In particular, she translated Othello, Macbeth and Coriolanus. Her translations should be taken into even greater account when considering the scarce knowledge of Shakespeare in Italy at the time and the bias attached to his works due to the negative critique given them by Voltaire. This was an opinion absolutely unquestionable for the most part of Italian scholars at the time. Actually, it was exactly this scarce knowledge that made her task easier, on account of the possible indifference which they could be received that at least could save her from blanket accusa- tions.
In fact, as a woman, it was not considered proper to write. And if translation could be bestowed on her by the assumed absence of originality, which prevented it from at least being considered something she had written, it was still considered quite daring to translate an author of importance, most of all a classical author. This was due to the belief that women could not learn Greek or Latin.
In accordance with the rule of the day and considering the scarce relevance of Shakespeare at that period in Italy, her translations seem to have passed unnoticed. Apart from some references in the correspondence of her friends, I did not manage to ind any hint of them in any journal, as they would have never been published.
The biographer in question is Vittorio Malamani who published his book in It is important to stress the date, not only due to the different context in which he writes, but also as Shakespeare had become a popular author in Italy by that time, whose plays had been completely translated by differ- ent translators and after some unlucky attempts, also successfully performed. It could be argued that, the name of Shakespeare being now a very popular one elevated to the status of a classical author and referred to as a point of reference by writers and scholars, even his translations have come out of obscurity and become a matter of importance, no longer within the reach of a woman.
Such a considera- tion seems to assume a more practical edge due to another peculiar circumstance: no other woman in Italy had attempted to translate any Shakespearian play at least until Even though this is evident by the analysis of the versions, she seems still to be under examination as the concerns of some scholars point out. What is questioned is the very existence of her work, since as a woman she could not have the erudition evident in the work, not only in the text but also in the notes.
But actually the charges went even further. Actually, it is unquestionably true that Cesarotti read her translations, sent to him by Renier herself to have his opinion on them as their correspondence points out. But there is no evidence of this either in it or in the very translations of any Cesarotti rewriting.
Instead there are inklings of the contrary. In fact in one of his letters Cesarotti2, in attempting to convince Renier to change something in her introduction, states she did not love using others things and again in another letter he sent her a new introduction to Coriolanus, which she actually did not use. But if the absence of concrete evidence is not enough to clear her from accusations, it is the analysis of the text that speaks in her favour.
Apart from the point that it is not reasonably evident why a translator of the translators one should in any case be more indictable, unless it is not previously stated that to be a translator is reason for shame. In any case it is possible to clear her of such an indictment through a comparison between her translations and the French ones. But there is something more that must be considered in order to form a complete portrait of this author, and which could again testify to the originality of her work.
It is the presence of some topics of interest both in her translations and in her historical essay Origine delle Feste Veneziane, topics which seem to have irst attracted her concern in the Shakespearian translations and appear again in her original work, more scattered this time, as the work is quite ex- tensive. In any case still there to point out what is totally particular about the author-translator. In this regard, it is important to consider irstly her translations. A work conceived several years before the publication of her essay and so potentially important in the reading of her following works.
This proceeding, if on one hand shows without any doubt what she owed to Le Tourneur, on the other pointed out the original parts of her translations. It could be argued that she had just copied the French introduction. In the irst of her own sentences, she apologizes for what she knows was not allowed to a woman: writing.
So he teaches us it is better to take a proportional means between too strict a faithfulness which wears out, and excessive liberty which falsiies. She acknowledges the dificulties of her work and states, under cover of a quotation, what she thinks a literary translation should be. Something which could never set aside the literary creation, as the original is a work of art.
But at the same time, it must somehow be respectful of it: something sibylline in meaning as actually describing an impossible task, but notwithstanding stated by many translators even at present. While not at all new in the debate about literary translation, this consideration reveals at least her to be aware of what has been said about translation by scholars and translators. I will try, as far as I can, to follow these rules, and not to defraud my readers of some peculiar sentences, which, to comply with our language wit, I have to leave out in translation, I will quote them at the end of the Tragedy in the exact verbal version.
She again makes amends for translating. In fact, she states she has cut some things. But in accordance with what she said about translation, she acknowledges her cuttings in notes. Furthermore, she herself avows her debts to Le Tourneur, whose translations she used in order to do a good job and whose name is extensively quoted, but speciies that not all the notes are taken from his versions. What she further states points out even more clearly her concerns about the receiving of her translation and because of her fears, she goes on to explain in her modus operandi. This may be the only topic a woman can discuss without fear of the accusations of men.
She is particularly interested in reactions to theatrical perfor- mances, in feelings aroused by plays, subject proper to a woman and for this reason she says she will talk about that in the particular introductions she wrote to each play, stressing anyway her reading of what scholars wrote about it. Finally, her last passage, which is the most important as at its heart it is possible to read the purpose of all her works. It is not her love of Shakespeare, not her interest in the particular subjects of the plays she translated that urged her to be a translator. On account of this statement it is in fact possible to read also the main reason which governed her se- lection of the Shakespearian plays she translated.
As stated before, she translated only three plays by Shakespeare, Othello, Macbeth and Coriolanus. But Le Tourneur translated all the plays. It could be argued that she selected just these three plays for some particular reason. Considering the tragedies in question, it is striking to notice the presence of very strong women in all of them.
Desdemona, Lady Macbeth and Volumnia are in fact protagonists of the different plays and share the same very strong nature and attitude to life. All of them take decisions, they act in irst person in order to get what they want and they all are struck down by those very decisions. It is what hap- pens to Desdemona. She wants the More and in order to marry him she acts and deceives her father.
It is just this unsubmissive attitude that will bring about her ruin. Lady Macbeth has a very strong nature too. She wants her husband to be king and in order to get what she wants she conceives the plan that will destroy her and her husband. Volumnia has the same strong characteristics as the other protagonists. Actually she seems to share the very same heroic features as her son. But she also wants and acts. She wants her son to be consol.
She is the one who acts and decides what her son has to do and inally she is the one who will be punished for her decisions through the death of her son. Firstly a very young one who makes the wrong decision about marrying. Secondly a mature woman, already married, who is able to exert an inluence over her husband, but does it for the wrong reason.
Finally an old woman who this time exerts inluence over her son and ends up ruining him. This purpose is corroborated by the analysis of the translations themselves. Everything seems to have been governed by that very educational purpose. It is with this purpose in mind that she felt compelled to read what scholars have written about Shakespeare. It is important to stress her concern about her public interest, because it is this same concern that is possible to observe in her original book. In particular, as she herself stated in the introduction, she believes in the power of theatrical representation, in the force of the exemplum.
The writer: the relationship between her translations and her original work These very concerns, particularly about women and education, seem to still play an important role in her writing when she published her original work, Origine delle Feste Veneziane, in The work is made up of ive volumes. The irst two volumes were published together in , the third in and the fourth and ifth in At irst glance, it is possible to perceive the importance transla- tion played in her experience as a writer.
In fact, she wrote in French and Italian. Actually it is quite dificult to ind out which language was used irst inasmuch as the French and Italian languages allow a very close translation with almost no changes even in the structure of the sentence. In this case, the Italian text follows exactly the French one, with no change of notice. The lattering article dedicated to her book in the 8th number of the Foreign Quarterly Review seems to prove it.
Being a translator, she knows the importance of language. The Italian language was certainly not one everybody could read. For this reason her work could have been conined to Italian borders, at least until some translator who happened to like her work came along and decided to translate it. Mindful of her past experience as translator, conscious of the importance some European intellectuals and Cesarotti attributed to translation as a useful means of com- munication between cultures and perhaps also inluenced by M. French was the most popular language at the time.
In any case she does not renounce her Italian in any way but inverts the ordinary order of importance, with translation irst and mother tongue second. As far as her work is concerned, it is preceded by an introduction in which the author explains the reasons she wrote it and deines the topic. What is soon evident is the patriotic concern of Renier. Venice is not a republic anymore and after the Restoration it is now under Austrian dominion.
Her purpose is not to let the glories of her coun- try be forgotten and to reassume the dignity of her city, even under such bad circumstances. What is striking here is again the assumed importance of the example. But she is a female writer and her concern about the reception of her work appears again. It could be argued she wants again to offer something which can be instructive and pleasurable at the same time. However, in both circumstances she considered it proper to change something on account of her readers, making evident her alterations to the public.
Closely related to the question, another problem arises on the sub- ject of sources. She also states to have consulted many popular Venetian historians to ask for conirmation of the facts narrated. To conclude, she protests again for her veracity and after a few words spent to defend her plain style, she inally asks for indulgence if, notwithstanding her efforts, she has sometimes pleaded too much for her country.
Considering the volumes, they report many historical events related to the origin of each particular Venetian celebration, all told in a very emphatic tone, which gets melodramatic quite often. Even though she usually mentions the au- thors she challenged, it is ordinarily quite dificult to ind references to her sources. Every now and then she mentions contemporary Venetian scholars, like Morelli vol. II, pag. Of course she had already said she would not mention her sources all the time in order to have a more lively narration.
But certainly, by doing so, it is quite dificult to ascertain the truth of the events, particularly in reference to many anecdotes she loves to refer to. What is soon evident is the heroic feature of the protagonists of the events she tells, with the Venetian people playing the part of the good ones and the opposite party depicted as cruel and cowardly. But apart from the evident factiousness in the relation of the facts, what is really interesting and specially connected with her previous translation work, is again her special concern for women.
It is quite surprising to notice how many women she mentioned in her essay, particularly if we consider that it is a historical essay. Since the very beginning, she loves lingering over the description of attitudes and manners of her countrywomen, always giving some details about dresses and ornaments.
She regrets the simplicity of the past in com- parison to the dependency over fashions that seemed to be the main concern of the women of her time. A complaint which she had already expressed in a note to her translation. But apart from the unordinary presence of women in the middle of historical battles and subsequent celebrations, it is also interesting to note the reference to female schol- ars and female heroines which quite often appear to take their part of glory in the actions narrated.
I refer in particular to her mention of Cassandra Fedeli vol. II, and to the heroine Marula vol. II, The irst one has been particularly praised by Renier for her knowledge of Greek and Latin. As she usually does, she relates an anecdote linked to this lady which tends to point out her love for Venice. Her appreciation of Venetian ladies, not to forget her fellow country women, is also interesting. On the subject of Marula, the pres- ence of a female hero, is not the only point of interest but most of all, the narration of another anecdote, this time connected to a wedding.
Praised by her general because of her great courage displayed, she is offered to choose one of the most valorous soldiers to be her husband. If it does not appear to be the main topic in Coriolanus, even though present in the couple Coriolanus - Virgilia, marriage is a topic of some importance in Othello and Macbeth.
But it is not just the presence of women in her text that shows her concerns. Actually, scattered in all the volumes there are hints suggesting the author to be a woman. In this regard, what is par- ticularly interesting is her consideration of female writing in the third volume. She recollected the documentations and wrote an account of them that she sent to the prince. She also apologizes to her readers because of the possible repetitions they will ind in it, the events she told being for the most part considered in her essay vol.
III, What it is of interests here, is not just the presence of women again in the narra- tion, as with the anecdote about Caterina Quirini vol. III, — , but what she wrote in the letter to the prince attached to her short essay. She justiies the presence of the letter with her desire of re- porting the one the prince wrote in answer to her. In fact, she refers to that and due to the questions the prince addressed to her, she asked for help from a friend, the count Carli Rubbi.
It is thanks to her assumed humility that she can offer her reasons for writing. With a botanical metaphor, she associates scholars to imposing oaks and sensible women to humble violets. Would it be audacity, if, under the appearance of a slender lower, I aspire to awake sweet sensations in the heart of such a great Prince, through the reading of a report completely different in its kind from the irst one? III, As a matter of fact, she knows she cannot put herself in competi- tion with male scholars due to the difference in education imparted to men and women.
Notwithstanding this, she asserts her right to write as a single and unique person, as a woman, particularly, whose writing must be different from the one of any other writer and of a male writer. It is the difference she considers, and the difference in reading too.
A difference that she feels worthy of being noticed and which can actually allow every woman to write and every text to be read as unique. To conclude, it is important to notice the presence of a few little translations inside the very essay. As noted, the Italian text is already a translation from French and a very literal one3. Writing irst in a foreign language, she used a quite simple style which she adopted also in translation, to avoid possible confusion.
But what must be stressed is the presence of a few passages translated from Latin that make their appearance every now and then. It is impossible to state with absolute certainty her knowledge of Latin. Actually, at the time of her Shakespearian translations, it was the very presence of quotations from Plutarch that cast a shadow over the authorship of the texts. On that occasion, it was possible to clear her from the accusation of not being the translator, thanks to one of her notes where she stated she read Plutarch in translation. This time she presents different passages from Latin, in different parts of her essay, stating only on one occasion that she was quoting the Italian translation of one of her friends.
In particular, the irst translation is a letter by Petrarch, in the irst volume. I, The other translated passages appear in the second volume, where again she says she is offering a literal translation from Latin. Finally the last translation is in the ifth volume. Alessandra Calvani 25 Firstly, it could be argued from these translated passages, that she is addressing herself to a female public, as the knowledge of Latin was taken for granted as far as men were concerned.
This inference is conirmed by her last translation, offered to her public with the certainty they will be especially welcomed by women vol. V, But they would need too many pages. I hope that the examples offered here illustrated the point clearly enough.
References A. Calvani, Translating in a female voice, in Translation Jour- nal, vol. Cesarotti , Epistolario scelto, Venezia: Tipograia di Alvisopoli. Malamani, Ancona: Gustavo Morelli Editore. Tipograia G. Gilbert e S. Stabilimento Tipograico di P. I, Vol. Mellor Anne K. Montagu , Saggio sugli scritti e sul genio di Shakespeare paragonato ai poeti drammatici greci e francesi con alcune considera- zioni intorno alle false critiche del Sig.
Zoppetti, Treviso. Notes 1 A. Calvani, Translating in a female voice, in Translation Journal, vol.
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But am I other or thyself? Her main research interests focus on literary translation from English into Italian , the translation of language varieties, the literature of the American South. She has published a number of translations in Italian journals and magazines. This paper focuses on two different tendencies in the Italian translations of African American English, namely stereotypical rendering and standardization of language varieties.
Even if they start from different perspectives and eventually come to opposite conclusions, both scholars testify to the impossibility of creating a stylistically accurate and not stereotypical Italian translation of African American Language and implicitly suggest normalization of language varieties as the only possible alternative to stereotypes. A broader overview of the theoretical debate on the translation of dialects also highlights the limits of standardizing language varieties and casts doubt on the alleged beneicial effects of the normalizing practices.
African American English in Italy: Stereotypical Rendering and Standardization There are two widespread tendencies in the Italian transla- tion of African American English from now on I will refer to it as AAE : assimilation of its linguistic peculiarities into standard Italian language, and stereotypical rendering.
Many Italian scholars acknowledge that there are stereotypi- cal linguistic features in early Italian translations and dubbing of AAE -- such as the use of ininitive verb forms for conjugated ones and the replacement of unvoiced consonants with voiced ones. Most linguistic features employed in early Italian translations of AAE implicitly stand for the incorrect expressions of those who cannot speak properly. An example is the overuse of ininitive verbs—a feature associated by Italian linguists with second-lan- guage acquisition2.
Yet AAE, as it has been clearly shown by many different scholars, is a language variety that has its own grammar and can successfully fulill any communicative purpose Labov; Rickford; Green; Wolfram; Smitherman. Thus, translating AAE into Italian by means of this feature assimilates it erroneously to the language of North African second-language learners.
Italian dubbing strategies have changed over the years follow- ing the changing status of African American characters in movies. In Roberto De Leonardis was appointed as director for a new version of Via col vento dubbing, which eliminated all grammatical stereotypes in African American speech but received very little attention from the public; the same had happened four years before in the Disney movie Song of the South I racconti dello zio Tom, irst Italian dubbing in , second version in , both directed by Roberto de Leonardis which was re-dubbed in by the same De Leonardis because of similar concerns about the rendering of African American English.
In recent years Italian scholars Taylor; Malinverno; Pavesi; Zanotti have pointed out an opposite tendency toward normalization of linguistic variation in dubbing. Literary translations of AAE seem to have followed a less lin- ear path.
Despite well-grounded objections, the overuse of ininitive verb forms and replacement of unvoiced vowels with voiced ones appear even in recent translations of African American English. It is possible to hypothesize that Cesare Pavese used these features in his translation of Moby Dick because at that time writers were not fully aware of the sociolinguistic implications of this grammatical choice.
As I have previously pointed out, similar strategies are frequently employed also in Italian dubbing. Chiara Martini 31 2. Theory and Practice of Translating Dialects5: a Brief Overview Translation of dialects and languages of minorities is indeed one of the hardest tasks for any translator.
From a theoretical standpoint some scholars underline the limitations that such a task necessarily imposes and consequently deny any real relevance to the topic: among them we can quote inluential linguist M. Halliday, or translation scholars like Peter Newmark, as underlined by Federici in his introduction to Translating Dialects and Languages of Minorities. Given that the standard variety is a property which has passed the market test, any translator may be left with no choice but to conform to the belief that the standard variety is the crucial medium of survival in the publishing market and for personal success When trans- lators try to reveal the differences in the source language, such as in The Simpsons dubbed into Italian, which uses target language dialects ad absurdum see Dore , they are experimental.
Language is one of the most powerful tools the author masters in order to represent social differences. Words are seldom able to establish a real relation among human beings who belong to dif- ferent social classes; rather different ways of speaking symbolize separated worlds and identities that cannot meet. If this is the case, a problematic lexical choice still remains unaccounted for.
In this regard the edition does not show any difference from the one and preserves the identical vocabulary of ethnicity, as in the following examples: The Negro had stopped what he was doing and watched him. Complete Stories Il negro aveva smesso di lavorare ed era rimasto a guardarlo. Vita Tutti Racconti […] and eventually she had to stay in bed […], with only a colored woman to wait on her. Scholars like Schiavi propose the existence of such standardization paradigm in Italian literary translation from English These examples show once more how grammar — through lexicon in this case — can convey inadequate translations and representations of a different culture.
As we have tried to show so far, Italian translations of African American language display many erroneous linguistic habits, which are still dificult to eradicate. Bibliography Armstrong, Julie. Armstrong, Nigel and Federico M. Federici, eds. Translating Voices Translating Regions. Rome: Aracne, Bani, Emanuele. Anna Giacalone Ramat, and Giuliano Bernini. Milano: Angeli, Berruto, Gaetano. Rome: Carocci, Piera Molinelli. Roma: Il Calamo, Collins, James. Bambi B. Schieffelin, Kathryn A. Woolard, and Paul V. Language Ideologies: Practice and Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Igiene verbale.
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Roma: Vallecchi, Erkazanci-Durmus, Hilal. Federico M. Fairclough, Norman. Norman Fairclough. Critical Language Awareness. Har- low: Longman, Faloppa, Federico. Parole contro. La rappresentazione del diverso in italiano e nei dialetti. Milano: Garzanti, Federici, Federico M, ed. Bern: Peter Lang, Fitzgerald Sally, and Woods Ralph C. Print Green, Lisa J. African American English: A linguistic Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Facce da straniero.
Milano: Bruno Mondadori, Halliday, M. Linguistic Studies of Text and Discourse. London and New York: Continuum, Labov, William. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Malinverno, Annalisa.
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Massimo Ve- dovelli. Milano: Franco Angeli, Masiola, Rosanna. The Complete Stories. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Mystery and Manners:Occasional Prose. Tutti i racconti. Marisa Caramella. Milano: Bompiani, Ida Omboni. Torino: Einaudi, Pavesi, Maria. Roma: Carocci, Njegosh, Tatiana Petrovich, and Anna Scacchi, eds. Parlare di razza:La lingua del colore tra Stati uniti e Italia. Verona: Ombre corte Edizioni, Rickford, John R. Malden: Blackwell Publishers Inc. Schiavi, Giuliana. Sergio Perosa.
Smitherman, Geneva. Word from the Mother: Language and African Americans. New York: Routledge, Svolacchia, Marco. Giuliano Bernini, and Vermondo Brugnatelli. Milano: Edizioni Unicopli, Taylor Christopher. Wolfram, Wolt, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. American English: Dialects and Variation. Malden: Blackwell, Wood, Ralph C. Gran Rapids-Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Venuti, Lawrence. London and New York: Routledge, Zanotti Serenella.
Challenges for the 21st th Century: Dilemmas, Ambiguities, Directions. Papers from the 24 AIA Conference. Language Studies. Roma: Edizioni Q, Notes 1. For an analysis of the overuse of Italian ininitive verbs among second-language learners see Bani.
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Yet I had to resort at that time, and I would do the same today, to the overused stereotype of those who speak in inini- tives and mangle sounds and words. I chose the stereotype in order to preserve the contrast, rather than leveling and losing the distance between the two languages. My translation. The second one, entitled Tutti i racconti and published in , collects all the short stories belonging to the American edition The Complete stories My citations from Tutti racconti refer to the edition. Omboni refers to this choice in an undated letter addressed to one of her editors Guido Davico Bonino at Einaudi publishing house.
A general amnesty allowed him to return to Italy in where he began a career as a journalist and political commentator. Giulio Camber Barni Born in Trieste, he studied law and philosophy in Vienna before being drafted into the Austrian army on the outbreak of war. Along with a friend, he deserted and volunteered for the Italian infantry. He rose through the ranks to become a captain, was twice decorated for gallantry and survived a gas attack.
After a career as a lawyer, he was called up again in and served as a major in the Frontier Guard in Albania, only to die there after falling from a horse. He then studied law, but very soon became a popular and proliic novelist, journalist and essayist. He wrote one novel based on his war experiences Giorni di guerra and published two collections of poetry, Poesie and Bassa marea Clemente Rebora Having studied for a degree in literature at the Accademia scientiico-letterario in Milan, he became a teacher and began con- tributing poems to the leading Florentine literary journal La Voce.
Having already done his national military service, at the outbreak of war he was called up as an infantry lieutenant and suffered a serious head injury from an Austrian shell. He spent the next three years in military hospitals recovering from the physical and psychological shock, but was able to resume his teaching career until a religious crisis in He destroyed all his books and papers in the following year and eventually took holy orders as a Rosminian priest. He continued writing poetry in a religious vein and two editions of his collected works Le poesie were published in and In he irst joined the Italian Red Cross, then served as an infantryman from Alongside of his work as a classics teacher and translator of the classics, he was a noted amateur botanist, especially of lichens.
He continued to write poetry and also published a many works of prose. Ardengo Sofici After studying painting at the Florence Academy, Sofici spent seven years in Paris , mixing with the artists and writers of the day, including Picasso, Braque and Apollinaire. Called up in , Sofici served in the infantry and wrote about his experiences not only in his poetry but in two memoirs Kobilek and La ritirata del Friuli Chimismi lirici.
Carlo Stuparich Born in Trieste, then still part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Stuparich was an irredentista who believed that the great port should return to Italy. Although he had moved to Florence to study in and joined the literary circle around La Voce, he quickly volunteered for military service against the Habsburgs and was commissioned as a lieutenant in the famous Sardinian Grenadiers.
Unfortunately cut off during an attack, and having lost all his men, he took his own life rather than surrender to the enemy as an Austrian citizen, he would have been condemned to death as a traitor. He was thus receptive to Futurism, which he tried to introduce to Sicily with his own short lived literary journal, La Balza. Like many other young Italians, he was inluenced by patri- otism to volunteer for active service against Austria-Hungary and served as an infantry lieutenant.
He was wounded and on conva- lescence in Syracuse wrote a prose-poetry diary in French. At the end of the war, he lost interest in the avant-garde and turned to dialect poetry and the study of Sicilian culture. After many years as a schoolteacher he became a professor of Sicilian culture and language at the University of Messina.
Giuseppe Ungaretti Born — like Marinetti — in Alexandria, Egypt, and educated in French there, he went to Paris in intending to study law at the Sorbonne. He met the leading French and Italian writers and painters in Paris and also the Florentine Futurists, who invited him to contribute to Lacerba.
On the outbreak of war he moved to Milan and was drafted into the infantry as a private, ighting on the Austrian and later French fronts. The poetry he wrote in the trenches was irst published as Il porto sepolto and later ampliied in Allegria di naufragi in In it he proclaimed a new dawn in aesthetics for the new century, praising the virtues of the technological age, which he saw as a potential for spiritual renewal. It caused a sensa- tion throughout Europe. Marinetti was perhaps a little late in his praise of machines, which had been around for well over a century, but it was the irst time an aesthetic movement had lauded the speed, mobility and sheer power of the very latest in industrial in- novations and proclaimed them almost as moral virtues to enhance the soul of man and save it from its comfortable bourgeois sloth.
This idealism had a darker side. Marinetti also saw war as a source of renewal: Noi vogliamo gloriicare la guerra — sola igiene del mondo We want to glorify war — the only source of health in the world. In ive years time the poet was able to see for himself what a healthy effect war had on the world. But Marinetti was an un- daunted and enthusiastic combatant, twice decorated for bravery. Unfortunately, after the war his militarism and patriotism led him into Fascism. Many Italians had gone to war against Austria-Hungary because of Hab- sburg rule over Italian speaking territories on the Adriatic coast, which they thought should be under Italian rule.
Like Marinetti, Ungaretti had been born in Egypt, educated in French there, and was drawn to Paris as an ar- tistic centre before the war broke out. This too was a familiar model for young Italian writers and artists who were ardent promoters of the latest French movements, most notably Cubism. In Florence, Giuseppe Prezzolini had founded the cultural and political review La Voce in order to disseminate the latest movements from Paris, although not — at irst — the Futurism of Marinetti.
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Kouji, alla fine, riesce ad accettare i poteri del fratello. AU, una pozione va male. Bonus se si unisce. O meglio che ci faccio io qui Now we're three gay Caballeros. Ma non su Tumblr". Clara beve qualcosa di insolito. E tu mi abbandonerai. Ti dmenticherai di me. Ci ho provato, Clara Seguono le lamentele del Dottore. Down the road, it's where I'll always be. Every stop I make, I make a new friend. Can't stay for long, just turn around and I'm gone again.
L'ultima della mia specie e tu vorresti farmi vestire come?! Thought I was getting carat gold, and what I got was you. AU, dove Arya pratica scherma. Au] FREE! Haruka torna in hotel dopo la sua corsetta notturna. Nitori FREE! Anche Rei lo ama. Sono uno specialista. Queen in the North. Asha, angry! Tu sarai come io sono". Modern AU. First time, bottom! Robb, top! Brienne, la Vergine di Tarth. AU, albergo ad ore. AU, ballo di fine anno. Smut; angry! Sansa e QueenonTheIronThrone! Jaime, Bottom! Qui non ci casca nessuno! Con qualcun altro. Kurt e Stark!
Oh, aspetta, non mi interessa. Solo, non l'aiuto che credi tu. Mi stava sventolando le tette sotto il naso! Erano fusa quelle? Era stato condannato. Winston, inumimi! Winston, whatever. Mi metti in punizione? Ricordo com'ero prima di mio marito. Non lo sai usare! Io sono una maga completa, e tu sei un completo idiota. Ma non mi si rende giustizia. Quando mi ci metto sono terribile. Enjolras lo trova infantile. AU Prof! E Garry apre gli occhi per trovare davanti a se I must ever weep that she be so demeaned. Aragorn ha deciso di morire. Sex, Elven! Sono bianco! Ma che tipo di servizio?
Finisce male. Shindou, King! Olette Quel Keyblade non si usa solo per combattere, caro. Il nuovo uccello come lo chiamiamo? Tigre, Human! Aakshi lavora in un negozio di strumenti musicali. Midorima cerca aiuto per accordare il suo pianforte. Ma Seijuro preferisce dedicarsi al proprietario. AU, prince! Io porto gli slippini! Accidenti, non riesci a pensare ad altro?! Bet you thought you'd seen the last of me". Ho a-anche il kotatsu acceso Do I repulse you with my queasy smile?
Am I too dirty? Am I too flirty? Do I like what you like? Io sono Jimmy. Jack in calore. A Jack non dispiace affatto. AU: Human! Mi sta toccando! Durante la sua permanenza in quell'albergo abbandonato, Lisa Lisa riceve delle insolite attenzioni da parte di Kars That's first thing I remember. It was dark, it was cold, and I was scared. But then A proposito: bella voce, Frost. I scream "God forgive me please", 'cause I want you on your knees.
Anyone who says differently is selling something. Cinque minuti dopo: "Tauriel? Tauriel chi? Ma cosa dice? Sei ubriaco! E' notte fonda; Thorin sorprende Bilbo a farsi uno spuntino in cucina. Bilbo il re se ne accorge, ma fa finta di nulla majestic! Bilbo e Wolf Ears! Bilbo fa incazzare Thorin per la ferita di Kili. Quest Guard! AU, Neko! Fili, Neko! Fili, angry! Fili, voyeur! Non assomigli a tuo zio" "Non dove batte il sole! Thorin organizza il matrimonio combinato di Fili. Elfico per : Posso toccarti il sedere?
Poi ho preso una freccia nel ginocchio. Amo sentire l'eco dei tuoi gemiti espandersi lungo tutta questa sala. MAGI Fem! Ero ubriaca! E Di Un Buon Esorcista. Dove mi trovo? Oltre che un asino, sei lento come una tartaruga. AU "Oh mio dio. Queste sono fanfiction su di noi!
Lui sa fare le fusa. Gwaine e Principe! Tu cosa saresti capace di fare, per me? Henry A. AU; Rockstar! Shino, angry! Tienimi viva. Sono lo stesso. Post 03x Le follie dell'imperatore. Meglio non aver visto. Meglio pensare alla gnocca. Oggi compleanno dell'inglese-irlandese- marocchina Karima, sto mettendo nuove foto www. Infatti non gioca. Ma mi facciano il piacere. Proprio interisti. E poi manca ancora Ronaldo!
Forum Overwatch - esicywowyq.tk, Fansite Italiano
E Maicon non doveva giocare neanche le partite col Manchester, e adesso invece gioca addirittura il derby?! E Buffon "prima scelta" sta facendo cagare Le mie gufate Buona partita di Bellamy che ha lottato e sfiorato il gol. C'era un rigore su Richards, non fischiato. Il capitano! Allucinante gol sbagliato dal Wigan nel finale a porta vuota. Robinho ha giocato malissimo, sbagliando gol facilissimi. Oggi la nuova Ferrari: "nata per superare" Nella foto: Robin Hood - Robinho-od ahaha battutona Ecco nella foto come hanno accolto in Inghilterra la notizia del sorteggio Manchester-Inter Notare la nebbia milanese :.
Porca Eva Sheva che gol Lasciamo l'unica Coppa Inter Tim all'Inter In settimana Robinho ha segnato con la nazionale verdeoro contro il Cile, sfoderando assist e tacchi, a destra e a manca Nel finale una grande azione Robinho-Jo, tutta Manchester City Robinho Manchester City!!!
E arabi City Doveva andare al Chelsea, ma il nostro sceicco ha superato persino Abramovich E' un City do Brasil come il Milan Elano, Jo, Robinho In pratica l'abbiamo preso l'anno scorso per battere il Milan quest'anno in amichevole La maglia color arancione come la copertina del nuovo album degli Oasis e anche il nuovo video, per ora non porta bene Ottimo inizio di stagione Perso Ronaldinho, giunge voce di un'offerta del City per Ronaldo svincolato dal Milan, contratto di 8,2 milioni di euro.
City in Uefa nonostante sia arrivato 9. Newer Posts Older Posts Home. Subscribe to: Posts Atom. San Siro museum and tour. Quadrophenia alley sex on the wonderwall :. Bunga-Bunga night :. Kerri roller girl show. Led Zeppelin reunion. Jimmy Page new album and tour. Oasis reunion, Glastonbury? Oasis Knebworth? Liam's film The longest cocktail party. Beady Eye gigography and next tour dates January - Big Day Out , Australia :. Noel Gallagher solo gigography, and Low Lying Turds tour dates although his blinded fans say he's a "new solo artist", it's 20 years he's around and already played "solo" gigs previously the first one in , with the help of other people of course, as the Unplugged , the gig for Tibet, the tour in , London, Milan, Manchester, Moscow, Los Angeles, Toronto, Paris, Australia, etc.
Radio Montecarlo acoustic session - Milan, Italy. Radio acoustic session - Milan, Italy. Virgin Radio acoustic session - Milan, Italy. You're going to pull a really nice-looking girl wearing Pretty Green Italian songs in the '60s: heavily influenced by the Beatles Kate itchin' in the kitchen for Vogue Italia Beady Eye creating process when Liam was in Italy for Pretty Green Knebworth to download Liam: I like that Balotelli geezer Message to love: Beady Eye Isle of Wight festival Paranoia the English destroyer Noel Gallagher featured in Milan's Berlusconi film the rules of Modism, mod living: clean living under difficult circumstances scandal: Euro should be in Italy.
Life seeing nobody, but we're not alone: saw a UFO Manchester City origin: my name, Saint Mark church the good ol' times: Oasis in Milan the better peoples happy birthday Presidents Oasis in Milan it's gettin' better Milan!! Marry me! Let's fuck with everybody : scandal: france Baroooolo I remember how you used to shhhine Liam Gallagher tour gigography Milan was appointed as the 1. Pretty Green started in Milan, 11 March , launched for my birthday 9 June, winner of the Drapers award as best brand. Oasisblues is on the official Oasis site, and is visited by Liam too. Marco since biggest guide, born and always lived in Milan historic centre.
BE click to order. The album went gold and received good reviews unlike Noel - 23 negative ones from music magazines , they also had the best selling vinyls. The singles were published on vinyl only, Noel didn't understand. His totally American album had the Usa as target and he was 28th there. Clearly a fail, hidden by the media. Oasis without Noel, the Boys in the Bubble wanna be free.
Oasis' Hung in a bad place, by Gem. Few of them are rooted in truth. Beady Eye didn't mime - repeated a thousand times: the High Flying Birds disband November they're still annoying around. Noel Gallagher's top 10 worst bullshit :. Watch your jealous tongue before saying anything against Italy. He was singing great, he also said: have a nice holiday, you deserve it :.
During the whole concert, Superman Liam was wearing the Italian flag, never seen this. He even came off the stage near the people to touch him. Some even wanted to take a photo with me :D. Pretty Green deejay set. I carry madness everywhere I go! Oasis 1st album: they were watching The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, spaghetti western movie by the Italian director Leone, music by the great maestro Morricone. Milan last gig. Two English girls in Italy had a Kangol hat and I recognised from the brand that they were going to an Oasis gig Lucca In the same days: new AC Milan shop in Milan You can find a high definition version on miamilan.
A new Milan part with strange skyscrapers is gonna be called 'City Life'. Lasciamo che Roma si dissolva nel Tevere! E che il grande impero crolli! Photo at Stocks House hotel in Hertfordshire. Balotelli ahahaha and City symbol on Noel's guitar :. This tune was my alarm clock to wake up in the morning from '97 to At a gig after the first chord of 'Be here now' I was literally flying, gone fuckin' mad fer it, continuously shouting and jumping embraced with all the people.
Best fun of my life. Its been fucking wonderful It's fair to say The Italians love me and long may that continue 'cause I love them right back The gig was amazing, the kind of gig you'd never want to end. Easily my favourite so far. I ragazzi italiani sono come me, molto passionali. I miei amici italiani sono dei fighi, indossano vestiti e scarpe stupende, sciarpe favolose, occhiali da sole anche di notte e donne bellissime al loro fianco.
Beh, sono considerato una figura santa in Italia. E' Milano Noel Gallagher. Italy is Oasis spiritual home. Italian boys are like me, very passionate. Italy's great man, I fucking love going there. Liam Gallagher, Oasis. Milan is the best fucking crowd, and I really mean it! Molta gente pagherebbe per stare qui. David Beckham, Ac Milan, Oasis friend. Milan is a beautiful city. Many people would pay for staying here. I almost never go shopping, what I like in Milan is the people. Liam Gallagher embracing me. The World Cup too, it was made here by a Milan artist.
You can see Capello table the Football English pub here and also Jesi, the town of former Inter Milan now City manager Mancini, where my uncle was born. I was at 3 Oasis gigs in 1 month, even climbing the Italian Alps, highest European mountains, and arriving first in Switzerland, my last Oasis gig, seen it on the front row in front of Noel winking an eye at me ; and Glasvegas did the same playing as in room for me and two Swiss birds lol, the "veline" :.
And in the middle you see the blue centerlight pop and everybody goes 'Awww! Jack Kerouac. He's the only one knowing the right time, but what's the use? Everybody's following the others one, even those who know the right time Schopenhauer That was the meaning of the word "Oasis" given by Liam , an isolated place in a desert.
Nowadays, it is the only desert within our means". Liam John Paul Gallagher. Pretty Green Italy website. Rockin' chair , my favourite song ever written with the Real People. Video with a final surprise at the end I played this song till my fingers bled. The shape of England is not so different from Italy one. Notice the images and the turtle as my turtle Alberta in "I'm older than I wish to be" : and the turtle then is also on Noel plectrum, he played with it, I played with it.
And yes, that pier in Weston-super-Mare was burnt. And Oasis are over now definitely maybe. For going around we were still using a tour bus, and as it was our first time there, we had a big surprise when a bus full of British people overtook us, all of them smiling and waving their hands but suddenly they turned and showed us their arses ahahaha. Search This Web. The meaning of soul live in Milan Alcatraz - This one's not for Marco : but I dedicate it to Melissa, a girl with heart problems I took out from gig mayhem.
I'm a different breed, I'm outta your league, I'm 10 outta 10 alright All rise, I see the love in your eyes, if it's alright then I'll be your light"
Related Una luna da fare schifo e troppi gatti innamorati (Italian Edition)
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