Sei nicht so kleinkariert! Der Glencheck — eine traditionelle Musterung — ist edel, als Anzug durchaus sexy. Foto: Zegna. Und wenn, dann gleich zu rot, aktuell die Lieblingscoleur der Designer, greifen. Ein Accessoire in der Trendfarbe tut es auch! Alle Infos auf derStandard. Sind in Wirklichkeit eh alle schwul, mag man vielleicht meinen, der Mut zur Wahrheit fehle halt.
Weil wissenschaftliche Beweise hat es bisher dazu nicht gegeben. Finden wir gut. Weil bekanntlich war das gesellschaftliche Klima dort auch schon mal besser. Oder doch nicht so ganz? Eben irgendwo mittendrin. Jung sein — das ist in schwulen Kreisen wie ein Sechser im Lotto. Was wollen wir eigentlich damit erreichen? Ist das so wichtig? Und wenn wir das ausstrahlen, werden wir unwiderstehlich.
Mit anderen Worten: wir sind endlich erwachsen, haben eine gesunde Lebensskepsis erworben, gepaart mit einem Hauch von Selbstironie. Gar nichts. Wir sind immer noch man so gar nicht mehr gerechnet hat. Da gibt es schaft, die zu mehr wurde. Klar kann ich Clubs meiden und besorgt Bedeutung hatte. Das, was wir empfinden, ist eher eine Art Komplizenschaft, Knackarsches aufgibt. Und ich stimme ihm aus tiefstem Herzen zu. Manchmal auch zu dumm und zu naiv, um Dinge es auch wieder da, dieses Kribbeln im Bauch, diese Anziehungskraft.
Man hat keine Angst mehr, sich dem anderen so zu zeigen, wie man. Das macht vieles leichter. Aber er lohnt sich. Ganzer Einsatz ist ganzer Erfolg. Dann schicke uns ein kurzes Mail an redaktion name-it. Die Haut sieht glatt, fest und lebendig aus. Die nicht fettende Pflege zieht schnell ein und beruhigt die Haut — auch nach der Rasur. Pflegegewohnheiten im Wandel der Zeit. Die Suche nach dem perfekten Produkt. Das Vorbeugen bzw. Vor allem der Sonnenschutz wird hier zu einem Thema.
Neue Formel zur Graukaschierung in nur zehn Minuten. Die Haut wird beruhigt. Die Haut wird 24 Stunden mit Feuchtigkeit versorgt. Mit Thermalwasser. Innovative Ampullen-Kur, die anlagebedingtem Haarausfall entgegenwirkt. Jetzt ganz einfach bestellen: Entweder im Shop auf www. Februar im Zeitschriftenhandel. Was mit Lustlosigkeit beginnt, endet oftmals in einer totalen Sackgasse. Wir zeigen Dir Auswege und geben Tipps.
Sex ist doch langweilig, oder?
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Mit Anfang 20 war er interessiert an sexuellen Abenteuern, dann lernte er vor drei Jahren Bernd kennen. Er liebe ihn ehrlich und ernsthaft. Trotzdem, obwohl alles passte — der Job, das Privatleben — , erkrankte Markus an einer Depression. Aber was ist das eigentlich — eine Depression? So richtig ernst nehmen die wenigsten eine solche Erkrankung. Viele haben einfach nur gesagt, das wird schon wieder und damit war die Sache vom Tisch!
Oder Depre nur ganz kurz. Ich hatte damals irre Angst, die. Meistens spielt ein nicht verarbeitetes Comingout eine zentrale Rolle. Depressionen in jungen Jahren. Und doch ist es gerade das Coming-out, das oftmals der Beginn einer Depression sein kann. Statistisch gesehen erkranken die meisten Schwulen zwischen dem Dabei leidet nicht jeder, der einmal vor sich hin sinniert, gleich an einer Depression. Der schwierigere Teil der Depressionen ist dagegen mannigfaltig und beginnt von innen heraus zu wirken.
Oft kann es aber laut dem Bericht von Depression Betroffenen auch passieren, dass eine Wechselwirkung einsetzt. Nicht immer allerdings muss eine Depression bei schwulen Jungs nur schlechte Auswirkungen haben. Gut, da ist was, aber was es war, war mir nicht bewusst. Erst als zwei Freunde mir gesagt haben, wie schlecht ich aussehe und das ich dringend mal zum Arzt sollte, hab ich das begriffen.
Viele Leute glauben, eine Depression, das ist etwas, wo Menschen den ganzen Tag traurig sind und weinen. Rund Info einen A aben nur langsa s. Vom Partner, von der Liebe, von sich selbst. Und somit erneut die Sehnsucht aufflackern zu lassen. Die Sehnsucht nach Leidenschaft. Ist es auch! Deshalb suchen wir immer auch Abstand. Das sei der Kernkonflikt des Lebens. Lassen wir nicht ohnehin sehr wenig Menschen wirklich nahe an uns heran?
Meist zeigen wir anderen nur unsere Fassade. Was kann man sich darunter vorstellen? Doch leicht ist dies nicht. Haben wir gar keine Chance, aus diesen festgefahrenen Verhaltensmustern auszubrechen? Meist lieben wir vorsichtig, so dass sich nur halbe Beziehungen ergeben. Sobald es aber ernst wird, sind sie weg.
Allerdings gibt es z. Man geht schnell unverbindliche Sexualkontakte ein, ohne sich irgendwann zu binden. Wie sieht der vor allem bei einer gleichgeschlechtlichen Partnerschaft aus? Oder ist das Gegenteil der Fall? Bei Schwulen ist das schwierig. Dann bekommt eine Beziehung den Charme einer Wohngemeinschaft. Muss man sich vom Partner entfernen, um die Beziehung zu retten? Oder auch zu zweit. Jene, die aber auch auf Aufriss sind, das richtige Wellnessabenteuer erleben wollen, tun sich schon ein wenig schwerer. Nichtsdestotrotz bietet der Winter warmen Kuschelgenuss.
Spezielle Saunen, darunter eine reine Herrensauna, haben sich wohl rund um Wien herumgesprochen. Fazit: Eine richtige Stadttherme mit hohem Gay-Faktor. Die Ankunft in der Lobby des Hauses verspricht einiges an stylischem Flair. Der Weg zur Therme kann dagegen zur Pilgerfahrt werden. Je nach Lage des Zimmers spaziert oder irrt man einige Minuten durch die Anlage. Nur die Vielfalt des Saunabereichs ist leicht mager geraten. Und das Publikum? Doch eher ein bisschen grau und durchwegs hetero. Aber wer suchet, der findet … Fazit: Ein feines Gay-friendly-Thermenhotel, das in nur einer Stunde von Wien zu erreichen ist.
Geschmackvoll und Entspannung pur. Helles Birkenhold und Nussholz-Boden erstrecken sich durch das stylische Ambiente. Dieses Engagement wurde nun mit der Bio-Teilzertifizierung belohnt. Grandios ist die Saunawelt, die sich auch wirklich als solche bezeichnen darf. Oder warst Du jemals schon in einer Salzdampfbadkammer? Therme Laa in Laa a. Die St. Fazit: Afrikafeeling in einem Naturreservat. Dieses Jahr haben die Sterne einiges in deinem Leben durcheinandergewirbelt. Das Gute daran, deine erworbene Kraft wirst du ins neue Jahr mitnehmen!
Die Sterne steigern dein Selbstbewusstsein. Du bist auch massiv in Flirtlaune besonders am Arbeitsplatz. Gegen Jahresende bietet sich die Gelegenheit, dein Leben auszubalancieren. Lass dich nicht weiter hinhalten! Du kannst deine Konkurrenten locker ausstechen und deine beruflichen Erfolge musst du bestimmt auch nicht alleine feiern! Vielleicht mit einem Widder? Ehrlich sein ist gut, nur deine Direktheit wirkt sehr verletzend! Man schaut dir genau auf die Finger, also arbeite gewissenhaft! Der Jahresausklang wird lustbetont. Du arbeitest und arbeitest, aber wo ist der Erfolg?
Sehr nahe - versprechen die Sterne. Noch dieses Jahr wird sich dein Einsatz lohnen. Genau jetzt, solltest du daran gehen, ihn in die Tat umzusetzen, meinen die Sterne. Die allerdings gut ankommen! So kannst du einiges bewegen! Weil der Durschnitts-Teetrinker das falsche Wasser verwendet. Damals befand sich das Wohnmodell, das sich an alle richtet, die nicht dem traditionellen Familienbild entsprechen wollen, noch in der Anfangsphase.
Ein paar Monate danach ist man bereits etliche Schritte weiter! Wiener Gemeindebezirk entstehen. Auch andere Baugruppen u. Sargfabrik siedeln sich in Aspern an — die einzelnen Baugruppen haben bereits eine Kooperation beschlossen. Sehr nett, kreativ und ausgefallen! Zugegeben, schaut bisserl kindisch aus. Ganz nach dem Motto: Wenn man in der kalten Jahreszeit nicht in den Zoo will, holt man sich den Zoo einfach nach Hause ….
Und wenn ja, wie? Antworten im Spannungsfeld zwischen Stil, Selbstdarstellung — und Geld. Architekt Gerd Endmayr in seiner Wiener Wohnung. Wohnen Schwule anders als Heteros? Um diesen Fragen auf den Grund zu gehen, haben wir Prof. Gerd Endmayr, ein offen schwul lebender Architekt, besucht. Gerd Endmayr: Meine Wohnung sollte immer ein Refugium sein. Endmayr: Ja. Sie haben auch viele schwule Kunden. Da gibt es dann nicht mehr die obligatorischen 27 Tischdeckerl, sondern Endmayr: Ein Wohnmobil zu gestalten. Es hat sehr lange gedauert, bis sie ihren eigentlichen Wunsch an mich herangetragen haben.
Jeder Mensch hat das Recht, so etwas von seinem Architekten zu verlangen. Detailtreue ist Schwulen sehr wichtig. Woran liegt das? Endmayr: An mehreren Ursachen. Zum einen haben Schwule mehr Geld, weil sie kinderlos sind. Es stimmt also, dass Schwule anders wohnen als Heteros? Sein Wohnstil ist sehr floral, erinnert an den Jugendstil um Sind Schwule kreativer, was das Wohnen betrifft?
Endmayr: Das denke ich nicht. Endmayr: Wohnen darf man generell nie vereinfachen und verallgemeinern. Wohnen ist nicht schwul. Wohnen ist individuell. Wie schwul ist die Architektur der Wiener Staatsoper? Endmayr: Gar nicht. Architektur ist nicht schwul, genauso wenig wie Wohnen. Architektur ist Architektur, egal ob sie von einem schwulen oder einem heterosexuellen Architekten stammt. Stimmt das? Endmayr: Das kann ich absolut unterzeichnen.
Jede modische Attitude wird gerne und exzessiv mitgemacht. Auf der anderen Seite aber, wie bereits kurz angesprochen, gibt es etliche Schwule, die streng konservativ wohnen. Welcher Wohnstil ist bei Schwulen besonders beliebt? Endmayr: Das ist schwierig zu beantworten, Wohnstile vermischen sich. Aber, was man sagen kann: Der Landhausstil ist nicht mehr angesagt — weder bei Schwulen, noch bei Heteros. Auch Renaissance-Formen kommen nicht mehr gut an. Beliebt sind nach wie vor der Biedermeier- und Barockstil. Endmayr: Auf jeden Fall. Wir leben heute in einer Gesellschaft, in der beispielsweise im Wohnzimmer gekocht wird.
Heute lebt man offener, amerikanischer, vereinfachter. Gibt es internationale Unterschiede, was das Wohnen von Schwulen betrifft? Wohnen Schwule in London oder Paris anders als in Wien? Das hat allerdings mit der Landeskultur zu tun und nicht damit, ob die Bewohner schwul oder hetero sind. Was halten Sie von solchen Projekten? Endmayr: Ohne jemanden angreifen zu wollen: Ich bin kein Freund solcher Projekte. Dabei wurde auch viel Nonsens berichtet. Das ist eine Revolution wie damals bei der Erfindung des Buchdrucks!
Und erst die weit ins Dach gezogene Panorama-Windschutzscheibe! Oder doch nicht? Nicht wirklich. Verwandlung in 12 Sekunden. Und die Massagesitze sind ja auch nicht von schlechten Eltern! Kein Wunder — die Scheiben sind fix, nix mit Luft und Fahrtwind oder so. Kleine Rennmaschine. Wenn auch auf ihre eigene Art. Und da stehen wir nun und konzentrieren uns auf so etwas? Warum denn nicht?! Die Partyreihe Q. Spot, die am Kurz: Eine Party der Superlative. Geplant ist, Q. Spot auch nach Wien zu bringen. Wir sind gespannt! Weitere Termine und Infos: www. Ja, Rosenstolz haben in ihrer Karriere alles gegeben.
Vielleicht sogar zu viel, denn der Erfolg forderte einen hohen Preis. Aber von Anfang an. Es regnete Auszeichnungen, die Konzerthallen waren ausverkauft. Keine Gay-Party mehr ohne Rosenstolz-Songs. Gestolpert und wieder aufgestanden. Die Zukunft der Band war ungewiss. Peter hat seine Krankheit besiegt, das innere Gleichgewicht ist wiederhergestellt.
Denn zu geben haben AnNa und Peter noch einiges. Fast drei Jahre sind vergangen, seitdem ihr eine Zwangspause einlegen musstet. Drei Jahre, in denen sehr viel passiert ist. Peter: Wunderbar. Ich liebe unser neues Baby. AnNa: Er ist ein stolzer Vater! Das neue Album strotzt vor Lebensfreude. Andererseits wollte ich auch kein Jammerlappen-Album machen, ist stolz Rosen e. D wil elf So hin z zugle ie is fungs ft b D n. Eine bego. Wie lange hat es gedauert, bis du dich wieder an die Instrumente gesetzt hast?
Peter: Ich habe mich ziemlich schnell wieder an mein Keyboard gesetzt. Wenn man alleine ist, war mein bester Freund schon immer die Musik. AnNa: Das muss ja furchtbar sein. Da muss man ja wahnsinnig werden. Zwanzig Jahre seid ihr nun bereits als Rosenstolz aktiv. Wenn man sich fragt, was in diesen 20 Jahren alles passiert ist — damals war Helmut Kohl noch Bundeskanzler, die Mauer ist gefallen etc. Es gibt noch viel zu tun und deshalb werden Rosenstolz weitermachen.
Oder nur dann, wenn ein Reporter eine solche Frage stellt? Ich habe es immer so gehalten, dass ich eher im Jetzt und Hier lebe. Wie entsteht eigentlich ein Rosenstolz-Song? Fangt Ihr erst mit einer Melodie an oder mit einer Textzeile? Peter: Das mag schon stimmen. Seid ihr bei der Arbeit am Album Ballast losgeworden?
Peter: Ja, es war wie ein Befreiungsschlag. Dadurch entstand die Idee von AnNa und mir, ein Album aufzunehmen, bei dem wir meistens unter uns sind. AnNa: Peter hat sozusagen die letzten drei Jahre fast schon therapeutisch aufgearbeitet. Man kann auch sagen, dass sich der Kampf gegen das Untergehen durch das gesamte Album zieht. Aber auch die Einsicht, dass es weitergeht. Wir sind immer noch gerne am Leben. Peter: Die Idee zu unserem Videoclip war durch meine Oma inspiriert.
Ich finde, das reicht fast als Aussage. Ihr habt bereits zahlreiche Auszeichnungen erhalten. Was bedeuten euch Preise? AnNa: Klar ist man stolz, besonders, wenn es sich um Publikumspreise handelt. Ansonsten ist es ja meistens nur Metall, manchmal ist es auch Plexiglas, was dann rumsteht und einstaubt. Wie kam es zu diesem Engagement? Zudem bin ich homosexuell. Insofern lag das Engagement auf der Hand.
Ich war diesen Sommer bei euch auf Urlaub und habe eine wunderbare Zeit verbracht. Was Rosenstolz angeht: Immer wenn wir in Wien gespielt haben, war es fantastisch. Ich kann mich erinnern, dass sich 45 oder 75 Leute dort drinnen verloren haben, aber die haben alle eine CD nach dem Konzert gekauft. Wie geht es mit Rosenstolz weiter? Ich habe gelernt, dass ein Handy einen Ausschaltknopf hat. Als Ausgleich ist das sehr wichtig. Peter: Genau! Christian Ulmen war solch ein Moderator. Vieles hat Ulmen schon gemacht, einen Schwulen hat er bisher aber noch nie gespielt.
Wieso, wissen wir nicht. Finden wir zumindest. Was sonst. Ulmen: Ununterbrochen. Ulmen: Absolut. Das muss sich jetzt auszahlen. Hast Du viele schwule Freunde? Ulmen: Bei meinen Freunden steig ich nicht mehr richtig Durch. Da gibt es keine Schubladen mehr. Ulmen: Alles, nur keine Busenfreunde. Ulmen: Das wollte ich schon immer einen schwulen Mann fragen.
Was wolltest Du einen schwulen Mann immer schon mal fragen? Mit Exponaten werden in der Dauerausstellung Jahre schwul-lesbische Geschichte nachgezeichnet. Geburtstag und ist aus der kulturellen Landschaft der deutschen Hauptstadt nicht mehr wegzudenken. Dezember wurde der Verein Schwules Museum in Berlin e. Schwule Geschichte vor dem Vergessen retten. In diesem Zusammenhang darf nicht vergessen.
Von schwul zu queer. Schwules Museum Berlin Mehringdamm 61 Berlin www. Sammeln und Aufbewahren. Ausblick und Herausforderungen. Vorerst bleibt der Name bestehen, auch weil sich das Museum damit etabliert hat. Schwules Museum als Beate-Uhse-Museum? Etwa an jene von Schulklassen. Lee: Ich bin durch und durch Perfektionistin, was die Musik und Kunst betrifft.
Das ist normal, das Leben und somit die Musik entwickeln sich weiter. Heutzutage ist es schwierig geworden, einen wirklich guten Song im Radio zu finden. Lee: Es spricht nichts gegen einen wirklich guten Song, zu dem man tanzen kann. Es ist wichtig, mutig zu sein, wenn es um Musik geht. Man braucht Mut, Risiken einzugehen und sich zu trauen, anders zu sein. Genau das ist Evanescence! Wo siehst du die Zukunft der Musikindustrie? Lee: Oh Mann, eine schwierige Frage!
Themenwechsel: Wie sehr beeinflusst das aktuelle politische und wirtschaftliche Klima eure Musik? Lee: Nur sehr bedingt. Solche Themen inspirieren mich. Hast du viele schwule Freunde? Lee: Ja, sehr viele. Mir ist es nicht wichtig, welche sexuelle Orientierung ein Mensch hat. Es ist wichtig, man selbst zu sein, an etwas zu glauben und danach sein Leben zu leben. Die haben es einfach drauf und verstehen, worauf es in der Musik ankommt lacht! Wir haben die passenden Scheiben dazu! In Clubs kommt das Doppelalbum also bestimmt ganz nett daher. Mit Will. Und das Schlimmste: Sogar tanzen ging zu Guetta-Hits schon mal besser.
Nicht schlecht. Schwierig zu sagen. Fazit: Die Pop-Welt ist doch eine Scheibe. Aber irgendwas ist anders. Fazit: willkommene emotionale Abwechslung unter all den Gagas, Rihannas und Britneys. Das ist nett, aber mitunter auch etwas langweilig. Zumindest ein bisschen. Pro-Fun Media. Der junge Mann ist heimlich in seinen adretten schwulen Klavierlehrer Tim Bergmann verknallt. Einziger Wermutstropfen ist das etwas abrupte Ende. Fazit: klug, originell und sehr unterhaltsam. Landluft macht nicht unbedingt frei. Marko zweifelt, ob er den richtigen Beruf ergriffen hat, und man kann seine Bedenken nachvollziehen.
Wir kriegen Einblick in die fremde, aber doch interessante Welt von Ossi-Bauern, und wohnen nebenbei einer herzigen Coming-outGeschichte bei. Hat was. Am Ende wird die Familie durch den gemeinsamen Schmerz wieder verbunden. Das Reiseportal HolidayCheck. Kein Witz.
Lady-Gaga-Kunde im Schulunterricht zum Beispiel. Und Gays: Denn vom Was da abgeht? Infos und Buchung unter www. Wir kommen! Paris: enge Gassen, wie aus dem Bilderbuch. Ein Streifzug durch das rosa Stadtviertel von Paris. Der Blick auf die Angebote diverser Hotelportale im Internet hatte mich verschreckt. Nein, das musste nicht sein. Gesehen, gebucht. Was also tun den ganzen Nachmittag, mit Rucksack und Koffer, mitten in Paris?
Das Angebot ist begrenzt. Teures Pflaster. Das Viertel im 4. Es befindet sich nahe dem Forum des Halles im benachbarten Quartier Beaubourg. Noch bis zum 9. Schwitzen und Cruisen. Weitere Informationen auf www. Arrondissement, Institution in der Pariser Schwulenszene, am Wochenende gibt sich hier aber. Dennoch einen Besuch wert. Arrondissement, versteckt in einer Seitengasse gelegene Bar, die vor allem alternative Jungs zwischen 20 und 35 anlockt.
Spyce, 23, Rue Sainte-Croix de la Bretonnerie, 4. Eine der angesagtesten Bars in der Pariser Szene. Cruising-Tempel der Superlative. Auf rund 1. So wurde die kleine finnische Sauna derart lieblos inmitten der Kabinenlandschaft platziert, dass man es lieber vorzieht, auf das Wellness-Angebot dankend zu verzichten. Tanzen — nein danke?! Plus: Die besten Lokaltipps! Im Kulturjahr zeigen sich Stadt und Bewohner von der kreativsten Seite, um zu betonen: Wir haben es verdient, diesen Titel zu tragen.
Nach dem Motto: Been there — done that. Linz ist und war immer schon anders und die Anspielung an Wien ist durchaus gewollt.
Literature. TV. Journalism.
Besonders in den letzten 20 Jahren hat sich Linz von der grauen Industriestadt zum innovativen Kultur- und Naturmekka entwickelt — und der Aufschwung dauert bis heute an. Wenn ihr euch manchmal fragt, wo alle Schwulen abgeblieben sind: Sie sind in Linz. Was ist schwul los? Die Lokale sind allesamt in und rund um die Innenstadt verstreut. Wer das Besondere sucht, ist hier goldrichtig!
Falkensteiner Schlosshotel Velden fffff Schlosspark 1. Parallels to it in Germany included a religious poem of hate by Will Vesper, later a leading poet of the Third Reich, in which the speaker argues against Christ that hate for the enemy is acceptable because it is the fruit of the deepest love possible, that for the country. Outside Germany, allusions to the poem were very frequent, and it was not forgotten.
Punch reminded its readers of it in rather neatly: A Fatherland Poet was busy of late In making the Kaiser a new Hymn of Hate; Perhaps, ere its echoes have time to grow dim, The Huns may be learning a new Hate of Him. The religious overtones of the idea of a logos of hatred are also apparent. Internal rhymes and internal repetitions, with a paratactic build-up of ideas and a rhythm based on stressed syllables recall early Germanic poetry, and the sixth and final strophe shows even more clearly the incoherent, but at the same time, cumulatively effective piling up of ideas: Und schliessen Frieden irgend einmal, Dich werden wir hassen mit langem Hass, Wir werden nicht lassen von unserm Hass, Hass zu Wasser und Hass zu Land, Hass der Hammer und Hass der Kronen, Drosselnder Hass von siebzig Millionen, Sie lieben vereint, sie hassen vereint, Sie haben alle nur einen Feind: England!
The sentiment is hardly admirable, but as a war poem it manifests a sustained attitude, albeit an hysterical one, in an undeniably functional way. It remains one of the most important pieces of the First World War. Let them sing it loud and long, We lift our hearts in a loftier song: We lift our hearts to Heaven above, Singing the glory of her we love— England!
Other responses were more eccentric, as in the twopenny pamphlet published in with an invitation to the press to reprint it. The chief target for popular war poetry in English for much of the war was Wilhelm II, whose untranslated title of Kaiser became part of the language. In he, like many others, warned the Kaiser of an impending day of reckoning, and blamed him for the same atrocities already noted in a German poem.
The lateness of the work and the popularity of the collection in which it appeared—one which also had pieces on Edith Cavell and on Jack Cornwell, the sixteen-year-old VC—are significant. Individual poems and whole books were devoted to this theme and special attention may be drawn to parodies. Violet Jacob, writing in Scots, set a sergeant of the Black Watch against his namesake in a poem which appeared in Country Life: Fegs-aye!
In Not und Tod—noch sind wir da! May God himself hear it: long live the Kaiser! In peril and in death—we are still at hand—hurrah for the Kaiser! That notice was taken of this kind of material is clear in the lyrics of those who had joined. Also published after the war, however, was a piece which shows at least that recruiting verse could be humorous. He acknowledges the soldier, of course, but the following verses would hardly have commended themselves to those who had fought: We who toil at desks and benches Here at home are all secure.
Those within the distant trenches, What long sufferings they endure! When the guns have ceased their rattle When the victory has been won, For the brave who come from battle There shall be the loud Well Done!
Who shall dare to underrate them? Yet this is a public poem included in a collection of avowedly patriotic poems which even warranted a second edition. To a modern audience, the pallidity of this attitude is chilling. Some examples were produced, however, by soldiers, though primarily officers. Over all— Now, School! Now, School! Play up! So did others. Feldwebel Bachmann. I remember a day, a hot one, and I remember a deed with bullets and blood, a deed that defeats death when a brave man does it. Pals, he went at it for your sakes.
Company Five, who is your man? Sergeant Bachmann. Another soldier, R. At Mons, however, he and the captain are both killed. The paradox and also the fact that the pride of the woman apparently outweighs any pain she might have felt is not considered. The rough diamonds are regularly Scots, Cockneys, or Australians, and they nearly always fall. Its function is simply to remind us of the role of the ordinary man, however. The posthumous collection, first published in , was reprinted.
Beside realistic depictions of the military life, soldier verse, often in trench magazines, treated aspects of the war with considerable humour. I watched filet en remoulade vanish, also salmon in olive oil—and I bore it like a man. For that, do leave me—so that I can read and write— a little light here in my dugout. A Private, M. Was aber, wenn der Feind zur Wehr sich setzt?
But what if they resist? My dug-out. From the modern point of view these are the most remote of First World War lyrics, although even in the anthologized poetry, names and incidents need glossing. It repays study. A Private in the Royal Warwicks, H. It is difficult to find an appropriate response to the verse: Some furlongs four we had to run And Hell did intervene; A death that rode invisible, In agony unseen.
At every step a comrade fell, Nor face of foe we saw. Right through that belch of roaring death, Amidst the fiery drench, Hacked through their wire-entanglements, And leaped and took the trench. A bad poem? A morally unacceptable poem, since it exults in a victory? At all events it is a detailed picture of reality wireentanglements, hacking, fire, sobbing breath represented as best the poet could. Naval officers produced English verse with a strong historical bias. Captain Ronald A. Hopwood included an effectively done conversation with an auxiliary trawler in which he plays with the rhyme as he gives a picture of an unusual aspect of the war.
Oh, Gott strafe England! How it would have tickled Drake and Captain Hawkins! In German, too, heroic naval deeds were eulogized. The exploits of the Emden, for example, were celebrated: Wie viele eiserne Kiele jagte England auf deine Spur? Und wie oft entkamst du der Meute, die klaffend hinter dir her? And how many times did you escape the pack that were snapping after you…? Emden, heroic ship, we shall never forget you. Der Feind braust an, Mann gegen Mann!
Adler empor! Adler, flieg! Sun and victory over the enemy! Up eagle, fly, eagle! Postcard verses were an extremely widespread form of war poetry, and if the verse is banal, they are often interesting as documents. A typical format in Britain had an insert photograph of a girl above a picture of a soldier or soldiers, with a trite verse beneath that. These appear on a card which depicts soldiers apparently going into action though the photograph was probably taken in training. Sometimes full poems appear. A German woman, Hedda von Schmid, depicts a mother urging her son on to victory; she hears his voice in the night calling to her, and she prays that God should protect her only son.
But Lee also reflects in an earlier poem on the nature of war, extrapolating from the thoughts of mother: Every bullet has its billet; Many bullets more than one: God! Another piece by Lee shows a broader reflectiveness, and an awareness of a question to which he has no answer. However, the final strophes make a more serious impression. This is a stage before that certainty of evil that Owen came to know. Have mercy on us and on our drained souls… We are so robbed of hope and peace is always so distant that sometimes we hardly know where our duty lies.
John Oxenham and Studdert Kennedy were both household names. His books are octavos for pocket or haversack, and selections of his First World War poetry were reprinted during the Second World War in a matching format. The massive scale of death becomes the image of a gardener pruning hard to make the rose grow better, but it is not a happy one. He died the noblest death a man may die, Fighting for God, and Right, and Liberty; — And such a death is immortality.
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A memorial volume was published on his death in , and reprinted virtually every year until late in the s. Some interest is now shown in him, and as Hibberd and Onions in whose anthology he is represented point out, his verse shows both the real horror and the heroism of the war. Kennedy produced poems in working-class demotic, and if these are a distancing from his own voice, many are clear in their patriotism. It is not religion, or drill, or bravery that will win the war, but Woodbines— and tanks.
Close to the soldiers, his rhymes he did not call them poems end with a very familiar injunction: When the world is red and reeking, And the shrapnel shells are shrieking, And your blood is slowly leaking, Carry on! Most of all, though, he expresses not only despair, but genuine worry for the soldier after the conflict. S fronta—po stankam! Above all else there is the memorial element. Many poems adopt, too, the motif of the army of the dead. In German it was used after the war and into the Nazi period as an image for keeping faith with those who fell. On the other side of the trenches, however, W.
Greater than death they died; and their estate Is here on Cotswold comradely to live Upon your lips in every draught I give80 The war memorial itself became an image after the war, and J. In English poetry and elsewhere, books of collected verse became war memorials. Sometimes they contained very little in the way of war poetry— Robert W. It went into a second impression in , however.
Other memorial volumes sold well: the poetry and prose of William Noel Hodgson went into three editions and was reprinted in Two books may be examined as war memorials in their own right, however. The question of reception here in a literal sense too is impossible to elucidate. At the going down of the sun and in the morning We will remember them.
But the last of the three poems is as significant: a war memorial, or a memorial volume such as this might well belong to a bereaved woman, and the last piece, after the reassurance that the dead will not be forgotten, and another that they were fighting for a just cause, is directed to women themselves, and the last lines in this large book of few words refer to their hearts, which are to bleed, To bear, to break, but not to fail! Fierce Nemesis in the sacred wood decreed: down with all that is false or dubious.
Once more, with the bells of victory shone out again the star of Ulm, of Austerlitz, of Wagram or of Jena. Jetzt gilts, die Freiheit aufzustellen. Die rote Fahne hoch, Rebellen! Now that world is rising for the first time for her own freedom and rights. Germans, Romans, Jews, and Russians in one group—the brotherly kiss of the peoples puts out all the flames of war. Now it is time to put up freedom. Raise the red flag, rebels! Other monologues in the same tradition did, however, as early as —20, indulge in a certain nostalgia for the soldiering and sometimes for French girls.
There also appeared in that period, however, a series of epic pieces on the war in English, war poetry on the largest scale, and rarely considered because it is too large for the anthology form. Some of it is heroic. Other works have more limited themes. While not quite in the tradition of McGonagall, the rhyming is relentless and allembracing, the text enormously detailed. This juxtaposition may cause a smile, but there is a justification in considering this work. The importance of it was clear even to this poet, and the desire to record its events in verse form readily understood.
However much the heroism is stressed, too, the last words consider whether the whole war was worth while. It is appropriate to leave the last comments on the war to the soldiers. Yet words which bridge four years of gloom Which made us doubt the sun could shine, Throughout the World the message boom: — Our Cavalry have crossed the Rhine. Patriotism in any of its forms aggressive or mocking , as well as sentimental declarations of love for country, sweetheart, or mother predominate in the commercial songs of all the combatant countries.
The songs of the soldiers themselves were simple, memorable and often still familiar cathartic expressions of dissatisfaction with soldiering and the war. Lyrics grumbled about the system or the officers, or lack of comforts, drink, and women. In terms of poetic effect, clarity, memorability, and even in durability, many of the pieces involved have a greater claim to represent the war lyric than other texts. The music hall was alive, and concert-parties were popular and emotionally received even at the front.
We now hear a tragic irony in the patriotic songs and the others are left with their own irony and realism. Their use, together with other patriotic songs established from the time of the Boer War, the Franco-Prussian War, or even earlier, was on an enormous scale, and they were occasionally updated.
Patriotic emotion increased the force of any of these lyrics during the war, however. Many established songs enjoyed renewed popularity. A volume of patriotic songs which may be considered typical in Great Britain was, for example, published by Charles Sheard. The one-shilling booklet is not dated, but references in some of the lyrics and the title, British War Songs, point to mild opportunism at the very beginning of the war.
Most of the songs predate the war, but the volume is of documentary interest. Others are linked with the Boer War. The publishing firm was an Anglo-American one, and presumably the songs were designed also to encourage an American involvement that came only much later. Only one song—again from the Boer War—deals with volunteering. In it was eminently re-applicable to a new call for volunteers, and the text instructs him on how to behave in war: If your cartridges gave out, grimy Smith!
The repetition of the name throughout makes its own point. The mothers shown on these postcards are usually disproportionately old, white-haired, frail ladies unlikely to have sons of nineteen, but who did have a stronger emotional appeal. No reason is given for joining up, or rather, for having joined up, since the song is addressed to a soldier. There is only a vague reference to doing what must be done, and the phantom of German sabres in the village—not in the city—street.
Such songs were very numerous indeed, and most are now curiosities. George R. It begins with an image of fairies dancing in the moonlight, and putting mortals beneath their spell. Turner and A. Miall note that one of the lines is adapted from an earlier patriotic piece, and also that the music plays with the audience before it develops into a military two-step.
The role of women in English songs is essentially supportive. The composition of the song in tempo di marcia meant that it could be used as a real march as well as an imitated one on stage. Patriotic songs in English stressed the necessity to fight in spite of parting from those loved, assured the soldiers that all would remain the same at home, and that they themselves were gallant and glorious, certain to defeat the enemy. How did it start, one asks, and what is it for?
Further verses criticise Lord Haldane for pro- German statements.
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It reassured the soldier of her faithfulness, thus sustaining morale. The copyright is , but its presence in a work which actually appeared in reminds us that lines like Cheer! Britain, Home and Beauty! Left, right, forward, what a game! All the rank and file Wear that sunny smile… represented a commercial music standard not restricted to the early years. The collection even contains a comic song with reference to the war. All aspects of the war could be reflected in music hall, musical shows, and even in pantomime.
Another major song publisher, Feldman, brought out an album in with the same variety. The context of performance and reception must again be considered for songs like this, performed in music halls and heard—and presumably enjoyed—also by soldiers on leave. Sometimes they reflected events of the war, though not always real ones. Angels guard your flight! A newspaper report on the arrival of the BEF in France mentioned it, and it sold well, becoming a standard in community singing.
The enemy scowled. War, said his professors of kultur and his hymnsters of hate, could never be waged in the Tipperary spirit…23 The song as such tells of an Irishman wanting to return to his own country. Linked with that song is another commercial favourite, usually dismissed for its banal lyrics, though in this case they are certainly war lyrics.
Only the first verse applied the goodbyee to someone leaving for war; the others refer to soldiers in comic situations, and the piling up of farewells is heightened comedy: Goodbye old things, cheerio, chin chin Napoo, toodleoo, goodbyee. Yet the text contains references to convalescents and to a POW escaping. Some of the songs most frequently sung in the war years predate quite considerably, yet still have a claim to be considered as lyrics of that war.
Francis Barron and J. Airlie Dix. It achieved perhaps its greatest popularity in performance and recordings during the war, though it remained known in a version by Peter Dawson after the war. It may be considered in the light of a wartime recording, in which it was given a quasi-natural context by Raymond Newell and Ian Swinley.
The lyric is not without literary value, and this may account for its lasting popularity. The strophes are balanced, each one opening with a question to the trumpeter. The early printed versions indicated that this line which is outside the rhyme-scheme, although it gains effect from a delay called for by the music was optional. By the time the song was performed in the First World War it was very much part of the effect. The last call is faint, and the song voices the possibility of death as the trumpeter sounds the rally, to which not all will respond.
In the wartime recording, the song is followed immediately by a roll-call in which many names go unanswered. The balance of the strophes and the development of the point in dramatic terms, as well as the dialogue between the trumpeter and a voice outside the poem, are all effective.
The song is against war insofar as it presents a reality of death, and there is no indication of heroism in the piece. However, the absence of glory is not negligible; the enquirer may have been seeking a call to glorious battle at the beginning, but at the end he is aware that war is death. The development of the song sketches, in a sense, the course of poetic attitudes to the war: recruitment and arousal, awareness of war as hell, and then death.
The fact of war is, however, not questioned; the soldier does not go beyond the simple Trumpeter, what are you sounding now? Elsewhere, the situation was similar. Debout petit soldat… [All at once the cockerel of France begins to sound, Cockadoodle doo! On ne passe pas! They shall not pass! A Catholic priest produced a song about the fall of Liege at the beginning of August, in which Liege is seen as a woman embraced by Emmich, taken by force but giving in although she had once wanted to marry someone else—a Frenchman.
The popular musical theatre was used as a platform to encourage entry into the war, especially after the sinking of the Lusitania, and performers like Harry Lauder went on propaganda tours, although with limited success. Ian Whitcomb has pointed out that the composers of popular songs in America concentrated until on the inevitable songs of Dixie. Claims have been made for a printing of over five million copies for that work. Music hall entertainers visited the troops, who responded with enthusiasm, and Harry Lauder, whose son had been killed in , describes performing under fire.
The combination of lyric and melody is important, and in many cases the melody is still known. Hymns and folk-songs were adapted, and so were popular tunes which still survive in their own right. The lyrics were a response to the war from within, and frequently made their point in a memorable and concise fashion, or with a sentimentality which is not excessive because it is applied to themes well able to support it, like longing for home, or fearing death.
The commercial songs have a limited role in their encouragement to enlist, but the songs of the soldiers bore the burden of sustaining and cheering in a situation that was, for anyone not involved, genuinely unbelievable. Horrors are coped with by being put into words, and the songs also express a general desire to see the end of army life. The last category would include, of course, songs about all aspects of soldiering, with emphasis on drinking, sex, and simply being there. Many of the lyrics borrow their structure from earlier pieces. The latter were known at home and in the rituals of church parade, and the postcard verses of the war included, too, illustrated versions of hymns placed into a wartime context.
The first verse is beneath a picture of a young soldier complete with an unlikely sword praying before battle. The second accompanies a picture of a very young wounded soldier illuminated by a kind of spotlight on a very tidy battlefield, his head cradled by a spotless Red Cross nurse.
The final verse has a picture of the young man, cleanly bandaged—no blood is visible in any of the pictures— attended by another spotless nurse, who is reading the Bible to him. The images have a comforting eroticism: the nurses are pretty, the soldier handsome and not obviously wounded. The Lord will provide each mildly wounded man with his own Red Cross nurse. That particular hymn seems not to have been adapted, but other favourite pieces were either provided with entirely new or with largely different words.
Here, as elsewhere, the tension between the sentiments of the original and that of the recasting makes a point of its own. We fought and bled at Loos, while you were on the booze, The booze no one here knows. Oh, you were with the wenches, while we were in the trenches Facing an angry foe.
Oh, you were a-slacking, while we were attacking The Germans on the Menin Road. The present tense is important and gives an actuality to the indictment. Not every adaptation is as effective, and others that are effective cannot be classified as war lyrics apart from the fact that they came into existence during the war.
Finally, commercial war songs could themselves be parodied. The self-irony of some of the English songs is less common elsewhere, and German collections show a wider range of military pieces than elsewhere. Deutscher Michel hast du das Denn noch nicht vernommen? Spirit of Germany did you hear? Catch them all and put them in the bag, Russians, French, England and the Belgian rabble, beat the seats of their pants!
We cannot fight, we cannot march, What bleeding use are we? It will be noted that however incompetent, the supposition is that they will still take Berlin, and in some texts the Kaiser praises the ragtime army. Worthy of note is the contrast again between the solemnity of the tune and the joviality of the attitude expressed. The enormous ANZAC losses at the Dardanelles and the strategic inadequacies that caused those losses are treated with a justified bitterness.
Und wenn wir exerzieren, Dann stimmt die Richtung nie. I like to hear the rifle fire, I like to see the blinking Alleymans retire. I like to hear the click-click of the spade and pick The French they are no bon Look out, look out, the gas clouds are coming: Go get your respirator on. Wenn die Kugeln singen und Granaten springen, Dass die ganze Gegend ringsum kracht…. The bullets sing and shells explode so all around is noise…. No beds and no toilets and the daily needs of the fighting man, if anyone needs a shave he just needs to pop out, and a Russian sharpshooter will shave him right away…] American songs were milder, and looked at the problems of training: They took him on the parade ground To march, to rush, to crawl, The first was bad, the second was worse, The third was worst of all…49 It may be noted that this verse is couched in objective terms, rather than coming from the mouth of the soldier himself, and lacks spontaneity.
Drinking and sex are regular themes. It is a comment on the history of taste that criticism was levelled at novels in particular for using four-letter words, when their real theme was killing and wounding on a massive scale. That verb is unlikely to have been the original one, and Brophy and Partridge leave a gap. They also comment that the melody is that of a French music hall tune. The song could in one version provide a catalogue of places of the war, now sometimes requiring a gloss: Mademoiselle from dear old Pop… referring to Poperinghe, which has not remained familiar.
It could also become an objective narrative of the activities of the enemy: A German officer crossed the Rhine skiboo! The same format, rigid yet versatile, was used for critical comments of all kinds, including a familiar one: The general got the croix de guerre parley-voo! There were a number of blues concerned with the First World War, making the point that blacks were drafted, but were not given benefits of citizenship, and one comments, too, on the sexual situation.
Certain extremely well-known songs merit special attention as war lyrics, reflecting different aspects of war. None has a known author, and all exist in different versions. All of them ask questions overtly or implicitly about the nature of war, but they are rarely included in anthologies. The tune itself has a powerful melodic line and an expressive rhythmic pattern which doubtless encouraged soldiers to adapt the existing words. During the First World War new lyrics set up a tension between their own irony and the knowledge of the actual text.
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Probably the best-known version runs: When this bleeding war is over Oh how happy I shall be, When this bleeding war is over, No more soldiering for me. No more church parades on Sunday, No more queuing for a pass, You can tell the sergeant major To stick his passes on the wall. The reference to church parades is a nice link with the hymn, something exploited in the film of Oh What a Lovely War, although there a different version was used. Yet another version has as its second couplet the confident: When this ruddy war is over And we come back from Germany… The rhymic emphasis on the first word in the hymn is still emphasized by the dotted quaver: when.
The lyrics express dissatisfaction with the war and with the pettiness imposed by the immediate superior, but it does not raise larger questions of right or wrong, nor criticize leaders, nor the enemy. The song has a symbolic significance, in that it is a displacement of a religion that was finished by the experience of the trenches for a great many. Although all kinds of details are mentioned, church parade is the one constant in all versions, even in the Second World War. It can be assumed that the other common adjective was also employed, although all of the abusive adjectives lose effect by the fact that they were employed, as has been pointed out, simply as neutral linguistic indicators, implying nothing much more than that a noun comes next.
Quotation of the text in a trench newspaper of December and an anonymous postcard printed during the war also bear witness to the familiarity of the piece, and to the way in which comic bitterness merged into a diluted end-of-term feeling. It has one or two additional interesting points: after the war NCOs will then be navvies Privates own their motor cars. The verses end with an attack on those who promised fame and glory in the war, none of which the ordinary soldiers have seen. God save the King. When this gory war is over No more soldiering for me. In contrast to the French song of Craonne this earlier piece has some nationalistic elements, although they are essentially sentimental: Argonnerwald, um Mitternacht Ein Pionier stand auf der Wacht.
A star high in the skies brought him a greeting from his distant home. Here an enemy is mentioned: Granaten schlagen bei uns ein Der Franzmann will in unsere Stellung ein… [Shells burst upon us, the Froggies want to take our trench…] Franzmann is a normal slang designation and is not expanded. The bravery of the German soldiers is stressed in a strophe that is, however, not always present, and which can be replaced by one describing the entry of a soldier into heaven.
The last strophe, however, is frequently cited independently, and is elegaic: Argonnerwald, Argonnerwald Ein stiller Friedhof wirst du bald. After the war the song was adapted to refer to the struggle of the Spartacists, but in its original version it is noteworthy that the climax is the death of the soldiers. Vieles Blut ist schon vergossen, Ach, wie liegen sie geschossen Auf dem weiten Leichenfeld…60 [Sunset, sunset, lights me to an early death.
At Craonne, on the plain we have to lose the lot, for we are all condemned, we are the sacrifices. There is, finally, no ambiguity at all about the notions of men condemned or sacrificed. Equally worthy of consideration as war poetry is a song from a different culture which questions the nature of war with an interesting image. It was sung by Polish forces in both wars, and exists in different forms, with extra verses sometimes added.
W zimnym grobie lezy, zdala od rodziny, A po nim zostaje Cichy placz dziewczyny. War, war, take care of your warriors: whoever loves you will soon be in a grave, lying in the cold grave far from his family; and left behind a girl is weeping. War is seen to be inexplicable but irresistible. Other songs look at the nature of war. The enemy may be referred to, usually in slang form as Boche, Alleyman, and so on, but is rarely described. The soldiers coped with their immediate situation in various ways, however, often with a comic-ironic but vocal resignation.
Songs like this underscore the impotence of the ordinary soldier. It also short-circuits poetic considerations, but it was sung very widely, and summed up the situation of the greatest number of soldiers, while taking the poetic form beyond the memorable to the deliberately unforgettable. The home fronts on both sides, too, had songs other than those produced for the halls or for recording, and one from Ireland and perhaps therefore with an additional edge exists in versions which indicate sympathy for the volunteers on the one hand and attack the notion of fighting for Britain on the other.
Those verses of the song that are not, in fact, directed specifically against the war have an elegaic tone, a homefront response far from the rousing send-offs or the promises that the home fires will still be burning. I wonder if he knows he has A kid with a foxy head? Usually they are adaptations, and the most effective are those which attack pro-war propaganda by using their tunes and lyric framework for new motifs directly opposed to the original.
Eggs and butter, bangers and bacon are only there for the rich. All us poor buggers can do is watch and wave the flag! Aber das war uns nicht beschieden! Wilhelm von Scholz, The consideration of the popular war poetry in the Axis countries during the Second World War presents a range of problems. Some are pragmatic: it is not always easy to lay hands on original material, and the post-war anthologies tend, unsurprisingly, to ignore them.
Wars are, however, fought by two sides, even when the ideological basis for war on one of those sides is unacceptable. Mein Kampf was in terms of dissemination a much printed and much owned book; it was presumably hardly a much loved and certainly not a much read book. The simple presentation of Nazi ideology in the party-line lyric can be functional war poetry with a quite specific and militaristic intent. Verse in the service of the Fascist regimes was encouraged and widely published, and these regimes recognized more clearly than most the benefit of placing ideas into songs.
The principle that men will argue in speech, but will sing in harmony was well taken, especially as in song ideological tenets could be compressed into emblems. The lyrics of the Fascist regimes reflect the idea of war as well as the war itself, since the material concerned dates at least from Objective or moral good cannot be applied to a poem with an immoral or unacceptable aim, but linguistic subtlety and poetic skill in a Nazi poem may still be analysed.
How the poem makes its point, and the degree to which it could have affected the war effort by its portrayal of war are the questions which have to be asked. Although much of the Fascist poetry is from the period between the wars, it feeds upon what was perceived as the shame of Nazi Germany interpreted the fighting of —18 as a testing, from which a new nationalism emerged. Further, the patriotism of the verse in the Fascist period added nothing except excess. Usually a poetry of attack, it exaggerated and employed on a wider scale than ever before familiar trappings of patriotic poetry.
The motifs of national awakening, of flags and trumpets had all appeared before, notably in English poetry in , but never on such a scale, and not as part of an official standardization of ideas. It is of interest, however, to note where techniques overlap and where they diverge. Poetry and songs saw the leaders of the various Fascist regimes as embodying ideals, which included war, and they underlined the necessity to fight if and when war came.
The question of reception, however, is more complex. As some modern German writers have pointed out in their recollections, some of the Nazi material was and is difficult to forget. Lyrics that are reinforced by their own simplicity, by firm melodies, strong rhythms and dissemination that is both loud and frequent make for memorability, whatever the intrinsic poetic qualities. The Fascist war poetry worked. In Fascist lyrics, then, war is explained or more often glorified, but never rejected, and the early view of the First World War as a holy war is revived.
Poetry of suffering, because it was equated with defeatism, could not be published during the Reich. In the case of Mussolini, the lyric proclaimed the reconstitution of a Roman Empire whose armies would rule the world; in that of Hitler, the confirmation of an empire that was to last a thousand years, which would bring all Germans back under a single rule and march to victory against its enemies, be they Jews, Communists, or those who opposed the will of the leader, all the while protesting that Germany was simply retaking what was rightfully its own.
The consolidation and furthering of an ideology through songs which compress the basic elements into a series of fixed symbols and which, indeed, stress that anyone who is not in favour is an enemy is a technique long used in religions, so that the quasi-religious nature of many of the lyrics of the Reich is hardly surprising. The popularity of the lyric as a propaganda vehicle in the era of the dictators is underlined by the many ways in which lyrics were placed before a wide public.
Not only was approved poetry published widely, but songs formed a vital part of the various movements. Wie stramm sie marschieren! How well they march! The reader is a primary one, and the following page has counting-out and nursery rhymes. It is not surprising that there was a reaction by some youth elements, whose protest was not strictly political, but whose use of English or American popular songs was sometimes savagely repressed.
Kolbenheyer produced poetical works specifically for this purpose. The German cinema used musical films to underline blood and soil nationalism, and in Italy Mussolini was with Verdi and with a literally operatic grandeur. One example indicates that such propaganda could be subtle: in the autumn of a poem appeared which looks like an anti-war piece. It is, indeed, not entirely clear whether it is intended as a poem, although its imagery and form point to this. Les feuilles meurent parce que Dieu le veut… [Autumn. The leaves fall, we fall as they do.
La vie passera sur nos tombes. Life will pass by our tombs. The poetry of the passage—the sound-echoes and the balance of the leaves and soldiers, as well as the climax on life and the tomb, which brings back the unity of the first person plural—is striking. The imagery of the leaf falling is underlined further by the fact that the whole piece was printed on a leaf shape, a falling autumn leaf making a more real image of death. But the poem is not complete: two middle lines pick up the idea that God wills the death of the leaf: Mais nous, nous tombons parce que les Anglais le veulent.
The first person pronoun underscores the fact that these are thoughts put into the heads of the French. Nor is there any doubt that this is functional poetry, given its dissemination. It is of a more subtle kind than many aerial drops, some of which merely caricatured Hitler; noteworthy here is the poetic use of a language and imagery associated with anti-war poetry, and indeed, this is an anti-war poem, designed to stop the fighting by undermining morale.
The reasons behind the two are different, and what remains is the moral issue, affected on both sides now by historical hindsight. In their time and contexts, both may have been effective. Fascist poetry is official. Prohibitions on writing, the Schreibverbot and the principle of literary standardization, Gleickschaltung, ensured that the only poetry was that encouraged by the regime.
The literary techniques of Fascism have been well documented and widely discussed. They are not, of course, the exclusive property of Fascism. Ideas of marching, of battle and of struggle make much Fascist poetry into war poetry because it uses the vocabulary of war. Once again, some of these motifs are invoked in patriotic poetry of the First World War on both sides, but it is again a question of degree and of exclusivity.
One of the Nazi poets, Heinrich Anacker, combines all the techniques in a rallying poem that is pre-war in fact, but sounds like a call to arms rather than a call to political unity. The glorification of the leader elevates Mussolini or Hitler to imperial status and views them either as sent by God or as God-like figures themselves. Once again Japanese material is not readily available, but given the cult of a god-emperor in any case, the additional building up of these ideas is presumably less necessary. All this contributes towards a general encouragement to war.
The expression of complete faith in Hitler is present from the earliest stages. Wir sind der Sieg! Spring auf, marsch, marsch, Die Fahne auf den Turm! Der Kerl muss nicht geraten sein Den unser Lied nicht packt. Old things are about to tumble, what is rotting will fall. We are the young storm, we are victory. Up, march, march, plant our banner on the castle walls. A lad who is not gripped by our song must have something wrong with him.
A lad should be with soldiers—at once that will have his heart beating in step. The castle is being stormed and the banner will be planted victoriously. Newness, and the attack on what is crumbling are also key concepts, as is the idea that there is something wrong with anyone who does not agree. What links this with the war is that it is specifically military, demanding that every young man should be a soldier to bring him into line.
This is again a war poem in spite of its date and although it actually describes the rise of the Nazi party to political victory. Die heut marschieren in den erznen Haufen, Wir fragen nicht. Those of us now marching in the iron columns do so without questioning. Lyrics about Mussolini in particular, though, try to make clear the prized adulation by the workers and the peasants, something shown in a collection published in Italy just after the invasion of Abyssinia.
These canti dialettali include, incidentally, not only the many Italian dialects and the Italian of the Engadine, the Tirol, Dalmatia, Monaco, Corsica, Malta as well as Tripolitania, Somalia, Eritrea and Tien-Tsin, but also of America, a linguistic imperialism of some breadth, which reminds us of some of the reasons for the continuation of isolationist policies supported by voting groups in the USA before The anonymous material is thematically much like the rest of the poetry, but even in this most curious of popular poetry the trappings of Fascism are quite clear.
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The Fascist leaders all made much of the comparison with historical greatness, Mussolini using imperial Rome and Hitler figures from the Germanic past. The military overtones in the reference to the saint, and the play on youth are also clear, here aimed at the young audience. This is then extended to the city and then to Germany as Hitler shows himself to have the strength to master fate. Weinheber was an older poet whose reputation was furthered by the Nazis, and who was ultimately to commit suicide in , apparently aware of the implications too late. Fifty years and a work of bronze.
Gigantic, grown through pain. Bright and holy, storming heavenwards. Redeemer, saviour, controller of power, reap, too, suffer these wreaths and songs, rest in our love, live long! The idea of the omnipresence of the dead of the First World War is not unfamiliar, of course, though the idea of keeping faith now undergoes a new and specific development. Ich lebe und sterbe, Dass nicht verderbe Deutschland, mein Deutschland! I live and die so that Germany, my Germany may not perish! The link with the heroic earlier generation, which in meant the victors of the Franco-Prussian War, had a new set of implications in Das Volk ist eins!
Unser Volk ist gross! Heiss, heilig fordert es Blut! Wir atmen verhalten— Der Sturm bricht los! The people are united! Our people are great! Fiery, holy, they demand blood! With bated breath. The storm begins! War poetry contains for us the immediate witness to that heroic feeling of self-awareness that enabled Germany to carry out deeds of unheard-of greatness in the battle against enemy superiority. The unity of feeling, then, is stressed Volk is, with its derivatives, an emotive term and difficult to translate , and the view of war poetry as such as intrinsically nationalist and heroic is one that persists.
Other collections make the bridging of the two wars even clearer. To stress their unity of ideas, the writers are not named on the text pages. One anthology of selections from trench magazines bears the title-page legend: Die Frontsoldaten von —18 ihren Kameraden von —40 [Front-line soldiers of —18 to their comrades of —40] A preface describes the material—prose and poetry—as the legacy of the First War to the front-line soldiers of the Second, stressing the unity of the two generations and referring to the poetry as expressing a depth of experience from which heroic deeds arose.
Feldpost editions of collections like this existed, with fold-over flaps for posting. There is less emphasis on specifically ideological points to which serving soldiers might not have responded , but most of the pieces are patriotic in a sense that is familiar from poems of all sides in the First World War. Still have to go! The awareness of death is acceptable in the Nazi lyric if it is not defeatist. The message as war poetry is that the soldiers must fight and will win, though not all will return.
Poetry produced in Germany during the Third Reich that was not about war in any sense—that was, for example, about nature— is often close to the Blut und Boden idea,35 even if all poetry that is not about Fascism has sometimes been taken as implicitly anti-Fascist. Any poetry not specifically pro-Nazi might, of course, have hidden allusions which might have been picked up at the time, but it is almost impossible to gauge how far this dangerous technique of contrebande poetry was ever used, or if it was effective. Humorous or light verse also appeared.
One collection, with the title So oder so ist das Leben [Life Is Like That, or Like That],36 by Achim von Winterfeld and published in , is for the most part unexceptionable whimsy, but in the collection there is what might nevertheless be called a war poem. It is a poem designed to help convince a population at war that the war was nevertheless one of defence and not of aggression. The home front in the Third Reich was well provided with party-line verse. A poem has been cited already from the chrestomathy issued to less well-off households under the auspices of the Winter Aid programme in , a work with a preface by Goebbels, a frontispiece of Hitler and the title Ewiges Deutschland.
Ein deutsches Hausbuch [Eternal Germany. Many are in praise of Hitler, who is quoted throughout, or of the German homeland. Once again, it is not clear how much was actually read, but the digest format probably means that some of the poems were indeed read by those who did not normally read or buy poetry books proper. Das ist unser Preis. That is our reward. The examples are again fortuitous, but we may compare two volumes of poetry from and respectively.
The first is of modern lyrics, Kristall der Zeit, [Crystal of Our Times] edited by Albert Soergel, with a comprehensive selection, including the Expressionists, Jewish poets like Stefan Zweig, but also some of the poets later approved by the regime. Admittedly it covers a wider range and includes early and classical poetry, too. But its extensive modern representation excludes Jews and most of the Expressionists, but includes material by many of the Nazi poets, including Baldur von Schirach.
Soldiers, too, were encouraged to sing and books were issued of suitable songs, but here the ideological aspects of Fascism are less prominent. There is a clear difference between material in collections like this and material produced for the Nazi units. The extreme elements of party ideology are avoided in favour of a stress on the nobility of the aims of the movement and the assertion of loyalty to it. We are going to fight for your renewal, Aryan blood shall not disappear.
The idea of renewal or resurrection—again part of the post-Versailles doctrine —is once more quasi-religious. The idea of victory and the theme of marching are present and the contributions made by these motifs to the success of the song have been noted by the critics who have discussed the work.
Interestingly, the compilation The Mind and Face of Nazi Germany, which appeared in London in and cites in translation a number of Hitler Youth and other songs, includes only the last line of the refrain, which was the message taken from it. Wir haben den Schrecken gebrochen, fur uns wars ein grosser Sieg.
We have smashed this terror, and it was a great victory for us. We shall march ever onwards, even if everything crashes down in pieces; for today Germany belongs to us, and tomorrow, the whole world. But we are fighting for freedom and our eternal right, for Germany, newly rising up. For we declare ourselves men of the kind that strive for the light out of darkness. Eyes forward, your brother approaches, your fellow worker, hero of labour. We are the soldiers of working people, brothers of the hammer in the world.
The links with the war also remain clear, and the entire tone is military—army, fighting, marching, troops, and comradeship are all stressed, and the piece is yet again in the first person plural form. Like so much else, the dominating Third Reich themes make this into a war poem by linking the loss of the First World War with the foreshadowing of the Second. Wir waren jung, und hatten kein Panier. Der Sieg lag draussen vor dem Feind begraben. Deutschland war Nacht. Und Deutschland waren wir. Victory was out there, buried in the face of the enemy, Germany was in darkness, and we were Germany.
We fell too, in the pain of the hard collapse and were ourselves broken, and we loved Germany, Germany above all, and loved nothing more than that in the whole world. But whilst the defeated, pallid people stand there trembling and baffled, we are building a cathedral to loyalty that rises up above our century. The poem is about the war that was lost, but the enemy are not perceived as having taken the victory, rather that victory as an absolute concept lies buried.
The implication is that a German victory is retrievable. The patriotic stress on Germany already sounded three times in the first strophe is reinforced in the second with an echo of the national anthem adopted in , and the last strophe introduces those ideas of renewal and of positive building which typifies so much of this poetry. That it is a cathedral is part of the deliberate exploitation of religious connotations. Baldur von Schirach used the motif,49 and the best known illustration, and one of the best known of the Nazi marching songs was that by the notorious Horst Wessel, the SA man killed in dubious circumstances but made by the party into a hero.
References to Horst Wessel and his song are frequent, and he himself was put forward in romanticized form as a role model. This was not a war poem when written; the battle it describes is for political supremacy within Germany. Nevertheless, it was used as a war song, and the sense was reapplied to the greater battles. Its imagery made this very easy to do: Die Fahne hoch!
Die Reihen dicht geschlossen! SA marschiert mit ruhig festem Schritt.
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