On 25 March , Airbus completed assembly of the first UHA made specifically for training for the US Army; the training configuration of the Lakota differs from the baseline model in several ways, including an observer seat for the instructor, a "buzz number" on its side for easy identification, and a flight control system that allows it to communicate with Fort Rucker. As part of the Army's aviation restructure initiative, Fort Rucker's fleet of TH training helicopters will be replaced with UHs, comprising purpose-built trainers and 81 existing versions that will be modified.
Boeing AH Apache The Boeing AH Apache is an American twin-turboshaft attack helicopter with a tailwheel-type landing gear arrangement and a tandem cockpit for a crew of two. It features a nose-mounted sensor suite for target night vision systems, it is armed with a 30 mm M chain gun carried between the main landing gear, under the aircraft's forward fuselage , four hardpoints mounted on stub-wing pylons for carrying armament and stores a mixture of AGM Hellfire missiles and Hydra 70 rocket pods. Army is the primary operator of the AH, it has become the primary attack helicopter of multiple nations, including Greece , Israel , the Netherlands and the United Arab Emirates.
Israel used the Apache in its military conflicts in the Gaza Strip. British and Dutch Apaches have seen deployments in wars in Iraq. Following the cancellation of the AH Cheyenne in , in favor of projects like the U. The Army wanted an aircraft better than the AH-1 Cobra in firepower and range.
It would have the maneuverability for terrain following nap-of-the-earth flying. To this end, the U. In July , the U. Each company went through a flight test program. Reasons for selecting the YAHA included its more damage tolerant four-blade main rotor and the instability of the YAH's tricycle landing gear arrangement. Weapons and sensor systems were integrated and tested during this time, including the laser-guided AGM Hellfire missile. Development of the Hellfire missile had begun in known by the name of Helicopter Launched and Forget Missile, for the purpose of arming helicopter platforms with an effective anti-tank missile.
In , three pre-production AHAs were handed over to the U. Army for Operational Test II; the Army testing was successful, but afterward it was decided to upgrade to the more powerful TGE version of engine, rated at 1, shp. The AH was named the Apache in late , following the tradition of naming Army helicopters after American Indian tribes, it was approved for full-scale production in In , the first production helicopter was rolled out at Hughes Helicopter's facility at Mesa, Arizona.
During the s, McDonnell Douglas studied an AHB, featuring an updated cockpit , new fire control system and other upgrades. In , funding was approved for a multi-stage upgrade program to improve sensor and weapon systems. Technological advance led to the program's cancellation in favor of more ambitious changes. Prototype testing ended in April During testing, six AHD helicopters were pitted against a bigger group of AHAs; the results demonstrated the AHD to have a sevenfold increase in survivability and fourfold increase in lethality compared to the AHA.
On 13 October , full-scale production was approved. Portions of the Apache are produced by other aerospace firms. AgustaWestland has produced number of components for the Ap. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction.
With , personnel on active duty and 99, in the Ready Reserve , the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has deployable combat vessels and more than 3, operational aircraft as of March , making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy , established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan.
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Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific , the Mediterranean , the Indian Ocean , it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy , headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy ; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense , headed by the Secretary of Defense.
The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy. The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States ; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war.
The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements.
280 Page Uh-72 Uh-72a Lakota Aircrew Flight Manual CD
Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious. Naval power In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia ; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress.
Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries.
Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October , the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August , after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In , the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt , authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in ; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U.
The sole armed maritime presence between and the launching of the U. Navy's first warships in was the U. Revenue-Marine , the primary predecessor of the U. Coast Guard. Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In —99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From Lyons , announced as the new Deputy Director of the Army National Guard in May, , will assume his new duties in ; the state's longtime 67th Infantry Brigade was disestablished in , but reformed and reorganised as the 67th Battlefield Surveillance Brigade in Bohac, Present Judd H.
Lyons, Timothy J. Kadavy , Roger P. Lempke , Stanley M. Heng, James Carmona , Edward C. Binder, - Francis L.
Reorganised 1 October to comprise 1st Squadron, an element of the 35th Infantry Division. Organized and federally recognized on 20 November with headquarters at Omaha, elements organized from new and existing companies. Reorganized and redesignated 1 February as the th Engineer Battalion. Location of headquarters changed 1 May to Kearny.
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Relieved 1 April from assigned to the 34th Infantry Division. Reallocated to the 35th Infantry Division on 1 October Its elements were redesignated as the th Transportation Battalion. The helicopter is marketed for passenger transport, corporate transport, emergency medical services and rescue, parapublic and utility roles.
Military variants of the helicopter have been produced under various designations, such as HM or UH, have been used for training, medical evacuation, light attack, troop-transport operations; the EC was a joint development between Eurocopter and Kawasaki Heavy Industries on the basis of their successful prior jointly produced BK C1. Rather than pursuing an clean sheet design, the forward cockpit and modern avionics of Eurocopter's EC were adopted in combination with the proven BK 's rear section.
Eurocopter and Kawasaki have an agreement under which both firms independently manufacture and market the rotorcraft , while working collaboratively on development and upgrades. In August , it was announced that the partnership between Eurocopter and Kawasaki on the development and production of the EC had been extended until at least In , Eurocopter launched an upgraded EC model, designated EC T2, unveiling the new type at Heli Expo ; the EC T2 is designed to increase the aircraft's performance, featuring new Arriel 2E turboshaft engines, dual-digital Full Authority Digital Engine Controls , Eurocopter's Fenestron shrouded tail rotor design, upgraded tail and main rotor gear boxes.
Considerable differences and improvements were introduced to the cockpit and aircraft subsystems, including the adoption of digital avionics and a modular approach to these systems.
Since , Eurocopter has been developing an optionally piloted vehicle variant of the EC Test flights of the EC OPV, including unmanned flights, began in ; the system, designed to plug into the EC's existing avionics, is capable of autonomous operation or alternatively being controlled by human operators either via the cockpit or from a ground control station.
The technology, reported to be compatible with a number of Eurocopter's range of helicopters, is intended for both civil and military applications. In an emergency situation, such as systems failure, the EC OPV is programmed to enter into an automated hover-to-land procedure to safely land the aircraft. In July , Airbus Helicopter launched the ECe, a lightened and lower cost version of the standard EC, achieved by the removal of some avionics for autopilot and single-pilot IFR functions.
Intended as a basic model for tasks such as aerial firefighting and utility work, it has been vi. During the early s, the U. Army started to formulate requirements for the replacement of its helicopters in service, which resulted in the launch of the Light Helicopter Experimental program. Nearly a decade following the refinement of requirements, evaluation of submissions, the rebranding of the programme as the Light Helicopter program, during April , the Army announced the selection of the Boeing—Sikorsky team's design as the contest winner, shortly after which a contract for construction of prototypes was awarded; the Comanche was to incorporate several advanced elements, such as stealth technologies, a number of untried design features.
Operationally, it was to employ advanced sensors in its reconnaissance role, where it was intended to designate targets for the AH Apache. It was armed with one rotary cannon and could carry missiles and rockets in internal bays and optionally on stub wings for light attack duties. A pair of RAH prototypes were constructed and underwent flight testing between and However, during , the Comanche program underwent heavy restructuring. As early as the late s, the Government Accountability Office had reported that it had "serious doubts" about the program, observing that the Comanche would "consume two thirds of the whole Aviation budget by Fiscal Year ".
Multiple government agencies had acted to cut the number of Comanches on order, but, as a consequence of the heavy reductions to the numbers to be procured, the unit costs soared. On 23 February , the U. Army announced that the termination of the Comanche program, stating that they had determined that the RAH required numerous upgrades to be viable on the battlefield and that, the Army would direct the bulk of its rotary funding towards renovating its existing attack and reconnaissance helicopters, as well as to accelerate the development of unmanned aerial vehicles, which could perform the scouting role intended for the Comanche with less risk.
Since the cancellation, both of the prototypes have been placed on public display. During , the U. The Eurocopter UH Lakota is a twin-engine helicopter with a single, four-bladed main rotor. Army and Army National Guard fleets. The U. As the program was developed, the light utility version was dropped and focus was placed on the light attack reconnaissance version, which eventually became the RAH Comanche.
In , the Department of Defense and the U. Army made the decision to terminate the RAH program. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Aviation portal. Airbus, 9 March Fight International , 27 February Department of Defense, 23 February Reuters, 9 May Army — Reuters. Defense News. Retrieved 18 October National Commission on the Future of the Army. Retrieved 16 October Flight Global.
US Army orders 16 more UHA Lakota helicopters from Airbus
Aviation Week. The Drive. Rotor and Wing. Eurocopter, 4 May Eurocopter delivers first UHA to U. Army as world's media watches. US Army, 11 December Retrieved: 28 June Mid-Hudson News Network, 17 January Naval Air Systems Command. Flight International , 22 December Archived from the original on 15 December Retrieved 23 September Defense Security Cooperation Agency, 29 September
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