By suspending the reader's knowledge of the story until the final moment of revelation, Romantic irony sustains the reader's identification with the protagonist's misperception. She recognizes the signs of desire but is unable to prevent their production or redirect their intended meaning. Indeed, Lenclos's efforts to distract the boy only heighten and extend the experience of desire, both within the text and for the reader. Far from oppressing the mother, the imposed passivity allows her an imaginary pleasure, which, in the name of the oedipal father, she is able to renounce at the last moment.
Desire and dramatic irony work together to split the maternal subject. She points out that she is sixty-five years old and warns him that his affections seem ridiculous—"Get a hold of yourself, Chevalier, and learn how ridiculous your feelings and expectations are" Kalathiskos —all to no avail.
The sense of fate is only heightened by an ap- preciation of the oedipal dynamic at play. The son's interpretation of his mother's gestures is incorrect as far as Lenclos's intentions are con- cerned, but presumably accurate on the level of unconscious desire. That Lenclos's protests fail proves all the more, within the code of courtly love, that her son's passion deserves gratification.
Her veiled diversions serve as quite effective enticements. Nevertheless, the young man cannot grasp the nuances of his mother's gestures. Believing all too strongly in a promised gratification, he does not consider the social relations that condition Lenclos's speech, thereby giving added weight to the literal meaning of her words. Focused only on what lies beyond the veil that covers Lenclos's body, he does not perceive that the repression of desire has its own justifications.
The culminating moment of sexual fulfillment is coupled with the final triumph of the prohibition against incest. Mereau brings the story up to the last possible moment. What care he took in his appearances! What soothing images he carried in his breast! Their encounter is tumultuous. The narration alludes to Lenclos's desire for her son as well as her horror of the incest taboo: "Ninon, stormed by terrifying, contradictory feelings, sank into his arms.
There exists, she said, in a suffering voice, a fate, which despite all human cleverness, proceeds on its unaltering path" Kalathiskos She explains that his father kept his origin secret because he knew that the young man's reputation would have suffered from having a disreputable mother: "To preserve your self-confidence, so that your safe passage through the world would in no way be disturbed, you were never supposed to know" Kalathiskos The coincidence of his libidinal desire with the sudden revelation of his maternal origin is explained as a manifestation of the father's pervasive presence.
The father educated the boy in the absence of his mother, sent him to Paris to experience the world, and then stripped him of his love object at the moment of his imagined happiness. Faced with the realization that his entire identity has been both constructed and stymied by the father's authority, the Chevalier is stunned into silence. Passsion and horror filled it—heat and cold had completely consumed him" Kalathiskos The Chevalier tears himself away, runs into a nearby garden, and falls on his sword.
The point of the incident is not to depict the collapse of the young man's aspiration, but to demonstrate Lenclos's development as an individual. Lenclos's identity had never been constituted through any particular ideology of mother- hood, aristocratic or otherwise. For her to despair in the face of her son's death would have implied the repudiation of her life-long sexual emancipation.
In continuing the biographical narrative, Mereau assumes the long-term trajectory of a Bildungsroman. She describes the affair as a decisive, though not final, moment in Lenclos's ongoing personal development:" For a long time she let herself be overcome with the strongest bitterness, and only slowly did some consolation return to her. From then on it was her sole aspiration to experience her joys again and after she had known everything that life's intoxication and fire offers, she strove for nothing more than peace and ease Kalathiskos Mereau's biographical account of Lenclos's liaison with her son reiterates the distinctions between masculine and feminine styles, while acknowledging the inability of either to control fully the interpretation of representation.
However, Lenclos's correc- tions of the "misunderstandings" produced by her communications with the Chevalier suggest a different, non-ethical interest at play, namely the elaboration of an unsanctioned sexual fantasy. Mereau recuperates the privileged position she ascribes to Lenclos's feminine style through a temporalized understanding of the female subject, thereby transforming tragedy into formative personal experience. Daniel Purdy45 Two conclusions can be drawn from the manner in which Mereau frames maternal relations within Lenclos's biography. On the level of intentional differences in style, Mereau represents the maternal position within the incestuous circle of Romantic Poesie by providing a percep- tive critique of the social conditions that determine speech.
This ar- gument is spelled out in Mereau's translation of Lenclos's letter on style. In this version, the feminine subject incorporates parenting into a larger aesthetic whole. The child, in this case a Romantic young man, functions as a transitory commitment in the development of an autonomous subject. The relation between mother and child is further aestheticized by the mother's sublime fantasy of incest.
Mereau's representation of Lenclos's liaison positions the mother as the detached observer before whom the fearful and fascinating drama un- folds. Her dramatic irony is derived from her superior knowledge; it enables her simultaneously to protest and enjoy the prospect of incest. Unlike the male protagonists of many Romantic stories, Lenclos's self- understanding, her investment in the symbolic order—the transcendence Novalis sought—remains intact.
Notes I am very grateful for the encouragement and commentary of Katharina Gersten- berger and Bettina Brandt. Unless otherwise indicated, translations from the German are my own. A shorter treatment is provided by Riley.
Index of Persons M
Her primary interest is in the liberation of both sexes from the coercion of socially determined roles" To understand Weigel's complete argument see "Der schielende Blick. See Grey and Shortland. It is a feeling of utter and complete helplessness that crushes the spirit entirely" Instead it draws attention, in the middle of the narrative, to the larger framework that surrounds the work of art. See Walter Bausch's discussion of Parekbase ff. Because his desire is split, divided between fascination with enjoyment and repulsion at it" Zizek Works Cited Bausch, Walter.
Bonn: Bouvier, Benjamin, Walter. Der Begriff der Kunstkritik in der deutschen Romantik. Frankfurt a. Gisela Brinker-Gabler. Affekt und Ausdruck: Zur Umwandlung der literarischen Rede im Fetting, Frederike. Fuchs, Peter. Moderne Kommunikation: Zur Theorie des operativen Displace- ments. Gersdorff, Dagmar von. Grey, Richard. Hammerstein, Katharina von. Heidelberg: Winter, Hardenberg, Friedrich von.
Paul Kluckhohn and Richard Samuel. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, Hoffmann, E. Huyssen, Andreas. Kittler, Friedrich. Michael Metteer, with Chris Cullens. Stanford: Stanford UP, Mereau, Sophie. Christoph Martin Wieland, Friedrich Schiller, et al. Heidelberg: Lambert Schneider, Riley, Helene Kastinger. Columbia, SC: Camden, Schlegel, Friedrich. Oskar Walzel. Berlin: Speyer und Peters, Schiller, Friedrich. Paul Stapf. Berlin: Deutsche Buch-Gemein- schaft, Schwarz, Herta.
Stuttgart: Metzler, Shortland, Michael. Swales, Martin.
The German Bildungsroman from Wieland to Hesse. Princeton: Princeton UP, Helga Gallas and Mag- dalene Heuser. Weigel, Sigrid. Gisela Ecker. Boston: Beacon, Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem.
Mereau, Sophie [WorldCat Identities]
Return to Book Page. Find more at www. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.
Get A Copy. Franz Neubert, 2nd ed. Machiavelli, Nicollo — : Italian political philosopher, administrative official in Florence with duties that included trips abroad France, Germany , but lost his position and was imprisoned when the Medici returned to power in Later retired to his estate and devoted himself to writing. Known esp. Also wrote a book are the art of war and on Florentine history. Mack Baron von Leiberich , Karl — : Austrian military officer. Participated in the War of Bavarian Succession, elevated to the status of baron von Leiberich in From chief-of-staff to the Austrian commander in the Netherlands.
In he was made a major-general, but the failure of the allied armies like their earlier successes was ascribed at least in part to him, and he fell into disfavor. In he was forced into a ceasefire and flight into the French lines to avoid being murdered by his own men; he later escaped from French prison and became commander-in-chief of the Austrian troops in Germany in the Third War of Coalition. Surrendered to Napoleon at Ulm in , sentenced to death by a war tribunal in , receiving imprisonment instead, released in , rehabilitated in Portrait: Friedrich Kircheisen, Napoleon I.
DescripciÃ³n del producto
Macpherson, James —96 : English writer who in —63 published alleged poetic translations of the Gaelic warrior Ossian, though the translations were in fact his own work. Exerted an enormous influence on the German Storm and Stress writers, including Herder and Goethe, the latter of whom included lengthy quotes in his Die Leiden des jungen Werthers Leipzig Mahlmann, Siegfried August — : Writer, journalist, newspaper publisher. Majer, Friedrich — : Scholar of ancient studies, art historian who introduced Arthur Schopenhauer to Hinduism and Buddhism.
From again in Jena, also lecturing privately in Weimar. Daughter of actor Carl Friedrich Malcolmi died Her significant performances include that of the duchess in Wallenstein , the nurse in Maria Stuart , Iphigenia, and Antigone. From at the court theater in Berlin with her third husband, P. Portrait: Johann Friedrich August Tischbein. It seems to have been her second marriage. A certain Frau Obristen von der Malsburg, geb.
Manners, Lord Robert —23 April : British naval officer and nobleman. Flag-captain of the ship Resolution under Sir Chaloner Ogle. Although he was sent back to England aboard the frigate Andromache, he died of tetanus on April 23, , and was buried at sea. Mannert, Konrad — : Historian, geographer.
Studied in Altdorf after a late start with his secondary education. From taught at the Sebaldus School in Nuremberg, from at the St. Aegidien Gymnasium there where he was also librarian. Apart from his geographical work, he concentrated on German and Bavarian history. Manso, Johann Kaspar Friedrich — : Philologist, translator, poet, historiographer.
A native of Gotha, studied theology in Jena from , then switched to philology. He moved to Breslau in , and from was director of the Maria Magdalene Gymnasium in Breslau, where he remained the rest of his life and where he taught largely the upper classes, specializing in the interpretation of the Greek and Roman classics as well as German literary history, rhetoric, and aesthetics, often attracting students from the university in Breslau founded to his lectures.
Also active as a poet, translator, and historian.
As a translator he was criticized for tending to submerge the individuality of the author. Born in Kassel, daughter of a musician, learned violin from him as a sickly child confined to a chair by illness. Patrons enabled her to travel to Frankfurt and the low countries in with her father, where she also received vocal training.
From in England, where her father was advised to develop her singing talents girls not being welcomed as violinists , in Ireland, again in England, where her father was arrested for being in debt. After his release they traveled through Holland and back to Kassel, their home She married the debauched cellist Johann Mara in , a dissolute drunkard of whom Friedrich II disapproved; when they tried to flee Prussia in after being denied leave to go to London, Friedrich imprisoned him for ten weeks.
After Friedrich denied her a six-week leave for health reasons in and dismissed her, the couple successfully fled to Prague and ultimately to London. She subsequently traveled and performed with enormous success all over Europe, then settling in Moscow, where she lost most of her earnings and even her property in the catastrophe of She eventually moved to Estonia, becoming a music teacher in Reval Tallinn, Estonia , where she died impoverished.
Her voice was said to have an extraordinary range, and she allegedly sang with flawless intonation. Marat, Jean Paul —93 : Swiss-born French scientist and physician best known as one of the most radical activists in the French Revolution. One of the more extreme voices and a vigorous defender of the Parisian sans-culottes; his radical denunciations of counter-revolutionaries supported much of the violence that occurred during the wartime phases of the French Revolution. He was stabbed to death in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday.
From 20 January married to Caroline Bonaparte , third sister of Napoleon. Led the French cavalry at the battles of Jena, Eylau, and Friedland. In the retreat from Moscow, Napoleon offended him, prompting him to resign his command. Failed in his intrigues with Austria in January , escaped to France but rejected by Napoleon. Sought asylum in England after Waterloo but was refused, failed to retake Naples and was taken prisoner. Executed by the Bourbons in Portrait: from Ida M. In became pastor at the German church in Copenhagen but eventually was unable to deal with the climate; had the opportunity to move to Jena in , where he remained the rest of his life as superintendent and pastor at the municipal church.
Also a member of the Weimar High Consistory. Marchetti Fantozzi, Maria —possibly : Leading Italian soprano opera singer and actress during the s and s; she impressed Emperor Leopold II and enjoyed considerable success in both Venice and Berlin. From ca. A native of Naples, she came to Germany in , was engaged by the Royal Theater in Berlin in , where she remained until , thereafter performing in concert in Berlin and then moving to St. She seems to have had black hair and was regarded as an extremely beautiful woman.
Various composers, including Mozart the role of Vitellia in La clemenza di Tito , wrote music specifically for her, taking advantage esp. Josepha Marchetti-Fantozzi, presumably her daughter, was already performing in the Munich opera in , leaving in Marcus, Adalbert Friedrich — : Physician. He converted from Judaism to Christianity in and became personal physician to the electoral bishop Franz Ludwig von Erthal.
From director and teacher at the newly established General Hospital there, an institution he initiated and which became exemplary for hospital development with its simultaneous focus on therapy, teaching, and research. From , when Bamberg passed to Bavaria, he was director of all medical facilities in Franconia and teacher at his newly established school of surgery.
From head of the medical committee and director of the medical teaching institution, where he remained the rest of his life. His professional life reflects the entire, animated development of German medicine of the time. Marcus, while doubtless an intelligent, talented, and dedicated physician, nonetheless lacked the inclination for detached, objective criticism, and, prompted by his own imagination and enthusiasm, tended to seize on every new idea, including Mesmerism, vacillating from one theory to the next.
By contrast, as a person he was allegedly of a noble character and a conscientious official, also enhancing medical services relating to midwives, the incurably ill, and introducing smallpox vaccination. Portrait: frontispiece to Dr. Speyer and Dr. Marcus nach seinem Leben und Wirken [Bamberg ]. From married to Adalbert Friedrich Marcus in Bamberg.
Her husband, Franz I Stephan, was elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in , though she herself assume most of the responsibility for governing the Habsburg monarchy. Guillotined on 16 October Marie Sophie Friederike of Hesse-Kassel — : Connected by birth with the Danish royal family; though a native of Hanau, she was raised in Denmark from , German nonetheless being her first language.
From married to her cousin Friedrich VI, crown prince of Denmark. Martens, Franz Heinrich — : Studied medicine in Leipzig and Jena, receiving his doctorate in the summer of , returning then to Leipzig to establish a practice as a general physician. From professor extraordinarius in Jena, apparently quickly advancing to the status of full professor.
Unfortunately, he died on 11 May Published widely especially in obstetrics, even doing his own illustrations and creating a portable Voltaic battery ADB. Martial Marcus Valerius Martialis ca. Known for his pointed, polemical-satirical epigrams exposing the scandalous and hypocritical side of Roman society. She and her husband seem to have had no children. In the son appears generally as an Electoral Bavarian territorial administrator, and from to ?
He was later a royal Bavarian administrative Rath. He seems to have left behind an estate that included a considerable collection of art and antiquarian objects, some of which he allegedly acquired either illegally or through questionable means amid the confusion of secularization after Martinengo is still listed among spa guests in Bocklet in and , and in Bad Kissingen in Heidelberg Martini, Christoph David Anton — : Theologian. His Versuch einer pragmatischen Geschichte des Dogmas von der Gottheit Christi in den vier ersten Jahrhunderten nach Christo adheres to the rationalist approach to biblical studies.
After the Protestant department of theology there was abolished, he was transferred to Altdorf in He seems to have brought a handsome appearance to the roles of male love interest and heroes, though in more sublime roles he is alleged to have had an inclination to affectation, while performing with greater success in burlesques or roles from ordinary life.
Portrait: Simon Klotz. Matthisson, Friedrich von — : Writer, poet. Studied theology and philosophy in Halle —81 before becoming a teacher in Dessau. In Stuttgart, Matthisson became associated with the court theater and royal library.
- Buying Options.
- The Philosophy of Spiritual Activity.
- UWO Kant Research Group | Women Intellectuals of 18th Century Germany.
- Women Intellectuals of 18th Century Germany!
- Briefwechsel zwischen Clemens Brentano und Sophie Mereau....
- The Collective Unconscious!
- Gesammelte Werke, Band 4 (German Edition).
A widely read poet in the late eighteenth century, Matthisson was a representative of the elegant, sentimental poetry popular at the time. Beethoven set some of his poems to music. Mauvillon, Jakob —94 : A native of Leipzig, military writer, historian, translator. His father taught French from at the Collegium Carolinum in Braunschweig, where Mauvillon himself studied military science, then also law, languages, and mathematics. Served Hannover during the Seven Years War.
From he taught military science and construction in Kassel. From taught tactics at the Carolinum in Braunschweig, advancing to lieutenant colonel in Braunschweig service. Mauvillon was subsequently accused of revolutionary agitation. Concerning the relationship between Mauvillon and Mirabeau about which Caroline speaks, cf.
While the Duke [of Braunschweig] watched the early stages of the [French] Revolution with mingled feelings, one of the most distinguished of his subjects felt a personal interest in its course. When Mirabeau visited Germany and resolved to compile a detailed survey of the Prussian Monarchy, he found in him the assistant he required.
While the Frenchman supplied the scheme of the book and paid its expenses, Mauvillon collected and arranged the material. As a democratic liberal Mauvillon welcomed the Revolution, and followed the activity of his friend with sympathetic admiration. He replied by publishing his letters, which deal largely with their collaboration in The Prussian Monarchy , and reflect honour on both. He remained none the less a marked man, and his letters were opened in the post. One of them, written to a friend in Hesse-Cassel [librarian and professor Ernst Wilhelm Cuhn], expressed his joy that the Constitution was taking root, and expressed the hope that in a year or two he would see the flame of revolution shooting up in Germany.
The Landgrave sent a copy to the Duke, asking him to dismiss the writer from his post; but the Duke declined to take action. Mauvillon was no more of a Jacobin than Mirabeau. He abhorred the horrors, wrote his friend Christian Wilhelm von Dohm, as much as he abhorred the old despotism; but he refused to abate a jot of his democratic faith when the skies darkened. Mauvillon denounced German reactionaries and French doctrinaires with equal vigour. A sympathy with France and with French ideas of Enlightenment characterized his reign.
Until he was essentially a follower of Napoleon, the relation being cemented by the marriage of his daughter to Eugene Beauharnais, about which Caroline speaks in a rather indignant letter. Through the Treaty of Pressburg in December , however, he received the royal title and important territorial acquisitions, also a member in the Confederation of the Rhine. Ludwig Bechstein [Leipzig ], unpaginated [alphabetical] entry on Maximilian I. On 23 October she married the hereditary prince Friedrich Ludwig of Mecklenburg-Schwerin — In March , the year of her incident with Duke Karl August in Berlin, she lost two family members: on 16 March her sister Alexandra in childbirth, then Paul I himself a week later, who was assassinated.
She herself died suddenly in September Portrait: Josef Grassi, Pavlovsk Palace.
Related Briefwechsel zwischen Clemens Brentano und Sophie Mereau (German Edition)
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved