Ryle, Gilbert. Rynkiewicz, Kazimierz. Zwischen Realismus Und Idealismus. Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag. Sancipriano, Mario. Schaeffer, Jean-Marie, and Potocki, Christophe, eds. Paris: Archives Contemporaines Editions. Schopper, Werner. Seifert, Joseph. Seifert, Joseph, and Smith, Barry. Shusterman, Richard. Simons, Peter M. Selected essays - Dordrecht, Kluwer pp. Ontology, the science of being as being, was conceived in Plato's wrestling with the Eleatics' to on. Its birth to Aristotle was not without complications for it seemed a single science should have a single genus as object, yet Aristotle denied that to on formed a genus.
Given the role Aristotle gives to genera in definition, this is not surprising, but the outcome is that 'to be' is not said according to one genus, and hence has several meanings. Can there then be a science of being as being? Aristotle's solution lay in the idea that all these meanings revolved around the central one of to be said of substances. However, not all philosophers shared Aristotle's denial of a single all-embracing class of objects. Plotinus regarded ' ti' , 'something', as denoting a highest genus.
Bolzano, Brentano, Meinong and Husserl all used univocal term: like ' etwas ' and ' Gegenstand' to mark such a class, while Quine has insisted that 'there are' is univocally rendered by the existential quantifier. Ingarden on the other hand follows Aristotle. The question of the univocity or multivocity of be is still one of the first questions of ontology. In this paper I use historical comparisons to point to where a solution to the problem may lie.
Ingarden's account of the different ways or modes of being Seinsweisen, modi essendi is a most important philosophical contribution to the problem. By chance marks not only the fifteenth anniversary of Ingarden's death but also the official th anniversary of the birth of the greatest of the late scholastics, William of Ockham, who is also celebrated here.
My motive is however primarily systematic: I think be is indeed analogically ambiguous, though for different reasons than Aristotle or Ingarden. A Study in Ontology. Attention is focussed on literary works, which are said to have four strata, two belonging to language itself. I find Ingarden's stratified account of language correct in principle but defective in execution.
In the ontology of literary works, the stratum of schematized aspects is particularly problematic, and I interpret these as complex meanings, correlated with another element of the work not given sufficient recognition by Ingarden: the Reader. I suggest the terminology of strata for anworks in general is dispensable. Skolimowski, Henryk. Polish Analytical Philosophy.
Smith, Barry. Amsterdam: Benjamins Press. Sodeika, Thomas. Spiegelberg, Herbert. Steinbach, Heribert. Kritische Betrachtungen Zu Ingardens Existentialontologie. Swiderski, Edward. An examination of these entities provides, according to him, a knowledge of the corresponding individual essences of individual objects.
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Although his starting point in this matter reproduces Husserl's original conceptions, what he found in Husserl's writings on the subject proved finally to be neither sufficient nor clear. For example, with respect to the problem of the existence and nature of Ideas, Ingarden wrote in the second volume of the Controversy over the Existence of the World : "Actually, what he gave us, his students, in this matter was solely the conviction that a rejection of the existence of Ideas-in some special manner-must lead to contradictions".
But what was certainly of value in Husserl, as far as the foundations of ontology were concerned, was his discussion in the Logical Investigations of the a priori, i. Accordingly, there are several related subjects to be considered. First, it should be seen how Ingarden conceives objects and their structures in general. This discussion will help clarify the problem whether Ingarden's theory of objects owes its content to the theory of ideal entities, or whether the reverse is true, that the theory of Ideas, etc.
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The possibility that they might be independent theories is excluded because Ideas, etc. Second, it should be clarified whether, and if so in what sense, the structures of objects themselves reflect or indeed embody necessary connections of an ideal character. This calls for an analysis of the notions of "concretion" and "moment" and of their relation to ideal entities. Finally, after these discussions, it will be possible to deal with the central task of ontology according to Ingarden, namely with the analysis of Ideas as the proper field of investigations in ontology.
Findlay, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul I want to show that the distinction is problematic and that therefore the connection remains nebulous. The reason Ingarden gives for the distinction is that a philosopher needs to be clear about what in general, for example, a world is and what sorts of things can in general "furnish" the world before he can claim that the factual world, as apprehended in ordinary and scientific experience, is "really" thus and so. Now Ingarden had comparatively little to say about the connection of ontology to metaphysics.
However, speaking in his name it seems plausible to envisage a negative and a positive connection. On the negative side, as it cannot be merely assumed that ontology has some special purchase on the factual world, it may be that no, so to speak, "metaphysical commitment" to what is "really real" would be justifiable on ontological grounds. On the positive side, if metaphysical statements are grounded in the same evidence that sustains ontological statements, arid the latter do have purchase on the facts, then it follows that ontology has a prima facie metaphysical import to start with.
Swiecimski, Jerzy. Szczepanska, Anita. Translated from the Polish by the author with the assistance of G. Kung and E. The Polish version of this paper appeared in Studia Estetyczyne, Warsaw, vol. I want, instead, to do the following: 1 to examine the relationship between Ingarden's axiological investigations and his earlier inquiry into the general "anatomy" of works of art - literature, painting, music, etc. Husserl's Logische Untersuchungen was Roman Ingarden's very first publication. At the time of its appearance, , Ingarden was still studying in Freiburg, working on his Ph.
What could have prompted the youthful Ingarden to write such a review? The fact that the review was written in Polish suggests that Ingarden may simply have grasped an opportunity to arouse the Polish philosophical community's interest in a work that he regarded as monumental and, perhaps more generally, to stir its awareness of phenomenology as a movement. It may be no accident that the review appears in a section of the journal entitled "Survey of Contemporary Systems". More compelling evidence for this occasional motive is the fact that Ingarden's first major publication was an extensive "introduction" to phenomenology.
It was meant to remedy the deplorable state of almost total ignorance of. Tarnowski, Karol. Thomasson, Amie L. Ingarden himself discusses cultural objects other than works of art directly in the first section of "The Architectural Work", where he develops a particularly penetrating view of the ontology of buildings, flags, and churches. This text provides the core insight into how his more lengthy studies of the ontology of works of art in The Literary Work of Art and the rest of The Ontology of the Work of Art , combined with the ontological distinctions of Der Streit um die Existenz der Welt, may be used to understand social and cultural objects.
The view that results, I will argue, is based in foreseeing problems with the reductivist and projectivist views that remain popular, and is capable of resolving central problems still thought to plague those who would offer a theory of cultural objects. Social and cultural objects such as money, churches, and flags present a puzzle since they seem, on the one hand, to be entities that clearly -- in some sense -- depend on minds, and yet, on the other hand, seem to be objective parts of our world, things of which we may acquire knowledge both in daily life and in the social sciences , and which we cannot merely modify at will.
But it is hard to see how any entity could exhibit both of those characteristics - if, on the one hand, we take their objectivity and mind-externality seriously, and consider them to be identifiable with physical objects, we find ourselves saddled with absurd conclusions about the conditions under which such entities would exist and persist, and neglect their symbolic and normative features. If, on the other hand, we treat them as mere creations of the mind, they seem either reduced to phantasms that could not have the recalcitrance and impact on our lives cultural objects apparently exhibit, or we seem to be positing 'magical' modes of creation whereby the mind can generate real, mind-external objects.
Ingarden, I will argue, foresees the problems with each of these alternatives and diagnoses of the root of the problem as lying in too narrow an understanding of the senses in which an entity may be mind-dependent, and too narrow a set of ontological categories for entities there may be. Once we can make evident the different senses in which something may be mind-dependent, and the different kinds of object there may be, we can find room for cultural objects considered as entities that are neither mere physical objects nor projections of the mind, but instead depend in complex ways on both foundations.
Such a moderate realist view, I will argue, can provide the means to overcome the problems thought to plague social ontology and show the way to a more comprehensive ontology. Tymieniecka, Anna-Teresa. Essence Et Existence. Paris: Aubier Montaigne. Urchs, Max. Ingarden's Analysis Vs. Jaskwski Logic. Wachter, Daniel von. It takes Ingarden pages to set it up. His style is not cryptic, but he writes down not only how he thinks things are and his arguments for his views, but all his thoughts about the matter, in good phenomenological tradition.
The editors of this book have asked me to move on a bit more swiftly. As life is short, let us take a Europe-in-seven-days tour through Ingarden's ontology. Preparing the travel we need to clarify what ontology is for Ingarden, how it relates to semantics, and how it relates to metaphysics. Then we shall turn to different kinds of existential dependence and to the distinction between form and matter. Having considered these preliminaries we shall consider Ingarden's conception of a substance and, more briefly, his other categories. While my main aim is to guide you through Ingarden's ontology I shall also indicate where I think the actual world is not as Ingarden describes it.
Wallner, Ingrid. Wegrzecki, Adam. Above all, he attempted to determine what it is that we have in mind when we talk about this particular aspect of values. He also pointed out in a more or less decided way whether and how it is possible to ascribe "relativity" to a given type of values. He himself was reluctant to accept an axiological relativism, especially in its extreme form according to which all values would be relative in every possible way. He felt that such a radical view on values leads inevitably to subjectivism, to a denial of various axiological qualifications for various spheres of being.
Though he was indeed opposed to this view it was not only because of its theoretical and practical consequences, but above all because of the far-reaching simplifications it entailed, the superficiality of the argumentation as well as its disregard for the factual state of affairs accessible to the unprejudiced researcher of value-phenomena.
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Nevertheless, Ingarden's opposition to a radical axiological relativism does not mean that he spoke out for a radical axiological absolutism. Such an inference would be too hasty since, as I shall try to show, it would impute to Ingarden a point of view which has no foundation in his investigations of values. In order to ascertain whether Ingarden's theory of values eventually does allow for some conception of an axiological absolutism, a closer analysis must be carried out of those of its assertions which directly or indirectly touch upon the absoluteness of values.
In this regard Ingarden's significant methodological postulate must be kept in mind, namely that in axiological considerations the essential differences among types of values are not to be obscured. This means, in the first place, that a mechanical transference of assertions that apply to one type of values to some other type or types is invalid; and, in the second place, that a mechanical extension to various types of values of the validity of a series of general axiological theses having the character of pure theoretical possibilities is also invalid.
Hence to determine in what sense Ingarden would be willing to admit an axiological absolutism is not at all the same thing as resolving the question of what kind of absoluteness belongs, according to him, to the given types of values. Most of the remarks in Ingarden's axiology refer to ethical and aesthetic values which makes it possible to determine more exactly their "absoluteness-character" and, at the same time, to indicate which purely theoretical possibilities are "realized" in the case of these types of values.
It is possible to infer from certain of Ingarden's statements that he excludes certain forms of the absoluteness of values encountered in axiological thought. Thus he rejects the view which was once current that values are autonomous objects of a particular kind existing independently of everything and having in themselves the foundation of their continued existence. According to this view, values are simply ideal objects. Ingarden rejects this form of a radically conceived absoluteness of values if only because he considers that a value is always a value of something, or in something, or for something.
Moreover, it does not possess the form of an object, whether or not it exists ideally or otherwise, and it always requires the appropriate foundation for its existence. This conviction applies to all values. Wolenski, Jan. On the other hand, it is highly probable that some elements of Ingardenian ontology may be helpful for modal logicians. In spite of the known Ingarden's very critical assesment of formal logic, there is a need for close cooperation between logicians and philosophers in Ingarden's style.
I hope that my considerations justify such an opinion. Zeglen, Ursula. Kazimierz Twardowski on the Content and Object of Presentations. Boguslaw Wolniewicz on the Formal Ontology of Situations. Skip to main content. Note: Works available only in Polish are not enclosed. Inaugural Dissertation. Supplementary volume: Husserl Festschrift ———. Second edition ———. First Polish edition ———. Letters from Edmund Husserl edited by Roman Ingarden ———.
Phaenomenologica vol. Edited, selected and introduced by Rolf Fieguth. Lecture undelivered at the Congress because of the absence of the author ———. Proceedings of the Congress ———. Translated by Elisabeth Willman ———. Thinking and meaning. Entretien d'Oxford ———. Translated by Helen Michejda. Selected part of the first volume of the Polish edition of: Der Streit um die Existenz der Welt ———. Translated by Maria Pelikan ———. Letter to Professor Fizer on 'Schematism' ———. Translated and with an introduction by George G.
Grabowicz ———. Olson ———. Originally written in German in ———. Edited by Peter J. McCormick ———. Translated by Adam Czerniawski ———. Translated by Raymond Meyer with John T. Goldthwait ———.
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