- The Clouds?
- Venganza siciliana (Bianca) (Spanish Edition).
You can use this book either with a teacher or for self-study. How is the book organised? The book has two-page units. In most units, the left-hand page explains the words and expressions to be studied in that unit. Where appropriate, it gives information about how the words are used as well as their meaning. The right-hand page checks that you have understood the information on the left-hand page by giving you a series of exercises practising what you have just learnt. Occasionally the right-hand page will also teach you some more new words.
There is a key at the back of the book. The key does not always simply give you one right answer. It sometimes also comments on the answers and will help you learn more about the words studied in the unit. There is an index at the back of the book. This lists all the words and phrases covered in the book and refers you to the units where these words or phrases are discussed.
GRAMMAR IN USE by Fernando Navarro - Issuu
The index also tells you how difficult and unusual words are pronounced. It uses the International Phonetic Alphabet to do this and the symbols you need to know are listed at the beginning of the index. How should I use this book? The book is divided into a number of sections. Complete the seven introductory units first. These units not only teach you some useful new vocabulary but they also help you with useful techniques for vocabulary learning in general. After completing those units, you might want t o work straight through the book or you might prefer t o d o the units in any order that suits you.
W h a t else do I need in order to work with this book? You need some kind of vocabulary notebook or file where you can write down the new words you are learning. See Unit 3 for advice on how to d o this. You also need to have access to a couple of good dictionaries. This book selects the words that are most important for you to learn at your level and it gives you the most important information about those words but you will sometimes need to refer to a dictionary as well for extra information about meaning and usage.
Firstly, you need an English-English dictionary for foreign learners. Secondly, you will also find a good bilingual dictionary useful. Ask a teacher to recommend a good bilingual dictionary for you. See Unit 5 for advice on using your dictionaries. What do you need to learn? At least: a 10, b , c , d , 2 Winston Churchill was famous for his particularly large vocabulary. How many words did he use in his writing? Finally, there are words which you need to be able to use yourself. Clearly you need to spend most time learning this last group. In the text below mark the words you'd like to be able to use.
English vocabulary has a remarkable range, flexibility and adaptability. Thanks to the periods of contact with foreign languages and its readiness to coin new words out of old elements, English seems to have far more words in its core vocabulary than other languages. For example, alongside kingly from Anglo-Saxon we find royal from French and regal from Latin. There are many such sets of words which add greatly to our opportunities to express subtle shades of meaning at various levels of style.
You probably marked many words that you would like to be able to use. Unless you are studying linguistics, however, you probably need only to understand, rather than to use, the verb 'coin' as used in the context above. What does knowing a new word mean? It is not enough lust to know the meaning- of a word. You also need to know: a what words it is usually associated with b whether it has any particular grammatical characteristics c how it is pronounced Try to learn new words not in isolation but in phrases.
Write down adjectives together with nouns they are often associated with and vice versa, e. Write down verbs with the structure and nouns associated with them, e. Write down nouns in phrases, e. Write down words with their prepositions, e. Note any grammatical characteristics of the words you are studying. For example, note when a verb is irregular and when a noun is uncountable or is only used in the plural.
Make a note of any special pronunciation problems with the words you're learning. Can you learn just by reading or listening to English? You will certainly help yourself to learn English vocabulary not only by studying with this book but also by reading and listening to English. Give each of the items on the lists below a mark from 0 to 4 describing how important this way of learning vocabulary could be for you personally.
Example: newspapers 3 newspapers TV cable 1 subtitled cinema magazines video radio e. BBC World Service academic or professional literature fiction simplified readers with or without cassettes music or other cassettes talking to native speakers. W h a t should you do when you come across new words?
When you are reading something in English, don't look up every new word or expression or you will soon get fedVup. Only look upsomething that is ;eally important for understanding the text. When you have finished reading, look back at what you have read and then perhaps look up some extra words and write down new expressions that interest you. Similarly when you listen to English don't panic when you hear some words or expressions that you don't know. Keep listening and the overall meaning will often become clear. When you read or listen to English it is sometimes possible to guess the meaning of a word you don't know before you look up or ask its meaning.
Decide first what part of speech the word is and then look for clues in its context or form. Before you read the text below, check whether you know what the underlined words mean. A tortoise is a shelled reptile famed for its slowness and lonaevitv. The Giant Tortoise o f the Galapagos may attain over 1. Smaller tortoises f r o m Southern Europe and N o r t h Africa make popular pets. They need t o be tended carefully i n cool climates and must have a w a r m place in which they can hibernate.
Which of the marked words can you perhaps guess from the context or from the way the word is formed? Guess and then check whether you were correct by using a dictionary. Some words are impossible to guess from context or the structure of the word. In such cases, ask someone or go to a dictionary for help. How are you going to plan your vocabulary learning? Help yourself to learn by learning associated words together Learn words with associated meanings together.
Learning words together that are associated in meaning is a popular and useful way of organising your vocabulary study. Add as many other bubbles as you like. If possible, compare your network with those done by other students. Add any of their ideas that you like to your network.
Learn words with a grammatical association together. Can you see what the connection is? What other words could you add to these groups? Pictures and diagrams can help you learn Here are some ways in which pictures might help you to remember vocabulary. Can you draw any pictures that would help you remember the following vocabulary? Word forks are good ways of learning adjectives and verbs. Finish the others. Matrices can also clarify collocations. This book will sometimes use matrices to help to clarify word associations. Look at the following example of a matrix: a car.
You will do moie practice with these and other ways of writing down vocabulary in Unit 3. Organising a vocabulary notebook There is no one correct way to organise a vocabulary notebook, but it is a good idea to think about possible ways of doing so. Here are some possibilities and examples. Organising words by meaning This book divides vocabulary into a large number of different topics, probably far too many for a notebook, but you could try dividing your book into different broad sections, with sections for words for feelings, words to describe places, words for movement, words for thinking, etc.
In this way you can build families of words related in meaning. Using various types of diagrams Words thar can be grouped under a heading or a more general word can be drawn as a treediagram. See also Unit 2. The dotted lines mean that you can add more words to the tree as you meet them. A bubble-network is also useful, since you can make it grow in whatever direction you want it to. See Unit 2. Organising by word-class A Spanish learner of English, Angeles, gave us an interview on how she marks word-class in her personal notebook. This is what she said: 'What I have j u s t s t a r t e d doing is t o write t h e m depending on if t h e y are verbs o r nouns o r adjectives o r phrases.
If t h e y are phrases I write t h e m in red and also t h e definition. If t h e y are verbs, in black, and blue i f t h e y are nouns.. And i f I write t h e Spanish translation I write i t in another colour, so i t ' s easy t o see.. I draw some pictures too. When you meet a synonym or an antonym of a word you already have in your book, enter it next to that word with a few notes:. Exercises Here is a list of words a Spanish learner of English has made in her vocabulary notebook.
How could she improve them and organise them better? What word do you think should go in the middle of the diagram? One learner we interviewed said he tested himself regularly with his notebook, covering up the word and trying to guess it from the translation he had written or from any other notes he had made.
If any word got three red marks, then it needed extra attention and a special effort to learn it. A blue mark meant 'Write more information about this word!
The Grammar of English Grammars/Part II
Try to make one if you have not got one, or ask other people what they do. Try your system out and decide whether it needs improving. Making tables for word-classes is a good idea, since you can fill in the gaps over time. What do you think this learner will put in the remaining gaps in the table? The names of English language words The names of basic parts of speech in English article adjective noun verb adverb preposition conjunction pronoun gerund. Words relating to nouns Look at the sentence An artist loves beauty; artist is countable, i. Words relating to verbs infinitive to go -ing form going past participle gone Go go, gone, went is an irregular verb whereas live live, lived, lived is regular.
Go is also intransitive because it does not need an object, e. Has Luis gone? Make is transitive because it is followed by an object - you make something. Words relating to the construction of words In the word, irregularity, ir- is a prefix, regular is a root and -ity is a suffix. Fat is the opposite or antonym of thin and plump is a synonym of fat. A word family is a set of words based on one root, e. A phrase does not include a main verb - 'in a word' is an example of a phrase. A sentence has a main verb; it begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop. Words relating to pronunciation A syllable is the minimum sound unit of a language consisting of one vowel and any consonants on either side.
There are three syllables in the word 'minimum' the first is mi, the second is ni and the third is mum and the stress is on the first syllable. Onomatopoeia means forming words that sound like their meaning, e. Words and their associations Register means a style of speaking or writing appropriate to a particular social situation. Thus, slang is an extremely informal register and is only used by people who know each other very well.
Colloquial is an adjective referring to language that is suitable mainly for conversation, e. He's a nice guy. Pejorative describes words which have a negative association. Pig-headed is pejorative whereas determined, which is very close in meaning, is not. Collocation refers to words which frequently occur together, e.
Look at the paragraph about register in F opposite. Find at least three examples of each of the following: 1 nouns. Considering the words in their context in F opposite, mark the nouns you've written in 4. Think about the word informal. Look at all the words in bold in sections E, F and G opposite.
In each case mark which syllable is stressed. Match the following colloquial words with their more formal equivalents below. The following pairs of words are close in meaning but one word in each case is pejorative. Give examples of collocations based on the words noun, word and colloquial. Example: uncountable noun. Using your dictionary Good dictionaries can tell you a lot more about a word than just its meaning, including among other things : Synonyms and their differences, e.
The Lost City of Z
But check the table given in the index. Word stress: often shown by a mark before the syllable to be stressed or by underlining, e. Make sure you know how your dictionary marks stress. Usage: how a word is used and any special grammatical pattern that goes with it, e. For example, look at this entry for malignant: ma.. Word-class usually abbreviations n: noun, adj: adjective, etc. Don't forget that most words have more than one meaning. In this example, only the second meaning corresponds to the way hairy is used in this sentence: It was a really hairy journey on the mountain road.
The funcllon of a mammal's harry coal IS to mulare the body. EG It go1 a lillle haiw when we "cklng'rary drove hrm to Ihe slalron with less lhan lwo minules to spare. Exercises With a bilingual dictionary, try a double search: look up a word in your language; the dictionary may give several possibilities in English. Look up each of those possibilities in the English section of the dictionary to see how they translate back into your language. This may help you to separate synonyms. If you own a dictionary, make a little mark in the margin each time you look a word up. If a word gets three or more marks, it is worth an extra effort to learn it.
What other learning techniques are there for dictionaries? Small, bilingual dictionaries often just give three or four translations for a word you look up, without any explanation. Here are some pictures with translations you might find in such a dictionary. Which ones fit in the sentences?
You may need to use a monolingual dictionary. Come and sit on the She bought a huge, luxury If you're going to stand in the water you should take your It's not a proper yacht; it's just a tiny little Which definition of casual fits which sentence? I Something that 1s casual 1. I walked casually rnto his room. In the dictionary entry for hairy opposite how many synonyms can you see for the different meanings? English Vocabulary in Use.
Revising vocabulary Here is an extract from a psychology book on the importance of revising in an active way. Probably the commonest fault among students is failure to realise that learning is essentially an active process. Too many students sit for hours passively reading and rereading notes and textbooks, without ever attempting actively to recall what they have read.
The fallacy of this method has been amply shown by experiments. The same principles apply to more advanced forms of learning: for effective memory, some form of active expression is essential. The student, therefore, should read through the material he wants to master with close attention and should then r e p r o d u c e t h e m a i n points aloud or p r o d u c e a written summary An h o u r ' s concentrated work of this kind is more effective than three hours' passive reading.
From A Modern Introduction to Psychology. Rex and Margaret Knight. Revising with this book When you revise a unit, first read it through. Then look a t anything you wrote in your vocabulary notebook connected with the unit. Then, and most importantly, try t o d o something different with the new words and expressions in that unit in order to help fix them in your memory. Here are some suggestions: Highlight or underline any words and expressions that you had forgotten or were not sure about.
Look a t the unit and choose ten words and expressions that you particularly want or need to learn. Write them down.
Look u p any words that you selected in an English-English dictionary. D o these words have any other uses or associations that might help you learn them? Looking u p the verb, wish, for example, might lead you to wishbone or wishful thinking. Write anything that appeals t o you in an appropriate phrase or sentence. Perhaps the dictionary can also help you find some other words based o n the same root.
Looking u p the noun, employment, will lead you t o the verb, employ, t o the nouns, employer and employee, and, perhaps, to the adjectives employable, unemployed and selfemployed. Write down the words and expressions you wish t o learn in phonetic script. Use a dictionary to help you.
Write down the words and phrases from a unit in your notebook in a different way - put them into a network or a table, perhaps. The next day, ask yourself again: H o w much can I remember? Test yourself. Cover part of a word or phrase. Can you remember the complete word or phrase?
When you have done all the steps above that you feel will be useful to you, close your book and notebook and remind yourself of what you have been studying. H o w much can you remember? Making the new words active One of the great advantages of revising vocabulary is that it should help you t o make the step from having something in your passive vocabulary t o having it in your active vocabulary.
Encourage this process by: writing the words and expressions you are trying t o learn in a sentence relating t o your life and interests at the moment. If you come across any of them in use, write them down in their context in your diary or notebook. W h a t can you remember? Answer without looking back at the units. It may not always be appropriate in your future study t o d o all the steps in B but try them now for practice. Some plans for your work with this book 1 H o w often are you going to revise what you have done?
Every week? Every five units? You might like, for instance, to write revise vocabulary in your diary for the next eight Fridays, if you decided to revise every week. Formal and informal words Formality is all about your relationship with the person you're speaking or writing to. If you use formal language, it may be because you wish to show respect, politeness, or to put yourself at a distance for example, 'official' language.
Informal language can show friendliness, equality or a feeling of closeness and solidarity with someone. You should never use informal language just to sound fluent or clever. Scales of formality Some groups of words can be put on a scale from very formal to very informal. Short, monosyllabic informal words Informal versions of words are often short and monosyllabic, as we can see in the right-hand column in the table in A. They include slang words. Unit 95 has more examples. It cost me ten quid.
Can't stop; see you, bye! Clippings Shortening a word tends to make it less formal, as in fridge and bye in B. What's on telly tonight? Shall I te1e phone them? Her sister's a vet erinary surgeon. Formality in notices, instructions, etc. You will often see rather formal words in notices and suchlike. Make sure you know the meaning of the words used so that you could tell someone what the notice says using less formal words. Exercises If you look up an informal word in a monolingual dictionary, you will often find a neutral equivalent as part of the definition or explanation.
Use a monolingual dictionary to find neutral or more formal words for these: 1 kip 2 a pal 3 a chap 4 cheerio 5 swot 6 ta! Refer to the lefthand page if necessary. JIM:Well, I have to go and visit my mother and father, and my bicycle's not working, so 1'11 have to take a taxi. JIM: Well, I could, except I want to go because they always have lots of food, and the refrigerator at our flat is empty, as usual.
JIM: Erm.. Say whether you feel the following remarkdsentences are okay, too formal or too informal for each situation described. If the remarklsentence is unsuitable, suggest what the person might say instead. My company is considering.. Mini-quiz: Find words on the left-hand page for the following. Express these notices in neutral or informal language. See also Units 95 and 96 for other informal and formal words and expressions.
You can use -er with a wide range of verbs to make them into nouns. It is worth making a special list of these as you meet them, e. Marxism, Buddhism, journalism, anarchist, physicist, terrorist. Note what happens to adjectives that end in -y: goodness, readiness, forgetfulness, happiness, sadness, weakness. Other suffixes that can help you recognise the word class -ment: nouns excitement enjoyment replacement -ity: nouns flexibility.
Note: the informal suffix -ish, which can be added to most common adjectives, ages and times to make them less precise, e. She's thirtyish. He has reddish hair. Come about eightish. Use the suffixes to give the names of the following. Example: A person who plays jazz on the piano. List six jobs you would like to have in order of preference. How many different suffixes are there in your list?
Do any of the job names not have a suffix?
Spelling changes. Rewrite each sentence by changing the underlined words, using a suffix from the left-hand page. Make any spelling changes needed. Most of his crimes are The Club refuses. Her only fault is. This firm has been very. I found the book very. Can you think of anything in your country which should be nationalised e.
Which word is the odd one out in each group and why? Prefixes Prefixes are often used to give adjectives a negative meaning. The opposite of 'comfortable' is 'uncomfortable', the opposite of 'convenient' is 'inconvenient' and the opposite of 'similar' is 'dissimilar'. Other examples are 'unjust', 'inedible', 'disloyal'. Unfortunately, there is no easy way of knowing which prefix any adjective will use to form its opposite. When you learn a new adjective note down whether it has an opposite formed with a prefix and, if so, what it is. Note: in- becomes im- before a root beginning with 'm' or 'p', e.
Similarly in- becomes ir- before a word beginning with 'r', and ilbefore a word beginning with 'l', e. The prefix in- does not always have a negative meaning - often it gives the idea of inside or into, e. Although it is mainly adjectives which are made negative by prefixes, un- and dis- car1 also form the opposites of verbs too, e. The prefix is used here to reverse the action of the verb. Here are some more examples: disagree, disapprove, disbelieve, disconnect, discredit, dislike, dismount, disprove, disqualify, unbend, undo, undress, unfold, unload, unlock, unveil, unwrap, unzip.
Many other prefixes are used in English. Here is a list of prefixes which are useful in helping you to understand unfamiliar words. Some of these words are used with a hyphen. Check in.. Exercises Practise using words with negative prefixes. Contradict the following statements in the same way as the example.
Not all the words you need are on the left-hand page. Example: He's a very honest man. I don't agree.
I think he's dishonest. Which negative adjective fits each of the following definitions? Choose a negative verb from B to fit each of the sentences below. Put it in the correct form. Example: The runner was disqualified after a blood test. Answer the following questions. The answers are all in the table opposite. Using the table opposite construct words or phrases to replace the underlined words. Example: He's in favour of the American approach. He's pro-American. Think of two more examples for each prefix in C opposite.
Roots Many words in English are formed from a set of Latin roots with different prefixes and suffixes. Knowing the roots of such words may help you to remember or guess their meaning when you see them in context. These words are usually fairly formal. In their formation, they can perhaps be seen as the Latinate, formal, equivalent of phrasal verbs. Here are some examples of the more common Latm roots, with some of the verbs derived from them. In each case an example sentence is given with the meaning of the verb in brackets at the end.
You'll find some easier to understand than others. Note that for all the verbs listed, there is usually at least one noun and at least one adjective as well. Here are some examples. Exercises Complete as much as possible of the table with other forms of some of the words presented in B.
Use a dictionary to help you if necessary. Fill in the gaps in the sentences below using words from the table in C. I found it very. Can you work out the meanings of the underlined words in the sentences below? T o help you, here are the meanings of the main Latin prefixes: intro: within, inward o, ob: against in, im: in, into re: again, back. He always seems t o oppose everything I suggest. They have a very good induction programme for new staff in that company. I don't think it is healthy to repress one's emotions too much. Perhaps you can deduce what the word means from the way it is formed.
The documentary exposed corruption in high places. She tried hard to suppress a laugh. She transposed the music for the flute. Think of three other words based on each of the roots listed in B opposite. Put each into an appropriate phrase. Pair the formal verbs below with their phrasal verb equivalents. Abstract nouns An abstract noun is one which is used to mean an idea, experience or quality rather than an object.
Thus happiness, intention and shock are abstract nouns whereas, for example, pen, bed and trousers are not. There are a number of suffixes which are used particularly frequently in the formation of abstract nouns. Some of the most common are -ment, -ion, -ness and -ity. Here are some examples of abstract nouns using those suffixes. Note: -ship and -hood are usually used in combination with other nouns whereas -th combines with an adjective to form an abstract noun and -dom can combine with either a noun or an adjective.
You will find more examples of the use of suffixes in Units 8 and 10 and of abstract nouns in Units 68 and Exercises What is the abstract noun related to each of the following adjectives? Not enough to ruin the flow of the story,but I do get annoyed with them. Otherwise it would be five stars. Jul 10, Eryn rated it liked it. I got through this book in one evening. It was entertaining and started off with the action right away. It is an easy read, and the three main characters are fleshed out just enough to believe.
It's not tremendously deep, but there was a dictionary and a little Colonial history involved, so I found that interesting. There was a shock near the end that felt a bit out of place, but it was dealt with well enough. All told, if you want an easy read, this one worked for me. Sep 21, Caitlyn rated it really liked it. Nice story Nice mystery type story with historical elements. Very interesting. Really enjoyed this book and will be getting book 2. Worth reading if you like history with a little romance and mystery. Jul 18, Marilyn rated it really liked it. Good Good the way history is the major part of the book.
Apr 06, Linda Cole rated it really liked it.
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Good This was a pretty neat mystery. I enjoyed reading about the history of the Cobb family and even though the ending was a let down. The characters seemed dry but did improve as I kept reading. Oct 13, Cindy rated it really liked it. Clean, interesting, cozy mystery. A fun, if formulaic, story. Mystery lite with some interesting history I wonder if Lisa Walker based the sisters' ancestors on actual colonial thought leaders? Aug 05, Norma Mueller rated it it was ok. Interesting plot.
Interesting plot but grammatical and editing errors detracted from the read. Finished the book but probably will not read book two. Author needs to find a better proofreader. Jan 30, Brenda H rated it it was ok. Review to come. Apr 02, Debra rated it really liked it. This is a pretty good mystery, not entirely predictable as so many cozies are. I liked the characters, if not their nicknames for each other.
But there were so many typos and mistakes in editing that it was very distracting. Still, it is worth reading if you are a fan of cozies. Jan 11, Dinnl rated it liked it. Interesting story but the motivations of the characters were a bit unsubtle. Teresa Myles rated it liked it Jan 03, Colin Mackie rated it really liked it Jan 19, The little ghouls and goblins run away when he swoops in for a closer look, but Bill is undaunted.
He keeps following them until he takes a broom to the head…. Colorful illustrations fill the pages with movement and detail [in this] fast-moving, fun rhyming picture book. Appropriate for children 0 to Book 5 This beautifully illustrated picture book finds Bill the Bat lost and crashing into everything in sight. He pays a visit on the sleepy old owl and crashes into Dave the duck but can anyone help this poor lost bat find his way? The animals in "Bill the Bat" view the world from a human perspective and demonstrate problem solving skills. This story is told in a rhythmic cadence that makes it as much fun for mom and dad to read as it is for the children.
Bill is a bat like no other -- a whimsical, Disney-type character dressed with aerial goggles and a radar head set. The text is cleverly written by Daryl K. Cobb and is the first in a series of Bill the bat stories. Ages up to While Bill makes his late, frantic trip to her house, Bella waits with adoring eyes and a long list of games and activities. The brother and sister do every single one and live it up all week long with pizza and treats and trips to the zoo.
Book 7 --Kirkus Reviews calls Daniel Dinosaur "A sweet story told in simple rhymes that young children will likely enjoy. Daniel has just turned Danny's search for Sue is humorous, and it is rendered with lively drawings. The drama of losing Sue is so brief that it shouldn't be frightening, even to sensitive children. The light, whimsical drawings maintain a sense of fun. This will be a good book for young siblings or for children who have a little brother or sister on the way. Cobb and Castangno's cute, colorful picture book illustrates the bond between a brother and sister.
When Greta finds a stray cat on the way home from magic school she immediately thinks he would make a great new friend for her two pet birds, Dew and Ray. She takes the cat home, a wild chase ensues and a magic spell goes bad to set this tale in motion. This story teaches children the importance of listening to directions and has a positive message about friendship and family. Book 9 Kirkus Reviews calls Mr.
Related The Family Dictionary (Cobb Sisters Mystery Book 1)
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