prosecution undertaken against an offender or offenders before the courts of competent jurisdiction.
Article In the event of a vacancy caused by a depth, resignation or any other reason, the member shall be replaced following the procedure established in article for the remainder of his term, taking into account the branch of government that had designated the member to be replaced. Article The law determines the rules for organization and operation of the Permanent Electoral Council.
Article The Superior Court of Auditors and Administrative Disputes is an independent and autonomous financial and administrative court. It is responsible for administrative and jurisdictional control of Government receipts and expenditures, verification of the accounts of the Government enterprises and of the territorial divisions. ARTICLE The Superior Court of Auditors and Administrative Disputes participates in drawing up the budget and is consulted on all matters concerning legislation on public finances and on all draft financial or commercial contracts, agreements and conventions to which the State is a party.
It has the right to conduct audits in all Government agencies. Have been relieved of their responsibilities of they have been handling public funds;. Have a Bachelor of Law degree, be a certified public accountant or hold an advanced degree in government administration, economics or public finance;. Have five 5 years experience in public or private administration;. ARTICLE The organization of the above-mentioned court, its membership regulations and its mode of operation are established by law. Its members are as follows:.
His term is seven 7 years and may not be renewed. Their organization and their location must be planned from the perspective of regional development. ARTICLE Authorization for operation of universities and private superiors schools is subject to the technical approval of the Council of the State University, to a majority of Haitian participation in the capital and faculty, and to the obligation to teach primarily in the official language of the country. ARTICLE The universities and the private and public superior schools provide academic and practical instruction adapted to the trends and requirements of national development.
Education in Haiti
ARTICLE An organic law regulates the establishment, location and operation of university and public and private superior schools in the country. ARTICLE Archaeological, historical, cultural, folklore and architectural treasures in the country, which bear witness to the grandeur of our past, are part of the national heritage. Financial management is the responsibility of the Minister concerned. The Executive, assisted by an Interdepartmental Council, draws up the law that sets the portion and nature of public revenue allotted to the territorial divisions.
No charge or tax, whether imposed by a Department, a Municipality, or Communal Section, may be established without the consent of its territorial divisions. Pensions paid by the State are indexed to the cost of living. ARTICLE Subject to special provisions thereon, the holding of two or more salaried public offices at the same time is strictly forbidden, except posts in education. Its regulations are determined by law. ARTICLE The Central Bank has exclusive authority to issue as legal tender throughout the territory of the Republic, paper money representing the monetary unit, and coins, according to the name, weight, description, amount and use set by law.
ARTICLE Amounts to be drawn on budget allocations may in no case exceed one-twelfth of the appropriations for a particular month, except in December, because of bonuses paid to all Government employees and officials. ARTICLE The General accounts and budgets stipulated in the receding article, accompanied by a report from the Superior Court of Auditors and Administrative Disputes must be submitted to the Legislative Houses by the Minister of Finance no later than fifteen 15 days after the opening of the legislative session. The same applies to the annual balance sheet and statement of operations of the Central Bank and to all other accounts of the Haitian State.
The statement of receipts and expenditures of the Government for the preceding year, or years;. The Government General Budget containing the rough estimates and the portion of funds allocated to each Ministry of the year. ARTICLE However, no proposal or amendment may be introduced into the Budget when it is being voted upon, without provision of the ways and means therefore.
They shall refuse to grant the Ministers discharge when the accounts submitted do not in themselves, or by supporting documents, provide the necessary data for verification and evaluation. ARTICLE If for any reason whatever the Legislative Houses do not act upon the budget for one or more Ministerial Departments before they adjourn, the budget or budgets of the Departments concerned shall remain in force until a new budget is voted on and adopted.
ARTICLE Autonomous agencies and enterprises and entities subsidized wholly or in part by the Public Treasury shall be governed by special budgets and salary and wage systems approved by the Executive Branch. ARTICLE For the purpose of maintaining constant and careful supervision over Government expenditures, a fifteen-ember Parliamentary Committee with nine 9 Deputies and six 6 Senators shall be elected by secret ballot at the beginning of each regular session, to report on the management Ministers, in order to enable the two 2 Assemblies to give them discharge.
This Committee may engage the services of specialists to assist it with its monitoring functions. To ensure its viability, it must be managed honestly and efficiently. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21 4 , — Conversational interaction and second language development:recasts, responses, and red herrings? The Modern Language Journal, 82 3 , — Polio, C. The role of interaction in native speaker comprehension of nonnative speaker speech.
Modern Language Journal, 82 3 , — Swain, M. The output hypothesis and beyond: Mediating acquisition through collaborative dialogue. Lantolf Ed. Oxford University Press. Zuengler, J. Cognitive and sociocultural perspectives: Two parallel SLA worlds? DICE has been cast. Rigo, B. Fillol Eds. Nocus et al. Romero, M. Paris: Seuil. Debarbieux, E. Gottfredson, G. Gottfredson, D. Hidair, I.
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Dans ma Vieille-Grosjean, Van Zanten dir. Bouffard, T. Holzkamp, K. Lehren als Lernbehinderung. In Forum Kritische Psychologie Vol. Verlag Berlin, Hamburg. Subjektwissenschaftliche Grundlegung. Meirieu, P. Paris : ESF. Reboul, O. Rochex, J. Vieille-Grosjean, H. Questions Vives. Candidate, M. She is a Ph. She also has a bachelor de- about wonder, questioning, and discovering patterns in the natural world. Scientific exploration does not, however, take She has taken part as a re- place without guidelines. She speaks practices that sustain scientific Sawyer, English, French, Norwegian and Greek.
The goal of this on-going study is to envision science learning of primary school students as improvisational performance, investigating the process of applying im- Dr. Zacharoula Smyrnaiou is provisational and creative activities in science learning. Working in small groups they will be able to the educational design of digi- tal media and accompanying use multiple resources drawing, ICT, etc. The research methodology will be balanced among qualitative and e on teaching teacher and quantitative research, ensuring that the limitations of one type of data will be educators.
She is member covered by the strengths of the other e. Curriculum Reform in Gree- ce, chairman of the Scienti- The expected results of this study are to detect how constructivist-oriented improvisa- fic Supervisory Board of 1st tional learning environment could encourage students to explore objects, situations, Experimental High School of Athens and president at and concepts deeply, for extended periods of time, and from multiple perspectives.
She has been involved in pro- jects funded by E. Hicks, D. Discourse, learning, and teaching. Review of Research in Ms. Eleni Giannakopoulou Education, 21, 49— She has graduated from University of Sawyer, R. Creative teaching: Collaborative discussion as disciplined impro- Athens, Department of Phi- visation. Educational Researcher, 33 2 , 12— She has participated in various projects and publi- cations. Her main academic interests are minorities and education, gender in educa- tion, social anthropology in education, social policy, and qualitative social research.
She speaks fluently English, French, German and Greek. Quelles pistes envisager en formation des enseignants pour accompagner ces mutations? Bonneau, E. Breton, Ph. Eloge de la parole. Chanfrault-Duchet, M. Crinon, J. Delamotte-Legrand, R. Dolz, J. Dupont, P. Garcia-Debanc, Cl. Girardot, J. Granjon, F. Greffet, F. Perspectives de recherche. Le Baut, J. Legardez, A. Maurer, B. Montelle, Ch. Plane, S. Plessus-Belair, G. Rispail, M. Weber, C.
Cahiers internationaux de sociologie, , Bernard, P. Que Sais-je? Perier, P. Remy, R. Saura, B. Verdier, E. Caillaud, S. Ou comment penser son plan de recherche. Lo Monaco, S. Rateau Eds. Bruxelles : De Boeck. Chabanne, J-C. Paris : PUF. Cros, F. Fleitz, T. Savoirs, 4 1 , Mias, C. Bourgoing, J. Brunot, F. Bruschi, A. Demonet, M. La Renaissance. Lestringant, M. Furno, M. Histoire et civilisation du livre, IV , Giard, L. Auroux dir. Huchon, M. Magnien-Simonin, C. In Olry-Louis, I. Interactions communicatives et psychologie : approches actuelles.
Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle, e-Book, Baker, M. Brnuner, J. Dasen, P. Les interactions verbales, tome1. Ohlsson, S. Reiman et H. Spade dir. Pourtois, J. Bruxelles : Labor. Terrisse, B. Valsiner, J. Child development in cultural context. Vygotsky, L. Quels en sont les enjeux? Corps du monde, Atlas des cultures corporelles. Paris, Armand Colin.
Assayag J Miss Monde en Inde, Calves, A-E Les mutations du regard. Paris, Le Seuil. Couvry, C Debord, G Detrez, C La construction sociale du corps. Garnier, G Gherchanoc, F Bordeau, Ausonius. Lapassade, G Observation participante. Paris, PUF. Loubet del Bayle, J-L Saura, Bruno Schuft, L [ Vigarello, G Nous nous interrogerons dans une Australes. Nocus, I. Projet de Loi de Finances Guimard, P. Paia, M. Paia dir. Rennes, Presses universitaires de Rennes, Paia, M.
Vernaudon, J. Bibliographie Berchoud, M. James, C. Joulia, D. Lo Monaco, S. Rateau Eds. Bruxelles : De Boeck. Chabanne, J-C. Paris : PUF. Cros, F. Fleitz, T. Savoirs, 4 1 , Mias, C. Bourgoing, J. Brunot, F. Bruschi, A. Demonet, M. La Renaissance.
La fable du libéralisme qui sauve le monde, par Bruno Guigue
Lestringant, M. Furno, M. Histoire et civilisation du livre, IV , Giard, L. Auroux dir. Huchon, M. Magnien-Simonin, C. In Olry-Louis, I. Interactions communicatives et psychologie : approches actuelles. Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle, e-Book, Baker, M. Brnuner, J. Dasen, P. Les interactions verbales, tome1. Ohlsson, S. Reiman et H. Spade dir. Pourtois, J. Bruxelles : Labor. Terrisse, B. Valsiner, J. Child development in cultural context.
Vygotsky, L. Quels en sont les enjeux? Corps du monde, Atlas des cultures corporelles. Paris, Armand Colin. Assayag J Miss Monde en Inde, Calves, A-E Les mutations du regard. Paris, Le Seuil. Couvry, C Debord, G Detrez, C La construction sociale du corps. Garnier, G Gherchanoc, F Bordeau, Ausonius. Lapassade, G Observation participante. Paris, PUF. Loubet del Bayle, J-L Saura, Bruno Schuft, L [ Vigarello, G Nous nous interrogerons dans une Australes. Nocus, I.
Projet de Loi de Finances Guimard, P. Paia, M. Paia dir. Rennes, Presses universitaires de Rennes, Paia, M. Vernaudon, J. Bibliographie Berchoud, M. James, C. Joulia, D. Leylavergne, A. Zona proxima. Migeot, F. Proscolli, A. Puren, C. Perspectives actionnelles et perspectives culturelles en didactique des lan- gues-cultures : vers une perspective co-actionnelle co-culturelle. Tetahiotupa, E. Il a obte- Contact : denis. Allerton, C. Children: Ethnographic Encounters. Bloomsbury Publi- shing. Kirkpatrick, J.
The Marquesan Notion of the Person. Lancy, D. Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Anthropology of Learning in Childhood. Levinson, B. A Companion to the Anthropology of Edu- cation. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. Levy, R. Tahitians: Mind and Experience in the Society Islands. Essential contrasts: Differences in parental ideas about learners and teaching in Tahiti and Nepal. Super Eds. Martini, M. Peer interactions in Polynesia: A view from the Marquesas. Roopnarine, J. Hooper Eds.
Early interactions in the Marquesas Islands. In Field, A. Sostek, P. Leiderman Eds. Culture and Early Interactions. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Parenting in Polynesia: A view from the Marquesas. Carter Eds. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Maynard, A. Oliver, D. Ritchie, J. Growing Up in Polynesia. Sydney: George Allen and Unwin. Politix 4 , Les objectifs de cet enseigne- 1 Lecteurs mp3, mp4, tablettes iPad, robots Thymio, robots Bluebot. Le second temps sera une phase de questions. Contact : vahi. Chevallard, Y. Paris, France: A. Lahire, B. Paris, France : Perrin.
Rennes, France: Presses universitaires de Rennes. Ses recherches dans le pro- gramme ANR Legs colonial et outre-mer autochtones. Avec E. Bourdieu, P. Cizeron, M. Delay, C. Herrera, J. Hoggart, R. La culture du pauvre. Lewis, O. Les enfants de Sanchez. Poirine, B. Politix, 4 , Scott, J. Serra Mallol, C. Docteur en science Contact : bruno. Levy, Robert Tahitians.
Mind and experience in the Society Islands. Chicago, Chicago University Press, p. Mead, Margaret Galimard, Folio Es- sais , p. Paris, Pockett, p. Contacts : zsmyrnaiou ppp. The past 10 years her work has focused a on the teaching of science using new information technologies b on Abstract the educational design of digi- Nowadays, science education is considered as a key investment to meet global tal media and accompanying challenges and improve human life UNESCO Report.
It is therefore impera- pedagogical scenarios c on implementing research in real tive that the public is engaged in science issues that affect individual and societal classroom settings conside- progress Marincola, However, one of the major issues facing science, en- ring different factors d on gineering and technology today is the decline of women enrolling in these subjects supporting teachers and stu- and entering careers in these fields.
This alarming trend may have serious repercus- dents during the implementa- sions on capacity in science as well as in social and economic development Hill, tion of innovative educational Corbett and Rose, She is member ring and Math important deficits and wide disparities still prevent full involvement of the committee of Science of all students and talents Science Education for Responsible Citizens, European Curriculum Reform in Gree- Committee. There are still many challenges for girls in STEM, including unsuppor- ce, chairman of the Scienti- tive classrooms, outdated pedagogy and lack of role models.
Making connections fic Supervisory Board of 1st between STEM and other disciplines such as Art, allows to embrace the creative Experimental High School potential of linking arts, scientific inquiry and innovation and overcome traditional of Athens and president at gender bias by breaking through practices. She has been involved in pro- The main aim of this research project is to examine stereotypes, expectations and jects funded by E. More specifically the Intensive Programme Inno- study aims to: vative practices for teaching science.
Eleni Giannakopoulou - Offer pre service and in service teachers as well as relevant stakeholders quality was born in London in information regarding gender based didactics in STEM subject teaching ; and lives in Athens. She has - Add valuable information in an international level as regards combating stereotypes graduated from University of and prompting broader participation to STEM among schoolgirls ; Athens, Department of Phi- - Stimulate the implementation of innovative approaches as STEAM- by incorpora- losophy, Pedagogy and Psy- chology with a major in Psy- ting Art to STEM and fostering gender balanced environments.
She holds two master degrees: MA in Contemporary Because of the complexity of the research field, a mixed approach of both qualitative History, University of Bris- and quantitative research methodologies will ensure that the limitations of one type tol and MSc in Public Policy, of data will be balanced by the strengths of the other e. She has participated as societies can no longer afford to let schools sideline girls and discourage their in various projects and publi- achievements.
Her main academic interests are minorities and Hill C. Kenway J.
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