Many signs advertise local restaurants and shops in the coming miles, and are crucial to drawing business in small towns. One example is Wall Drug , which in erected billboards advertising "free ice water". The town of Wall, South Dakota , was essentially built around the many thousands of customers per day those billboards brought in 20, in This situation changed after the Highway Beautification Act was passed; the proliferation of Wall Drug billboards is sometimes cited as one of the reasons the bill was passed. After the passage of the act, other states such as Oregon  embarked on highway beautification efforts.
Billboard advertising in underground stations, especially, is perhaps a place where they find a greater degree of acceptability and may assist in maintaining a neat, vibrant and safe atmosphere if not too distracting. Museum Station , Sydney has mounted restored s billboard panels along the platforms that are in keeping with its heritage listing. Billboards are also used to advertise national or global brands, particularly in more densely populated urban areas.
For example, in the US, tobacco advertising was banned on radio and television in , leaving billboards and magazines as some of the last places tobacco could be advertised. Billboards made the news in America when, in the tobacco settlement of , all cigarette billboards were replaced with anti-smoking messages.
Likely the best-known of the tobacco advertising boards were those for "Mail Pouch" chewing tobacco in the United States during the first half of the 20th century pictured at left. The company agreed to paint two or three sides of a farmer's barn any color he chose in exchange for painting their advertisement on the one or two sides of the structure facing the road. The company has long since abandoned this form of advertising, and none of these advertisements have been painted in many years, but some remain visible on rural highways.
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Not all billboards are used for advertising products and services— non-profit groups and government agencies use them to communicate with the public. In an anonymous person created the God Speaks billboard campaign in Florida "to get people thinking about God", with witty statements signed by God. South of Olympia, Washington is the privately owned Uncle Sam billboard.
It features conservative, sometimes inflammatory messages, changed on a regular basis. Chehalis farmer Al Hamilton first started the board during the Johnson era, when the government was trying to make him remove his billboards along Interstate 5. He had erected the signs after he lost a legal battle to prevent the building of the freeway across his land. Numerous legal and illegal attempts to remove the Uncle Sam billboard have failed, and it is now in its third location.
TAB was established in as a non-profit organization whose historical mission has been to audit the circulation of out-of-home media in the United States. TAB's role has expanded to lead and support other major out of home industry research initiatives. Governed by a tripartite board composed of advertisers, agencies and media companies, the TAB acts as an independent auditor for traffic circulation in accordance to guidelines established by its board of directors.
Similarly, in Canada, the Canadian Outdoor Measurement Bureau COMB was formed in as a non-profit organization independently operated by representatives composed of advertisers, advertising agencies and members of the Canadian out-of-home advertising industry. COMB is charged with the verification of traffic circulation for the benefit of the industry and its users. Early billboards were basically large posters on the sides of buildings, with limited but still appreciable commercial value. As roads and highways multiplied, the billboard business thrived.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the magazine, see Billboard magazine. For other uses, see Billboard disambiguation. Advertising signage. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Typical free-standing billboards.
The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.
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The National Business Review. Does roadside advertising really cause crashes?
Paper presented at the Road Safety: research, enforcement and policy. Research review of potential safety effects of electronic billboards on driver attention and distraction. Driver distraction by advertising: genuine risk or urban myth? Municipal Engineer, , — Curious Canberra. ABC Canberra. Retrieved 18 July The Canberra Times. Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly.
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WPTZ Plattsburgh. For more than 50 years, researchers from the U. Here, scientists and engineers can recreate land, river or ocean scenarios, test hypotheses and solve problems unique to icy and snowy conditions. Military and civilian engineers alike use these labs to prototype new products and equipment such as snow tires, oil-spill cleanup equipment, ground-penetrating radar and specialized concrete used in subzero climates.
Though technically a U. Army installation, CRREL receives the bulk of its funding from the National Science Foundation, which enables it to work with both military and civilian entities. Currently, about people work at the Hanover facility, including scientists, researchers and engineers.
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The lab maintains the central database for the nation's system of locks and canals; there's even a daycare facility on-site. Outside of Hanover, CRREL runs low-temperature laboratories and field offices in Anchorage and Fairbanks, Alaska, as well as a acre permafrost research tunnel in Fox, Alaska, which contains climate information dating back 40, years. Walking through the facility's halls and offices, a visitor soon notices an abundance of "penguin crossing" signs.
There are photos of polar bears and of CRREL staffers, dressed in bulky parkas, standing in front of snowmobiles, helicopters and icebergs.
What to expect from our equipment and rentable kit list:
On a recent weekday in a humming, windowless machine shop, Perovich stands in front of a long, metallic tube containing a tangle of electronic components — the innards of what will soon become an Arctic research buoy. As he explains, "The best thing is being there, but the next best thing is these buoys. Standing beside Perovich is Chris Williams. Spock, conjuring up the scientific theories that explain how retreating sea ice is both a harbinger and amplifier of climate change, Williams is its Scotty.
He's the nut-and-bolts electrical engineer who assembles, deploys and maintains the network of research buoys that are scattered throughout the Arctic. The buoy before us, which Williams and his team are assembling, is called an ice mass balance buoy. Its job will be to measure, record and radio back data on the depth of the snow, the thickness of the ice and the temperature of the seawater.
All those data, as well as live-streaming webcam video, are free and available to anyone online. An even larger buoy called an ozone buoy, or O buoy, monitors atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide, ozone and hypobromite. Each buoy is unique, Williams explains, and is built to accommodate the specific parameters of whichever new study is being undertaken. He prefers the South Pole, he says, as there's more to look at and better living facilities, including hot showers. When visiting the North Pole, he adds, "You take a lot of baby wipes with you.
As a seasoned polar veteran, Williams also knows a thing or two about constructing equipment that can withstand those punishing environments.
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Fortunately, most of Williams' buoys survive much longer, reporting back data for years at a time before they're eventually destroyed or lost at sea. In fact, on the day of my visit, Williams had just received an old buoy found by the Canadian Coast Guard — the first time he's ever recovered one whole.
Lying on the concrete floor, it is still in near-pristine condition. When you're talking with someone who has visited the polar regions repeatedly over decades and witnessed their changes firsthand, it's impossible to avoid the question: Do you believe climate change is caused by human activity? For his part, Williams doesn't wade into such debates, at least not publicly. His efforts, he says, are "driven by our interest in ice.
I don't get involved in that stuff. As my guide, public affairs director Bryan Armbrust, points out when we visit other buildings in the complex, many of CRREL's projects are more mundane. During this wonderful time of year we all look forward to coming together with family and friends to enjoy the holidays. While we look forward to these exciting and joyous events, we cannot let our guard down. We must remain vigilant in staying focused on the task at hand, whether at work or at home.
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