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Padre rico. Quo vadis CIO? Kets de Vries. Social Media Marketing. Edward Freeman. In this process, the retrieval of entrepreneurial information chapter 4. The entrepreneurial shaping of the organisation chapter 4. In the synthesis, a design concept with three building blocks is introduced.
Firstly, a role model for the entrepreneurial organisation is developed chapter 5. A conceptual framework of the business environment is presented as the second building block, enabling a systematic identification of opportunities and threats and making it possible to deduce entrepreneurial opportunities chapter 5. The third building block can be defined as an aggregated, qualitative model Bossel for examining networks Vester and the fundamental pattern of interaction between businesses and the business environment chapter 5.
An empirical study of the role of intrapreneurship and of the role model developed chapter 6 , applies the theoretical research results to globally active technology companies in the Bodensee-Oberschwaben region of southern Germany. In addition, a research design with three studies and three consciously selected spot checks as samples is designed and implemented in the empirical part of the research process see Schnell et al As part of this, managers and employees from globally operative technology companies are asked in writing and telling about the role of intrapreneurship and the role model see Mayer A further written survey is directed at managers and project workers in a highly innovative technology company with the aim of being able to derive additional findings about this reference group chapter 6.
In order to make the picture of the empirical study into a full template, a third building block of the empirical study is a survey of experts see Bogner et al which contains some additional aspects of intrapreneurship chapter 6. Thus, a systematic gaining of knowledge 31 about the entrepreneurial orientation of technology companies and about the implementation of the central entrepreneurial tasks and roles in the practices of the company is pursued using a questionnaire and questionnaire guideline see appendix. Research strategy In chapter 6.
These design elements can be used for company research projects and to strengthen the entrepreneurial orientation of individuals and the company. The management workshop for shaping the entrepreneurial future building block 1 offers a framework concept for individual and collective learning of entrepreneurial competencies taking into account the three central entrepreneurial tasks of an entrepreneurial organisation through entrepreneurial agents.
Learning from individual entrepreneurial activities building block 2 is founded on a systematic documentation of individual entrepreneurial activities through entrepreneurial agents as a basis for learning for future entrepreneurial activities and to raise managers awareness of entrepreneurial orientation. Culture analysis by cultural agents building block 3 helps to analyse as well as to design common mental models.
The analysis of countries by country agents building block 4 helps to analyse the general macro environment for opportunities and risks. The analysis of industry sectors by industry agents building block 5 helps with the analysis of the specific micro environment for opportunities and risks. Specific implementation of the central entrepreneurial tasks and roles in a specific context of an organisation are the domain of specific company research projects. The role model developed can be used and specified for various cultural frameworks and stimulate additional empirical studies in specific contexts.
Thus, the central research results of this study provide a framework for the systematic specification of the settings of a globally active business, clarify the role of intrapreneurship in a business world that is particularly driven by technological developments, define the roles of the entrepreneurial organisation, describe the central structural components of the entrepreneurial company system and offer, for the first time, a comparison with business practice.
This is achieved by a well substantiated study of the literature together with an analysis and theoretical processing of the research task. On this basis, the model building blocks for the design concept are developed as part of the synthesis. An empirical study takes a look at the role of intrapreneurship and the implementation of the role models in business practice see figure 4. The research and explanation of the role of intrapreneurship in a dynamic, global business environment is done on the basis of an intensive literature study.
In reworking the literature see Kornmeier , it becomes clear that the economic and management theory 33 concepts found in the literature treat a whole range of individual aspects of intrapreneurship. A synoptical illustration of the individual theoretical concepts 34 and the association of central elements of an entrepreneurial organisation can thus lead to a holistic view which can, in turn, be considered as the ultimate prerequisite for entrepreneurial orientation see Haines Thus, it would appear to be helpful to consider not only economic and management theory concepts but also systems thinking as a theoretical frame of reference see Winter for entrepreneurial thinking and action.
Mouton presents a map for standardisation of research studies. For the research design selected here, see particularly pages , , For the history of management approaches see Ghillyer Research strategy The connection between the economic view that the behaviour of the organisation ensues from the interplay of individual actors self-serving and systems thinking see Wright , O Connor and McDermott , according to which the organisation can, through coordinated interplay, become an integrated whole which is more than the sum of the parts enables a holistic understanding of intrapreneurship.
With a dual perspective, i. In addition, a contextual frame of reference is developed in order to then examine and describe, in the in-depth literature study, intrapreneurship, the business environment and the interaction between the organisation and the environment Dubin From the theoretical eclectic literature study see Kornmeier , it is possible to account for, define and carry over into the three central entrepreneurial tasks nine elements for the specification of holistic intrapreneurship.
Using the economic concept of the corporate actor see Homann and Suchanek , the three entrepreneurial tasks can explain the role of intrapreneurship on the level of the whole organisation. The theoretical analysis of the three entrepreneurial tasks by way of a further substantial literature study enables a deeper understanding of intrapreneurship and the lever for the design of a viable entrepreneurial organisation. The role model of the entrepreneurial organisation specifies and explains the roles necessary for implementation of the three entrepreneurial tasks that an organisation as a whole must fulfil in an integrated way.
Research strategy This modus operandi thus links the microeconomic concept of the corporate actor with the role concept from the discipline of sociology The role model thus offers a holistic perspective to the theoretical reflections and principles on the role of intrapreneurship identified in the literature study. A conceptual orientation framework is presented which integrates the different concepts for the specification of the business environment arising from the literature study with a holistic perspective for the systematic specification of the business environment based on theoretical findings The interdependence between the entrepreneurial organisation and the external operational fields is illustrated by a qualitative systems model on aggregated levels see Bossel Model building is prepared via a theoretical examination to identify basic system variables and bilateral property relations The three complementary theoretical constructs of the role model, orientation framework and systems model form a reference system for the design of the three entrepreneurial tasks of organisation design, information gathering and shaping of the future in interdependence with the dynamic and complexity of the business environment.
The design concept can act as a starting point and conceptual framework Mouton , for the theoryled empirical research see Kornmeier As part of the empirical study on the role of intrapreneurship there is a survey see Kornmeier , Schnell et al , Cooper and Schindler of managers in 50 technology companies from the Bodensee- Oberschwaben region together with 75 managers in a highly technological company from the Bodensee-Oberschwaben region, these being conscious choices taking into account the spatial unit, their global and technological orientation and also the regional economic significance.
The formal questionnaire contains an accompanying letter with a short introduction of the content, an explanation of terms, as well as 24 questions with ratings. Research strategy The questionnaire is carried out as a web survey survey of managers from 50 companies or by a written questionnaire survey of managers from the highly innovative company. Data preparation takes place on the basis of the inkidu survey system at the Ravensburg-Weingarten University.
From the data analysis, statements on the role of intrapreneurship in technological companies in the Bodensee- Oberschwaben region are derived and, in addition, there is an examination of cross company profile trends by the connection of mean values relating to the features of an entrepreneurial organisation, the degree of support from intrapreneurship via structural design of the internal framework conditions and the potential of entrepreneurial thinking and action from managers.
By comparing cross company profile lines with the profile lines of highly innovative companies, it is possible to examine development potential and success factors. Plausibility questions regarding the content enable consistent answers to the questions posed. With globally active technology companies in the Bodensee- Oberschwaben region in mind, contacts with managers and human resources managers are used so that those questioned can also act as agents for the involvement of further interview partners.
Thus, a sampling design is selected see Cooper and Schindler which can be used to examine certain information needs based on theoretical considerations and taking into account the organisation as whole. In order to enable the systematic involvement of further interview partners, guide questions on the operationalisation of the research question are formulated in writing and are discussed in personal interviews. Using this research concept, further companyspecific specialist knowledge can be obtained qualitatively. The data collection takes place involving company agents on the basis of written instructions with standardised guide questions.
Research strategy Also with this concept, it is possible to obtain and analyse implicit knowledge and accounts of motivated interviewees in a social information process. With qualitative data analysis, it is possible to derive a stylised implementation of the role model. In interpreting the findings of the survey of experts, one should however take into consideration that the stylised illustration reflects a culture specific context. By reflecting the findings of the empirical study against the theoretical findings of the literature study, one can see the benefit of the design concept developed for specifying and explaining the role of intrapreneurship.
Furthermore, it is possible to identify design fields for strengthening entrepreneurial orientation for a specific cultural context. As an aside, five elements for developing of a vital entrepreneurial learning organisation can be outlined. The research strategy thus balances out the theory concepts identified in the literature and the newly-developed theoretical contructs using empirical studies and examinations for the implementation of the theoretical findings, which in turn stimulate further theoretical considerations.
The findings process itself is supported by systems thinking see Haines , O Connor and McDermott , and reflection see Maturana and Varela Thus, the research process see figure 4 to clarify the role of intrapreneurship via a design concept for holistic intrapreneurship contains 1 a preliminary literature review to define the research objective and questions, 2 a literature study to describe the role of intrapreneurship via a synoptical illustration of theoretical constructs, the business environment and the interaction of the organisation and the environment, 3 a theoretical analysis to explore the tasks of the entrepreneurial organisation, 4 a conceptual analysis to develop the theoretical constructs for holistic intrapreneurship role model for an entrepreneurial organisation, framework for the business environment, qualitative model of a viable entrepreneurial organisation , 5 an empirical research and content analysis on intrapreneurship in the company reality with conclusions which lead to five elements for developing the vital entrepreneurial learning organisation.
After the outline of the research process in chapter 2 the following chapter 3 describes the cornerstones for the theoretical analysis see chapter 4 and theory building see chapter 5. Intrapreneurship and the global business environment 3. Intrapreneurship and the global business environment In order to research the role of intrapreneurship in a dynamic, global business environment that is competitive and affected by technological developments, chapter 3 see also figure 5 examines the three central themes of intrapreneurship see chapter 3.
Thus, the chapter describes a number of aspects on intrapreneurship from different system levels. First it will present the origins of the examination of entrepreneurial thinking and action in economic theory. Second it will explore the holistic character of intrapreneurship in the field of corporate management. Third it will examine findings from management theory on the implementation of intrapreneurship in organisations.
Finally, it will layout the international, intercultural and holistic orientation as cornerstones of entrepreneurial management in interaction with the global business environment. In what follows, the central conclusions are evaluated in terms of entrepreneurial thinking and action in organisations so that the various roles and tasks of intrapreneurship can be systematically deduced and illustrated. It is possible to identify the fundamental roles of intrapreneurship from the viewpoint of the classical economics tradition by looking at the findings of Smith , Schumpeter , , Penrose , Hayek , Kirzner , Porter , and Baumol et al b, , In these works, the explanation of the roles and tasks at the macro level is of foremost importance.
Chapter examines what the roles and tasks of intrapreneurship are for the growth of the total economic system see Holcombe , Kuratko and Audretsch In recent decades, entrepreneurial thinking and action has also been examined more and more at a meta and micro level within the scope of behavioural science and management disciplines.
In particular, management research can make an important contribution to the discussion of the role of intrapreneurship for organisational performance see Antoncic and Hisrich , Central findings from this field of research concerning the entrepreneurial organisation at a meta level are reworked in chapter Further roles of intrapreneurship are drawn from the works of Schwab , Drucker , , , Brandt , Guth and Ginsberg , Covin and Slevin , Abell , Hamel and Prahaland , , Lumpkin and Dess , Oden , Weick and Sutcliffe , Morris et al , Intrapreneurship and the global business environment In chapter 3.
At the forefront of these contributions are the intent and implementation of intrapreneurship. Why intrapreneurship in organisations plays an important role and how intrapreneurship is arranged. The business environment for organisations has changed significantly due to globalisation and the intensive pressure of competition, not to mention the ground breaking technological developments of recent years Thus, the focus of entrepreneurial thinking and action in companies has been widened. Intrapreneurship in turbulent times means, therefore, that there are new opportunities and risks to be recognised from the change in the global business environment and it also means that these are to be taken advantage of by proactive entrepreneurial decisions Intrapreneurship can thus be understood as a source of the competitiveness of an organisation on global markets Morris et al iv.
A key role for intrapreneurship flowing from this is the establishment of international entrepreneurial activities keeping in mind the ever-changing business environment and the international division of labour. Entrepreneurial organisations must examine when, for example, entrance into or exit from markets or industries should take place Mastering complexity in the business environment and within organisations, together with networking between the organisation and the global business environment, require holistic thinking and collective learning, an international orientation, as well as making the most of cultural differences if the viability of an organisation is to be secured.
Pointing the way in this context are the works of Vernon , Senge , Trompenaars et al , , , Birkinshaw , Zahra and George , de Geus and Hitt et al Intrapreneurship and the global business environment In the contributions analysed in chapter 3. At the same time, there is an examination of what the implications are for the role of intrapreneurship in a global economy.
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In addition, it follows the examination of the various aspects of entrepreneurial action in the light of the complex, dynamic and multicultural business environment see Mason Chapter examines what role intrapreneurship plays in a global and turbulent business environment and what the implications of the cultural context are. Bitzer offers a summary of the different aspects of entrepreneurial behaviour in organisations with particular reference to management, organisation structure and culture Intrapreneurship and economic tradition The historical origins of the examination of entrepreneurial thinking and action by and within organisations were already discernable with the work of Smith Smith identified the goal-oriented division of labour as the main productive force for an economy and its organisation.
For the achievement of capital gain in an organisation, the risk or security associated with an entrepreneurial activity was considered to be decisive. The scope of the division of labour would then be delineated by the market. With the globalisation of markets, it is possible to achieve a worldwide division of labour, and the competitive advantage of a national economic system can be a source for entrepreneurial activities Porter At the level of the individual organisation, therefore, the goal-oriented arrangement of an efficient division of labour as well as the opportunities and risks arising from the international division of labour can be formulated as one of the roles of intrapreneurship.
According to Schumpeter 41 , a central entrepreneurial activity is the implementation of innovations for the achievement of pioneering gains. Intrapreneurship and the global business environment Intrapreneurship is to be understood as an individualistic process, in that the entrepreneurial actors strive for independence and experience deep satisfaction from achieving of innovation.
These innovations create imbalances in the markets. Generating permanent innovations 42 can be identified as a role of intrapreneurship, and at the level of the total economy, can be considered as a lever for the process of creative destruction as described by Schumpeter In this way, it is not so much the existing products, markets and technologies that determine the competitive situation, but much more that the potential new competitors, new products, new organisation and technology types threaten existing business and structures. In particular, this development-oriented view Schumpeter of the innovation system as a view that is complementary to a static approach 43, where there is a focus on creating efficiency, enables a fundamantal awareness of the role of intrapreneurship.
Entrepreneurial organisations must exercise the function of a routine entrepreneur 44 in existing business and adapt as well as possible to changes in the environment. They must, however, also exercise the function of an innovation entrepreneur and develop new business with new resources or with a different combination of existing resources. The new business may come from the innovation system or be induced through changes in the external business environment.
Schumpeter indicates that the two basic types of entrepreneurial action in routine business and innovation business should be considered as structures that are independent from one and other. For innovation business, he emphasises the necessary implementation competencies 45 and entrepreneurial function see Schumpeter 46 which change production processes and organisation, open up new sources of raw material, develop new products and create new markets, and also pursue competition strategies.
He believes that the siginificance of an entrepreneurial personality is tending to decrease. Intrapreneurship and the global business environment Along with Hayek , new entrepreneurial activities change the market structure and according to Baumol et al b, , , the market mechanism with competition, profits, and a mix of smaller innovative firms and established larger enterprises see Prashantham and Birkinshaw produces innovation and growth of an economy. Penrose developed an alternative approach to the classical economic price and production theory to explain actual behaviour of enterprises.
Here, it is less about explaining scarce resources and market price setting and much more about entrepreneurial determination of which products can be developed, produced and marketed in a creative process using the available resources. The build up of expectations about future happenings in the business environment then moves to the fore. Entrepreneurial managers have to develop and examine a specific image of the business environment in terms of to what extent opportunities and restrictions exist.
As long as there are profitable opportunities, then these entrepreneurial opportunities can be used for the growth of a business. On the basis of expected future events, an entrepreneurial organisation has to shape and expand long term change and generate innovation; all of this would have to be at the same time as coordinating and managing existing business with a view to necessary short term adjustments. The central management of an organisation has to pursue the correct company and personnel policy, actively organise the structures in the growth phase, and also make investment decisions that are future-oriented.
This would happen with increasingly decentralised decision-making which has to lead to a higher level of consistency in decisions across every level of the hierarchy. Penrose indicates that as well as the monetary incentive, motivation for entrepreneurial managers would derive in particular from prestige, personal satisfaction from growth achieved and the possibility of taking on responsibility.
Whether companies also pursue new entrepreneurial activities alongside their established business and thus identify resources for potential opportunities, is dependent on the organisation s spirit of enterprise. Entrepreneurial organisations would always use a part of their resources for the search for possible new business and would regularly keep an eye open for worthwhile opportunities.
Intrapreneurship and the global business environment As part of this, it would be important to develop orientations and visions to find the necessary resources for entrepreneurial ideas and, with ambitious entrepreneurial managers, to create new products and services. Alongside the entrepreneurial characteristics personal to the organisation and its actors, information retrieval and the build up of expectations concerning the development of the environment are said to be decisive in order to be able to achieve change and growth on the basis of the resources.
Kirzner asserts that the economic behaviour model for a predictable world with market participants who are fully informed has served a good purpose in terms of explaining the decisions and reactions of the actors. In reality though, the acceptance of a world in equilibrium with perfect knowledge available for all market participants has to be forsaken and an additional entrepreneurial element has to be introduced into the market process. Entrepreneurial actors can take decisions actively and creatively and they can develop and modify their objectives in accordance with market information resulting from learning processes.
Thus, it is possible to explain a pattern of changing individual decisions arising from the learning experience process with new information. He develops the concept of the pure entrepreneur who searches out and uses entrepreneurial opportunities not realised by other actors in the market. According to this concept, there are passive actors whose decision-making is based on the economic behaviour model, and pure entrepreneurs, who buy resources and sell products in order to use existing price differences between inputs and outputs as an entrepreneurial opportunity.
Innovation and Growth in Corporate Restructurings
Kirzner also separates the functions of owner and entrepreneur. The pure entrepreneurial decisions then lead to an entrepreneurial profit which would be realised not by the owner 47, but rather by the active entrepreneur If one follows this line of argument, managers in the company can be described as entrepreneurs, provided that they pursue worthwhile entrepreneurial opportunities and can secure for themselves the entrepreneurial profits by creating the framework conditions. Intrapreneurship and the global business environment If the owner pockets these profits, they would, according to this concept, take over the role of the entrepreneur.
However, if this happens, the attraction of entrepreneurship for managers would be removed Basically, Kirzner s concept provides a theoretical foundation for entrepreneurial action by managers who use entrepreneurial opportunities to their own advantage. The economic theoretical concepts of intrapreneurship give basic implications on the role of intrapreneurship at the level of the economy e.
In chapter the focus is more at the level of the organisation and corporate management Management-oriented approaches at the meta level 50 The following chapter describes findings from the field of corporate management concerning the basic character of intrapreneurship section , the holistic aspects of intrapreneurship section , and the orientation of entrepreneurial management section Management concepts for the entrepreneurial organisation: Opportunities, risks and revitalisation Based on a fundamental change of entrepreneurial achievement within the restrictions of the world economy 51, Schwab formulates chance management as the core task of an entrepreneurial organisation.
Since the world economy was developing in an unstable way, but with identifiable trends, it was necessary when formulating company strategies to bring the following into harmony; profit shortterm , growth long-term , social responsibility in relation to the organsiation s partners, the security of the company in the face of danger and the flexibility of companies in order to be able to take advantage of opportunities arising.
It becomes clear in such times that the basic orientation appears to follow a simple fundamental principal when dealing with change: avoid danger, use opportunities. Thus, in business practice it is not always simple to identify the relevant trends and appropriate entrepreneurial activities and then put them into practice. Fundamentally, it is necessary to accept developments or proceed consciously with a proactive reaction to changed framework conditions. Intrapreneurship and the global business environment A central entrepreneurial task for him is the evaluation of all entrepreneurial activities with the help of a chance management schematic.
A thorough investigation of an organisation can be done, for example, on the basis of a 9-grid schematic see figure 6 which derives from a combination of two factors that can have a negative, neutral or positive impact on strategy formulation. Activities can be allocated to an opportunity zone, a warning zone or a danger zone so that entrepreneurial decisions can be taken systematically.
Companies can use this schematic, for example, to determine the attractiveness of the sector in order to define entry or exit strategies, as well as product development strategies. In particular, changes over time would have to be anticipated and local differences taken into account so that the correct decisions relating to product, market and location can be taken. According to Schwab , investment alternatives should also be evaluated in terms of the effect on tying up capital, since financial means are needed to defend against danger and to make use of opportunities.
Further entrepreneurial tasks for Schwab are also the early identification of possible risks from the environment, the decline in independence and a spreading of risk when making decisions such as selecting location. In accordance with the opportunities and risks analysed, a regular new direction for entrepreneurial activities can follow see figure 7.
Factor 1 negative neutral positive positive Factor 2 neutral negative Opportunity zone Warning zone Danger zone Restructuring zone Figure 6: Schwab s schematic for evaluation of entrepreneurial activities Schwab Intrapreneurship and the global business environment Strategies from Industry Environment Analysis Investment strategies ofthe organisation Strategies from availability of raw material and resources Strategies from location analysis Opportunity potential ofthe organisation Product - Market - Technology - Strategies Strategies to exploit innovation Strategies from public relations and social networking Profit and growth potential ofthe organisation Figure 7: Chance management concept as per Schwab Entrepreneurial organisations must have an understanding of the exchange relationship with the business environment of their own organisations to enable them to adapt continuously, use their strengths positively and minimise the risk of wrong decisions.
As well as this, a total entrepreneurial concept based on an analysis of the environment and of the company has to be developed. With this, not only probable assumptions but also pessimistic and optimistic ones have to be examined if potential opportunities and risks from the business environment are to be identified on the basis of a common approach. It is important not to sacrifice longterm issues that are critical to the organisation in short-term crisis situations. To deal with changes in the business environment, entrepreneurial organisations have to permit decentralised autonomy and self-regulation, and also orientate individual actions towards the overall interests of the organisation.
In this way, a participative structure can be created which makes every employee into a full spiritual partner of the organisation. Within the context of a long-term strategy, decisions have to be made with an entrepreneurial feel and on the basis of continuous market experience, as well as using systematic analyses of the business environment. Intrapreneurship and the global business environment According to Drucker the size of a company is no obstacle to intrapreneurship.
Many large companies have proved themselves as entrepreneurs and innovators. The biggest obstacle to entrepreneurial thinking and action is the ingrained, successful mode of operation in the company and the associated bureaucracy and conservative attitude. Because new business appears to be not extensive and unlikely when compared to existing, mature business, there is a danger that new business will be neglected. Successful operation and everyday crises require a lot of attention and in times of rapid change, a company can quickly decline.
Thus, there must be no restrictions in place that inhibit entrepreneurial management. Systematic innovation should be an integral part of a business. The scope, as well as the time frames for innovation, must be defined and an innovation plan with targets has to be drawn up. In his guiding principles, Drucker defines fundamental entrepreneurial activities that help a company achieve entrepreneurialoriented management. Products, processes, techniques, markets, and sales channels must be evaluated regularly and those that are no longer productive, ceased.
For new things, the best staff must be made available. At the same time, it must be accepted that all activities evaluated only have a limited life expectancy. New entrepreneurial achievements must then be big enough to fill any gaps. Because innovative efforts are never certain to lead to success, Drucker says that at least three times as many entrepreneurial activities should be pursued as are necessary to fill the gaps.
A thorough systematic examination of the company with a critical look at existing products, markets, and technologies make it possible to draw up an entrepreneurial plan with innovation targets. Entrepreneurial management have to make sure that the key activities for a successful future are worked on in the present. Intrapreneurship and the global business environment The entrepreneurial manager must concentrate on the discovery of opportunities and not on dealing with problems. Drucker ,,87, , also emphasises that successful entrepreneurial management must have a certain ease of learning.
According to Drucker, all successful managers have to learn how to be effective. Entrepreneurial management means dealing with the important issues first and this, in the knowledge that one s own decisions impact on the performance of the whole business. Flowing from this, it is necessary that managers act in a responsible way. Managers owe it to the organisation to be effective.
Here, Drucker gives an important piece of advice, which is that entrepreneurial management must be consistently carried out with the whole organisation in mind. This means that management must make a contribution which justifies why they are on the payroll. Entrepreneurial management have the duty and privilege to develop themselves and at the same time, show commitment, decisiveness and single-mindedness for the results of the organisation. Thus, when fulfilling their tasks, individual managers have to think about the purpose and objectives of their actions with a view to effectiveness for the organisation.
Entrepreneurial managers must make the most of opportunities and set priorities. The effectiveness of management is the prerequisite for an effective organisation and the central objective of a highly-developed company. Drucker therefore requires a harmonisation of the needs of the manager with the needs of the organisation and also the company as a whole. This has to happen with a kind of selfdiscipline, so that a merging of the organisation s objectives with individual needs, as well as concentration on an effective contribution to the business environment, can be achieved see chapter.
The entrepreneurial organisation considers entrepreneurship as a duty and as a disciplined job, and less as natural or creative behaviour. The current organisation must be led like a new organisation and continuously develop the spirit of enterprise Drucker Intrapreneurship and the global business environment Brandt describes entrepreneurial organisations as creative, innovative, flexible and customer-oriented. These qualities should be deeply anchored in the company culture so that ideas can be commercialised.
He looks at the historical context and from it, derives an increasing need for entrepreneurial activities. And so, managers have to accept an orientation towards innovation at all levels. With the support of technological developments, there can be an increase in decentralised activities. An entrepreneurial orientation within the entire organisation and when carrying out all activities within a business brings much more success than the strengthening of individual organisational components, such as increasing research and development budgets, supporting individual product champions, creating budgets for entrepreneurial activity or the creation of incentive systems.
According to Brandt entrepreneurial oganisations are the next stage of development towards centrally coordinated profit centre structures. Company planning must lay a stronger focus on the external business world. Thereby, planning and implementation of strategies have to become closer. In order to orientate entrepreneurial employees, it is particularly important to develop entrepreneurial personnel management and an entreprenerial company culture. Brandt requires the creation of flat and flexible organisations with relatively autonomous units which make and implement entrepreneurial decisions.
Incentive systems should be fixed directly with individual actors and preferably use resources beyond departmental boundaries. Long-term orientation must be incorporated in company planning via many small improvements in existing business and the pursuit of bigger entrepreneurial opportunities.
Entrepreneurial organisations must involve employees at all levels in entrepreneurial decisions and react quickly to changes in the business environment. Entrepreneurial organisations would gather information about the business environment and let it flow freely. Various activities and various happenings have to demand various and new reactions. Managers at all levels must promote the intrinsic motivation of their employees and involve them with technological support in entrepreneurial activities.
Regular feedback for significant contributions by the employee is the central reward for entrepreneurial thinking and action see figure 8. Intrapreneurship and the global business environment T he P ro blem Entrepreneuring in the Established Com pany The Co mpany Individuals Tech nology Challenges Feedback T echnology Challenges The Company Figure 8: Intrapreneurship by direct involvement of all employees in entrepreneurial challenges as per Brandt Guth and Ginsberg foresee a central role for middle managers in the strategic renewal of organisations.
This strategic renewal through autonomous action by managers defines the two central entrepreneurial processes in established companies, together with the winning of new business innovation. According to this concept, a strategic renewal can take place without having to change top management. They create thereby a direct link between intrapreneurship and strategic management see figure 9. The strength of entrepreneurial orientation is accordingly defined in three areas. A strong change dynamic in the business environment leads to more intrapreneurship as well as to a stronger entrepreneurial orientation amongst managers who also drive through change in the organisation.
The shaping of the organisation architecture and company performance are said to be the other central drivers of intrapreneurship. Intrapreneurship and the global business environment Management concepts and holistic view of the entrepreneurial firm Covin and Slevin describe entrepreneurial organisations by reference to behaviour and not characteristics. According to them, entrepreneurial behaviour is proactive, innovative, and characterised by the taking of risks. Thus, the whole organisation has to be considered. Entrepreneurial activities lead to an entrepreneurial organisation.
Product, market or technological innovations should be realised proactively so that the entrepreneurial organisation can be the first to enter markets. According to them, entrepreneurial behaviour of organisations can be configured using strategy, structure, systems and culture This configurable entrepreneurial orientation of an organisation has a positive effect on the development of company performance see figure Entrepreneurial Intensity Organizational Performace Vision and Mission Objectives, Strategies, and Structures Operations HRM programs Budgeting systems Policies and procedures Functional area management Culture Value Norms Symbols Myths Language Figure Covin and Slevin s entrepreneurial orientation of the whole organisation according to Morris et al 52 In a commentary on this integrative model, Zahra emphasises that intrapreneurship appears on different levels within the organisation, e.
This must be taken into account when analysing and designing entrepreneurial organisations. Also, there must be a sharper focus on the international dimension of entrepreneurial activities and on entering international markets.
He works on this research field in later studies see chapter 3. Intrapreneurship and the global business environment Intrapreneurship can enhance the performance of an organisation and can drive general economic development at the macro level. The business environment influences the organisation and the organisation influences the business environment. Therefore, organisations have to take account of sector life cycles just as much as economic, political, social and technological framework conditions. Thus, changes in the business world, e.
In turn, innovations in the organisation provide a dynamic in the business environment. In this way, a dynamic business environment characterised by a high level of competitive pressure demands the stability of a stronger entrepreneurial orientation in the organisation, especially in new sectors. Covin and Slevin link the success of entrepreneurial activities directly to the character of the business environment. Intrapreneurship is thus successful in a business environment in which technological developments play an important role, there is a predominance of competitive pressure, the sectors are at the beginning of their cycle and there is a high dynamic overall.
An entrepreneurial orientation has a big influence on corporate and competitive strategies. The monitoring of sectors and markets, including the identification of trends, are said to be an important requirement for the improvement of company performance. Learning experiences must be systematically gathered from innovation projects, and systems for monitoring the business environment must be continuously developed According to Abell the drivers for intrapreneurship are not just structures and processes; individual actors are also key.
Organisations must identify current opportunities and use them on the basis of existing competencies and resources; at the same time, they must grasp future opportunities by changing and developing competencies dual strategies Also, a plan see figure 11 has to be drawn up for the realisation of current entrepreneurial opportunities and additionally, a plan for the shaping of change based on a vision of the future has to be drafted and communicated within the organisation.
According to Markides and Charitou , dual strategies new and established business models can be pursued in the same market: The organisation must balance the benefit of two separate business models while exploiting synergies. Modified strategy, organization, resources, competences Period 2 change plan Remodified strategy, organization, resources, competences etc. Period 2 plan for pinpointing current opportunities Period 3 plan for pinpointing current opportunities etc.
Figure Dual planning of current and future entrepreneurial opportunities as per Abell Since entrepreneurial opportunities in a global and complex business environment are pursued decentrally and thus, at first, not in a coordinated fashion, there is a danger that potential company-wide synergy effects are not exploited. Top management must then ensure that opportunities to use synergies between and within units of the organisation are identified and realised 55 see figure Cooperation X - Divisional Synergy X - Business Unit Synergy X - Segment Synergy Figure Abell s synergy effects at different levels of the organisation Abell Thus, worldwide marketing networks of the whole organisation, for example, can be used via individual local business units or company-wide synergies 56 can be pursued in the various function areas and at all levels of the organisation; this is achieved by a common use of resources see figure Intrapreneurship and the global business environment Business Unit A W B X C Y Activities Resources Figure Synergy effects by common use of resources as per Abell With holistic management, quality improvements and cost advantages can be realised, new entrepreneurial activities using existing resources can be implemented and new products 57 or services can be launched onto the market more quickly see figure As stated by Tushman et al , Top management has to manage a constant creative conflict between the need to explore new business and markets and the claims of established businesses on existing resources.
Thus, it is said to be important to react to changes in the business environment, even when there is no crisis. Keys to this are the individual actors who can also think outside the box see De Bono , Intrapreneurship and the global business environment Thus, it is more about the ability to be able to develop an idea about the future and less about the attempt to predict actual future developments.
The sights must be set on possible changes in, for example, the areas of technology, work and life styles and global developments. The central entrepreneurial task is said to be the search for future opportunities to ensure the organisation s sustainability, as well as the development and revolution of markets and industries whilst taking the competition dynamic into consideration. An organisation must be regarded in terms of its portfolio of products and services as well as its competencies.
On this basis, new entrepreneurial opportunities can be uncovered and by developing new core competencies 58, future growth can be realised by pursuing new business Top management must see opportunities that other organisations do not see or develop company competencies that other organisations cannot achieve.
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As well as striving for efficiency in established business operations management , management must also pursue entrepreneurial opportunities opportunity management. This should take place not so much through the acquisition of other companies and elitist intrapreneurship skunk works but more through the development of visions of the future, new competencies, and of existing abilities so that the whole organisation can be developed.
Individual entrepreneurial activities are said to be no replacement for this. The whole organisation must commit itself to future entrepreneurial opportunities. Entrepreneurial management has to manage the future and in so doing, take account of the potential change in the general business environment, the development of competition and the resulting consumer wishes Hamel and Prahaland , ,.
New entrepreneurial opportunities can be identified, for example, taking account of existing and potential customers and their needs see figure Subsequently, core competencies are the company competencies that are decisive for long-term competitiveness. They fulfil three conditions: a contribution to the fundamental customer benefit, a definition of a significant competitive advantage, usefulness for new products and services. Intrapreneurship and the global business environment Unarticulated Unexploited Opportunities Needs Articulated Served Customer Types Unserved Figure Search for new opportunities with existing and new customers as per Hamel and Prahaland Hamel and Prahaland set their sights not directly on opportunities for products and services, but rather take into account the arena for opportunities defined by core competencies.
The bundle of abilities and technology of an organisation determine the core competencies which, in turn, enable the pursuit of different market and product opportunities New core competencies would then be realised through acquired learning and less through innovation surges. Since core competencies form the basis for different products and services, their development cannot be left to individual business units, but must be controlled by central management.
Also, the necessary resources for developing new core competencies cannot usually be provided by individual business units. The concept of core competencies is seen by Hamel and Prahaland as complementary to a strict alignment of the organisation with strategic business units, which in turn, are focussed on end products Thus, entrepreneurial activities for safeguarding the future both at a higher level and outside of spheres addressed to-date, can be identified and implemented.
Intrapreneurship and the global business environment They describe an agenda for developing competencies in the form of a matrix that distinguishes between existing and future core competencies and between existing and future markets. Successful entrepreneurial activities can be based on existing core competencies and aimed at existing and new markets. New core competencies can also be developed and existing core competencies can be used for new entrepreneurial opportunities.
New core competencies can help to improve competitiveness in existing markets see figure Four central entrepreneurial questions can be formulated for the competence development agenda: 1 Which entrepreneurial opportunities in existing markets can be pursued by using existing core competencies? New Core Competence Existing Premier plus 10 What new core competencies will be needed to build to protect and extend our franchise in current markets?
Fill in the blanks What is the opportunity to improve our position in existing markets by better leveraging our existing core competencies? Mega-opportunities What new core competencies would we need to build to participate in the most exciting markets of the future? White spaces What new products or services could we create by creatively redeploying or recombining our current core competencies?
Existing Market New Figure Entrepreneurial opportunities on the basis of existing and new core competencies according to Hamel and Prahaland Intrapreneurship and the global business environment According to Hamel , , an organisation s ability to adapt must be achieved by management innovation, i. The company must be capable of spontaneous renewal in the future and of motivating their employees to perform at a high level. Existing methods would suppress imagination and innovation and thus reduce the flexibility of organisations necessary for the future.
Alongside operational efficiency, companies must also achieve a high level of strategic adaptability to changes in the business environment. Hamel requires the whole organisation to be innovative
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