COMER PARA VIVIR MEJOR (Lectura Fácil: Universidad para Todos nº 8) (Spanish Edition)


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Those who argue that no sublimity in art can be encountered emphasize the perceptual criteria of the sublime, namely, that sublime can be occasioned only by objects that are overwhelming in size and power, producing thereby a feeling of phenomenal insignificance in us. Since art works do not have such properties - they have defined limits and we do not find them threatening in any way, they do not have the capacity to produce the sublime Guyer , p. On the other hand, those who argue for the possibility of artistic sublimity interpret the sublime primarily as a mental activity, which does not necessarily require the presence of external objects i.

Since ideas of reason can be expressed through an art work as suggested by. Kant in his theory of art and aesthetic ideas , thus art works can elicit sublime Crowther. References to Immanuel Kant are given in the text to the volume and page number of the standard German. References to the Critique of Pure Reason Kritik der reinenVernunft are to the standard A and B pagination of the first and second editions.

References are also given, after a comma, to the English translation of Critique of the Power of Judgment Kritik der Urteilskraft , ed. Paul Guyer, trans. Myskya pp. Considering that many examples of art works that have been described as sublime have also been judged by some as ugly or even disgusting, it is reasonable to ask the question as to how we can distinguish between the sublime and the ugly. In the case of the sublime this struggle is caused by the perception of objects of great size and powers that occasion the idea of limitlessness in us, such as shapeless mountain masses, massive glaciers, dark and raging sea, erupting volcanos, devastating hurricanes, etc.

This failure of the imagination produces the feeling of displeasure. But also experience of ugliness involves an element of frustration in grasping rich yet, chaotic and disintegrated structure of the object. Consider for example certain kind of animals that we usually judge as ugly, such as the monstrous looking and repulsive angler fish, with its exceptionally large mouth, long, sharp teeth and a shiny lure coming out of its head. Or, for example, the utterly disturbing appearance of an animal called naked mole rat, with its large front teeth, sealed lips behind the teeth and pink, wrinkled, almost completely hairless skin.

We judge such animals ugly because we find arrangement of their features discomforting and offensive to our perception, as if composed from incongruent. The displeasure at seeing such animals is accompanied with the feeling of incorrectness due to a combination of features that ought not to be combined in such a way. The perceptual features of an ugly object are too obtrusive and chaotic which makes it difficult for our cognitive abilities to process and to find a resolution for it.

But what is distinctive for the sublime, in comparison to ugliness, is that such contrapurposiveness reveals a subjective purposive relationship between imagination and reason, which results in the feeling of pleasure. Unfortunately, Kant does not offer an answer to this question.

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There are two main objections to the idea that pure judgments of ugliness are possible. But free harmony produces pleasure. But this means that that the universal state of mind of judgments of taste can only be the state of mind that produces pleasure. Consequently, judgments of taste are judgments of the beautiful alone. The second objection was made by Guyer , p. This indeed is the view of Herman Parret , p. According to his position both sublime and ugliness are aesthetic responses to formless objects i.

Furthermore, it follows from his account that sublimity appears to consist of a temporal sequence of two separate feelings, displeasure of ugliness and pleasure of reason, while Kant presented the feeling of the sublime as a rather single and complex feeling, identified with the feeling of respect. Even though Kant does not offer a clear distinction between ugliness and sublimity, his analysis of the notion of the sublime in comparison to beauty nevertheless indicates that he considered sublimity to be a theoretically and phenomenologically different aesthetic concept than ugliness.

This is the thesis that I will argue for in the rest of this paper. The possibility of a state mind of sheer disharmony, required for judgments of ugliness, is therefore epistemologically precluded. See: Wenzel , pp. In the Critique of the Power of Judgment Kant puts forward a view that a beautiful object exhibits subjective purposiveness.

In short, an object is subjectively purposive if it occasions in us the state of mind of free harmony between imagination and understanding, the two faculties of the mind that are responsible for our ordinary ability to cognize object. While the imagination synthesizes the sensible manifold, the understanding on the other hand, unifies the manifold under the concept of the object.

Kant explains this procedure of bringing sensible manifold to concepts i. Both ordinary cognition and perception of a beautiful object satisfy the need of the power of judgment to attain the harmony between cognitive powers, the difference being that in the latter case no concept is applied to the sensible manifold i. On the other hand, Kant also distinguishes a state of mind of free disharmony.

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For example, he writes:. We come across to the same idea in his Anthropology , where he states:. When cognitive powers are in a disharmony i. In other words, the object fails to agree with the need of the power of judgment to find harmony in the world. The dissatisfaction of this need produces the feeling of displeasure. Even though Kant does not explicitly say so, there is reason to assume that such a disharmonious state of mind is one that grounds judgments of ugliness. While in the case of beauty, mutual correspondence of cognitive powers prolong the process of their play, and accordingly, it prolongs aesthetic attention when we are delighted by an object, we want to remain in this state of mind , in the case of ugliness, the mutual hindrance or frustration between the cognitive powers obstructs their free play, thereby causing us to withdraw attention or to turn away from an ugly object.

But, according to Kant also sublime objects exhibit subjective contrapurposiveness , p. This is so because of the distinctive character of sublime objects, namely being one of exhibiting certain kind of greatness, either in size or in power. When the object is overwhelming in size, then the experience is called mathematically sublime. For example, the enormous structure of the pyramids in Egypt or the immense Himalayan Mountain massif are typical mathematically sublime objects since they are too vast and difficult for us to perceive them all at once. But when the object is overwhelming in physical power, thereby occasioning in us the feeling of danger, then the experience is called dynamically sublime.

Erupting volcanos, devastating hurricanes, extreme ocean storms are typical dynamically sublime objects because their physical power is too great for us to resist. One can notice that what both types of sublime objects have in common is the ability to endanger, in one way or another, the phenomenal side of our being. Objects overwhelming in size endanger our sensible cognition the object is too vast for our imagination to comprehend it and objects overwhelming in physical power threaten our physical existence.

In both case the perceptual and imaginative failure evokes in us the idea of limitlessness of the object the limitlessness of size in the mathematical sublime and limitlessness of the destructive and devastating power of nature in the dynamical sublime. This idea of limitlessness of the object is evoked in us due to the limited capacity of our imagination. The power of imagination performs two kinds of acts: i the apprehension or gathering together the manifold of intuition, and ii the reproduction or keeping in mind the apprehended sense impressions.

While apprehension can go on infinitely, the comprehension or synthesis of reproduction, on the other hand, is limited. In other words, the sheer size or power of the object, say of the impressive Himalayan mountains, prevents the imagination from successfully reproducing or keeping in mind the succession of apprehended sense impressions we cannot comprehend in one intuition all the parts and details of the vast mountain and therefore imagination fails to present the sensible manifold as a coherent and unified whole.

Kant writes, that perceiving an object as formless or limitless refers to an aesthetic estimation of the size or power of the object, rather than to a logical or conceptual estimation. In other words, the Himalayan Mountains appear limitless merely in a direct perception, as its size strikes our eyes, but not in a logical estimation of its size, since we can always measure it by choosing an appropriate unit.

The same can be said for objects that are typical examples of formlessness such as the starry sky. Even though it is perceptually impossible to comprehend the size of the starry sky, a logical calculation of its. I take it that acts of apprehension and comprehension are identical to acts of the synthesis of apprehension. This identification has also been suggested by Kirk Pillow , p.

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Similar is the case of the dynamically sublime objects. We can always measure the power of natural objects, say, the magnitude of an earthquake on the Richter scale, or the strength of the hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane scale. In a logical estimation of the size or the power of the object the imagination and understanding stand in a harmonious relation.

The imagination successfully synthesizes the sensible manifold as determined by the numerical concepts of the understanding. However, in aesthetic estimation of the size or power of the object i. Nonetheless, there is still a demand for the imagination to synthesize the sensible manifold and present it as a unified whole. This demand is given to the imagination by the faculty of reason :. Thus, the failure of the imagination to synthesize the sensible manifold in one intuition is a failure of satisfying the faculty of reason.

It is the disharmony between imagination and reason that produces the displeasure felt in the sublime. On the other hand, the fact that imagination fails to satisfy the task given to it by reason i. The awareness of. The sublime is a feeling of inadequacy of our physical and sensible nature, yet at the same time a recognition of the value of reason and our ability to think beyond the sensibly given.

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The sight of an erupting volcano arouses in us the feeling of terror and fear due to our inability to control the physical force of nature. The feeling of fear leads us to the negative feeling value realization that as physical beings we are imperfect, helpless and subjected to merciless forces of nature. But it is this realization that also awakens in us the idea of a moral supremacy over nature, namely, that in spite of our physical vulnerability we stand morally firm against the greatest power of nature. Our ability to think of ourselves as morally independent of nature and thereby able to surpass our fears of mortality, sickness, and other negative aspects tied to our physical nature, produces in us a feeling of respect for ourselves as rational and moral beings.

One can see that in contrast to beauty and ugliness, sublimity is not attributed to the object itself, but rather to the power of our mind. The fact that sublimity is attributed to subjects rather than objects does not exclude the importance of the. For example Clewis ,.


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However, if it is merely rational ideas that invoke the sublime, then it is difficult to explain the source of the feeling of displeasure in the sublime. The object is required for the experience of perceptual and imaginative failure. That is, the feeling of pleasure in the sublime reveals the purposiveness of the subject for the faculty of theoretical and practical reason and its supersensible ideas of infinity and freedom respectively.

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This contrasts with the feeling of pleasure in the beautiful object, which reveals the purposiveness of the object for our cognitive abilities of imagination and understanding. The distinction between the two ways that purposiveness can be exhibited is mentioned by Kant in the following:.

While beauty reveals the objects purposiveness for our cognitive abilities, the sublime, on the other hand, reveals the purposiveness of the subject for the faculty of reason. However, it is not merely the subjective purposiveness of the judging subject that the sublime reveals.

Accordingly, it is the disagreement between the imagination and faculty of reason that reveals the presence of reason and which brings with it the feeling of pleasure:. The essential role of the object for the sublime is also emphasized by Deligiorgi The very act of disagreement between imagination and reason is an act of their agreement. Thus, the sublime does not merely reveal the purposiveness of the judging subject, but also his contrapurposiveness. One can see that the feeling of displeasure and pleasure in the sublime are intrinsically connected. They have the same source and one cannot separate them.

The feeling of the sublime is not an independent feeling of pain and positive pleasure, but rather pleasure is present in displeasure. That is, the same contrapurposiveness that gives rise to displeasure also gives rise to the feeling of pleasure. Experience of the sublime is an experience of a negative pleasure , p. On the other hand, displeasure of ugliness is the result of disharmony between the imagination and the faculty of understanding.

In this relation, there is no failure of the imagination, rather it is the case that sensible manifold successfully apprehended by the imagination conflicts with the understanding and its need to introduce order and unity in our experience of the world. Thus, in judgments of ugliness it is the form combination of sensible manifold of the object that is contrapurposive for the power of judgment. After all, Kant writes that the subject of a judgment of taste is the form of the object. But if it is the form of the object that causes contrapurposiveness, then this implies that imagination must have been able to successfully comprehend the form of an ugly object and it is the form itself, that is, the comprehended sensible manifold that disagrees with the understanding.

What we perceive as displeasing is the relationship between the imagination and understanding as generated by the particular form of the object. In other words, ugliness is the result of the failure of the object to accord with our cognitive. This is clearly evident in our experience of ugliness. When we find an object ugly, we tend to ascribe the cause of the feeling of displeasure not to our inability to comprehend the object, but rather to the object itself and its failure to accord with us and our aesthetic sense.

We react to such an object by turning away from it. Sublime objects are too great in size or the power for the imagination to comprehended all the parts of the object into a unified whole. Hence, there is no determinate form to be judged as purposive. As Derrida , p. Such an explanation is hinted by Kant in the following passage:. The sublime does not reveal anything about phenomenal nature but rather it forces us to resort to ourselves, to the noumenal side of our nature. The sublime reveals something about the judging subject, namely that as a phenomenal being he is insignificant in comparison to nature, yet that he also possess a faculty of the mind that is independent of nature and according to which the nature itself is considered as embarrassingly small.

The sublime compels us to look for the purposiveness in the same place from which its contrapurposiveness is derived, that is, in us, rather than from outside us, as ugliness does. Because ugliness is not experienced as the indicator of our own cognitive limitations, there is also no need to resort to the faculty of reason in order to compensate for feelings of inadequacy by appealing to the idea of our rational and moral supremacy.

To conclude, ugliness and sublime are theoretically and phenomenologically distinct aesthetic categories. The cause of the displeasure in the sublime and ugliness is different. It is the awareness of the inadequacy of our sensible cognition that we experience as displeasing in the sublime, while displeasure of ugliness is the result of the inadequacy of the object to agree with our cognitive faculties.

While disharmony in ugliness reveals. Furthermore, both ugliness and the sublime have their own phenomenological feeling tonalities. An object can be more or less ugly, depending on the degree of disharmony between the imagination and understanding. For example, the African Marabou Stork is less displeasing than the Angler fish , since the perceptual features in the latter seem more chaotically invasive and obtrusive than in the former.

That is, the feeling of respect for our own supersensible faculty of reason is much greater when encountering the immenseness of the Grand Canyon in Arizona than its less famous and smaller cousin of the Black Canyon in Nevada. Even though Kant does not write about the degrees of sublimity, this idea is implied in the following passage:. Also both ugliness and the sublime have their own opposites.

While opposite of ugliness is the beautiful, the paradigmatic negative aesthetic concept that stands in opposition to the sublime is the ridiculousness. Kant does not write about the concept of ridiculousness in the third Critique , but I believe that his explanation of sublimity can give us some insight into the nature of the ridiculousness. This has also been noted, but not further developed by Christian Strub , p.

The difference is that in the experience of the sublime, it is the rational side, that is, the reason, that dominates, the recognition of which is experienced through a feeling of respect and awe. In the experience of the ridiculous, however, it is the finite, the sensuous and the smallness of a human character that dominate and which result in the underwhelming feeling of insignificance and nonsense. In both cases, an appeal to the faculty of reason is made. While the sublime agrees with the faculty of reason, the ridiculous on the other hand rejects and contradicts it.

The sublime celebrates the victory of the noumena and of the infinite, while the ridiculous mourns its fall. What we find displeasing in the ridiculousness is the recognition of the abandonment of the noumenal subjectivity that the faculty of reason imposes on us in our reflection on the world. In light of such imposition, the sensuous and the phenomenal necessary look insignificant and disappointing.

However, precisely for the same reason that the ridiculous displeases us, it also threatens us, because the abandonment of reason anticipates the end of the purpose and meaning in life. It is this latter moment, the recognition of purposelessness inherent in the abandonment of reason that in the end prevails and evokes laughter.

The laughter inherent in the ridiculous, I believe, is a defense mechanism against the thread of purposelessness that the loss of reason invokes. As pointed out in the preceding discussion, an object is judged sublime if it evokes the idea of the supersensible in us idea of infinity in the case of the mathematical sublimity and idea of moral freedom in the case of the dynamical sublimity , yet that this idea can only be awakened in us by the means of the failure of the imagination and the accompanying feeling of displeasure.

The question is whether art works can satisfy this criterion of the sublime. That is, is there a possibility of the artistic sublime? Before proceeding with answering this question it is, however, necessary to refine the distinction between artistic sublimity and artistic representation of sublimity. In other words, an art work can present beautiful subject matter, without itself being beautiful. Only if the artistic representation is itself beautiful, can we say that we have genuine artistic beauty.

Similar is the case of artistic sublimity. It is only when the artistic representation of a sublime or non-sublime thing is itself sublime, can we say that we have genuine artistic sublimity. Artistic sublimity is not the result of the sublimity of the subject matter, but rather of the artistic representation itself i. While there are many artworks, in particular typical for romanticism of 19 th century, depicting sublime objects, they are not example of genuine artistic sublimity. Rosalie depicts a stormy sky above the mountain range, a scenery that we would ordinarily find sublime.

In this case, the painting merely imitates a naturally sublime object, the subject matter of the work, but without itself as an artistic representation being sublime. Thus, an art work can after all occasion the experience of the sublime. I think, however, that it is unlikely that we can experience perceptual and imaginative failure merely by imagining of looking at a naturally sublime object.

Rather what I believe it happens in such case is that we recognize the sublimity of the scenery depicted in the painting we recognize it because we have experienced sublime feelings when we actually were amidst of a similar scenery , but without the accompanying feeling of the sublimity. That is, the sublimity of the scenery lingers in the painting, yet the feeling.

Many writers consider works created by artists such as Mark Rothko, Barnet Newman, Yves Klein and Frank Stella as exemplary instances of genuine artistic sublimity Abaci , pp. Presumably, such works of art present the sublime by intentionally using specific combination of colors, texture, shapes and lights in order to create the impression of formlessness and limitlessness in the viewer, thereby disrupting our. A similar distinction is noted by Abaci , pp.

See Abaci , p. The overwhelming vastness of this piece, which allows the viewer to experience the weight of the material, and the giant blood-red rings that is reminiscent of an open mouth swallowing its surroundings, evokes a feeling of fear and terror, thereby inducing the experience the sublime. If artistic sublimity is possible then it must be looked for in cases such as this, where the artistic representation itself, rather than the subject matter, is perceptually challenging for the viewer.

The question is whether artistic representation itself can occasion genuine experience of the sublime? There is reason to doubt that this can be the case. My reasoning is the following. According to Kant, the feeling of sublime is evoked by the mere apprehension of the size or the power of the object.

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Yet, art works are objects that are intentionally produced for a certain purpose and in judging the value of an art work this purpose must be taken into account what it ought to be. Even more, as Kant claims, not only that art works and artifacts cannot be judged without taking into account the concept of a purpose, but that they cannot even be perceived independently of the concept of a purpose:. But if this is the case, then it follows that one cannot perceive the object as a mere magnitude. Clewis , p. Accordingly, we cannot perceive the form of the object independently as to how this form is conceptualized.

There is thus no possibility that one can abstract the concept of a purpose and have the perception of the mere magnitude of the object. Recall, Kant claims that we judge an object as sublime in an aesthetic estimation of the magnitude that is, in a direct perception. But in the case of art works and artifacts, the perception of the magnitude is mediated by the concept of a purpose; thus not in a direct perception. Rather than being overwhelmed by the size or the power of an art work, we appreciate the creative force that. The idea that intentionally produced objects cannot occasion the experience of the sublime is additionally supported by the distinction Kant makes between the aesthetic experience of the disorder that devastations of nature leave behind, and the disorder that is produced by the human will, such as the disorder that the devastations of war leave behind.

While Kant describes the experience of the former as sublime , p. Since one cannot perceptually distinguish the disorder of nature from the disorder of war, then their distinct aesthetic value must be due to the fact that one carries with it the concept of a purpose, while the other does not. On the other hand, there are some art works that express rational ideas without the preceding experience of a perceptual failure. According to some writers, such works of art deserve to be called sublime. As Robert Clewis , p.

We can become explicitly aware of these ideas in response to art. A similar argument against artistic sublimity has been given by Abaci He argues that if one must. At best, they can leave open the possibility of impure judgments of the artistic sublime. According to my position, however, the restriction of the concept of the purpose precludes even the possibility of impure judgments of the sublime. If there is no perceptual and imaginative failure, then one cannot have an experience of both pure and impure sublimity.

It is true that an object does not need to cause perceptual failure in order to express rational ideas. However, there is a substantive difference between the expression of rational ideas and being aware of such rational components in ourselves. That is, an object can express rational ideas, such as an idea of the king of heaven, but without necessarily eliciting in us the awareness of such heavenly component in ourselves.

It is the latter, not the former that makes an experience sublime. Consider for example how Kant describes the experience of the supersensible in the following two passages:. The sublime is an awareness of our rational and moral superiority over the physical and sensible nature within and outside us. A work of art might indeed express such an idea, but such communication does not necessarily result in eliciting the awareness of such superiority in us. Consider for example a movie Caffe De Flore , by Jean Marc Vallee which tells two different love stories taking place in a different time and place.

One is a story of a young single mother with a disabled son taking place in in Paris, and the other is a story of a recently divorced man in a present day Montreal. The two stories are connected together through the idea of reincarnation and the existence of past lives. The movie is a beautiful and touching expression of a rational idea of the immortality of.

To conclude, in order to experience the sublime, one must first experience the feeling of displeasure due to the perceptual and imaginative failure, because only this failure can reveal the presence of our rational faculty of the mind and its supersensible ideas. An art work can express these ideas, that is, it can sensibly present how these ideas might look like, but it cannot betray their existence.

The sublime is intimately connected with the faculty of reason and its ideas freedom, god, immortality , and as such is particularly suggestive for the expression of ideas that celebrate the rational and moral side of our being, such as the life-affirming ideas of compassions, peace, virtue, gentleness, courage, altruism, etc.

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Thus, the concept of the sublime cannot be applied to such works of art. But if such works of art cannot be subsumed under the notion of aesthetic of the sublime, then how can the concurrence of displeasure and pleasure, distinctive for such works of art, be explained? In short, Kant explains an aesthetic idea as a sensible representation of two kinds of indeterminate concepts.

On one hand, invisible beings, hell, eternity, god, freedom, mortality, etc. What is distinctive for them is that they can be thought, but not empirically encountered. For example, while one can think of the idea of heaven or hell, one cannot sensibly intuit such ideas. On the other hand, love, fame, envy, death, etc. For example, one can experience an emotion of jealousy, but one does not know how this emotion itself looks like. In other words, one does not have a determinate schema for such an idea in comparison to the schema of, say, a table.

What is distinctive for both kinds of concepts is that their sensible representation, that is, an aesthetic idea, cannot be governed by any determinate rules. In other words, an aesthetic idea exhibits free harmony between imagination and understanding i. Because aesthetic ideas are sensible representations of concepts that cannot be directly represented there is no image of the idea of hell or of a heavenly being , they can be merely symbolic or metaphorical representations. Kant calls such metaphorical representations aesthetic attributes and describes them as.

The image of a Jupiter's eagle is not a logical attribute of the king of heaven, that is, it is not part of the concept of the king of heaven. When we think of the idea of king of heaven, we do not have in mind an image of an eagle. Rather, the image of a Jupiter's eagle only expresses certain associations connected with the idea we have of the king of heaven in terms of representing power, strength, freedom, being above the material world, etc.

It is the collection of such aesthetic attributes set of associations or thoughts that constitute an aesthetic idea. But if an art work can be aesthetically valuable because of the aesthetic idea it communicates to the audience, then this suggests that one and the same object can have both perceptual beauty or ugliness and beauty or ugliness of an aesthetic idea. Recall that an aesthetic idea is a combination of aesthetic attributes i.

While perceptual form, say of an image of an Jupiter's eagle is constituted by the image of an eagle, particular patches. The distinction between perceptual beauty and ugliness and beauty or ugliness of an aesthetic idea can explain how it is possible that we find an art work aesthetically displeasing, yet aesthetically valuable at the same time.


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Namely, what we find displeasing in such an art work is its perceptual form, but what we find pleasing is the aesthetic idea that the work communicates. So while displeasure of perceptual form of an art work causes us to withdraw our attention from the work, the pleasure of aesthetic idea nevertheless holds our attention. We appreciate the communication of aesthetic ideas, because they give us an intimation of the world of ideas and state of affairs that lie beyond sensory experience.

An aesthetic idea gives us an opportunity to intuit and apprehend that which cannot ever be fully presented by sensory experience alone. He refers to empirical concepts which need to be connected to empirical intuition in order to make sense of experience. Without empirical intuition, empirical concepts are mere words, without any substantive meaning. But the same can be said about indeterminate concepts, such as the concept of a heavenly being. Only by connecting indeterminate concepts with sensible intuition by the means of aesthetic attributes can we truly say that we understand what indeterminate concepts mean.

The artist distorts the body to the extreme by pushing around the excess of flesh almost to the point of being unrecognizable. The flesh of the body is reduced to a mere. Nonetheless, even though the artistic representation of the body is itself disordered and displeasing, it can still be expressive and thoughtful. The distorted image of a female body might symbolically represent the destruction of the female body as invented by the patriarchal discourses of Western society.

The expression of this idea is stimulating, thought- provoking and for this reason aesthetically significant, even though it is perceived with displeasure. There is an appealing side to ugliness, because it allows for the imagination to be highly effective and expressive of ideas that cannot be represented otherwise. Its constitutive element is disorder and as such it is particularly suggestive for the expression of ideas that celebrate such disorder. It is related to ideas of alienation, estrangement, dehumanization, destruction, degeneration, disconcertion, absurdity, and with emotions evoking terror, horror, anxiety and fear, and which dominate the contemporary artistic production.

Kant discusses this principle mainly in relation to its use in empirical concept acquisition, but in addition, he suggests that there is a connection between this principle and judgments of taste. For example, in one of many passages supporting this connection, he writes:. The idea seems to be that judgments of taste depend on the principle of purposiveness of nature, which represents nature as a system in which all phenomena are related to each other and therefore amenable to our cognitive abilities.

This principle is necessary for cognition empirical concept acquisition but also for finding an object beautiful or ugly. Kuplen pp. Here I just want to point out how this connection can explain the association of ugliness with certain ideas. In short, Kant claims that the principle of purposiveness amounts to a certain way of seeing the world, that is, for preferring one way of organizing sensible manifold, to another. This preference for organizing sensible manifold in a certain way, more particularly, in a way that represents nature as a system, is reflected in our cognition, but also occasionally in the feeling of pleasure in finding an object beautiful.

For example, in preferring certain combinations such as the spiral structure of petals in a rose and disliking others such as the disorganized aftermath of a storm or tornado. The principle is an idea about how the world is supposed to be, how we expect it to be, so that it allows our understanding to cognize it, and it is an idea that holds only for us, as cognitive beings.

The principle determines us, and our need to see the world in a specific way:. According to this explanation, the feeling of pleasure is a result of the confirmation or satisfaction of the principle of purposiveness. We appreciate forms that are in accordance with the principle of purposiveness, and that reassures us that the world is indeed such as we expect it to be, namely, amenable to our cognitive abilities.

Accordingly, the experience of aesthetic pleasure beauty is a sign of the familiarity with the world, of feeling at home in the world. This explains why we experience beauty associated with positive feeling value ideas, such as innocence, joyfulness, virtue, hope, optimism, etc. On the other hand, feeling of displeasure is a result of the dissatisfaction of our expectation that the world is amenable to our cognitive abilities. The inability to know the world occasions the state of estrangement between us, our mental structure, and the world.

James Phillips , p. Ugliness can be a valuable experience, because it is the unique way through which these ideas and emotions themselves, for which there is no adequate sense intuition, can be sensibly represented. To conclude, in spite of the feeling of displeasure it produces, artistic ugliness can be a valuable experience because it is a unique way through which certain ideas, concepts and emotions, for which we do not have a full empirical counterpart, can be expressed. Ugliness brings forth negative aesthetic ideas, which are uncomfortable, yet are part of our experience of the world and ourselves and therefore worthwhile attending to.

Even though perceived with displeasure, ugliness affords an unfamiliar and unexpected perspective on the phenomenal world and an intimation of the world of ideas. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Martins Pr. London, pp. Derrida, Jacques , The Truth in Painting. Myska, K. Wenzel, C. Wicks, R.

Calling Kant a liberal philosopher requires important qualifications. However, it is hardly a success. Reasonability; Freedom vs. Liberty; Categorical Imperative; Humanity; Liberalism. Kaliningrad, Russia. Contemporary political philosophies are often careful to avoid this grand question at all, because normative modes it implies can be, and some have proven to be, speculative and oppressive.

The normative approach, however dangerous, is unavoidable, because political philosophies cannot afford being purely descriptive, they also have to prescribe aims and means for the development or conservation of humanity, they have to guide us, irrespective of our belief in the very possibility of such guidance.

Some contemporary political philosophies feature anthropological presuppositions that are implicit, assumed, unquestioned and might even prove conflicting. Until recently: cf. Louden , Vadim Chaly. No one has done more to reinvigorate Kantian ideas in contemporary political philosophy than John Rawls, and his account of Kant is among most detailed and sympathetic.

The references are to the edition of A Theory of Justice , revised in His second attempt defines rationality in a wider sense, which means including the answer to the question - what goods it is rational to want. Importantly, none of these is fixed:. For by a categorical imperative Kant understands a principle of conduct that applies to a person in virtue of his nature as a free and equal rational being. The validity of the principle does not presuppose that one has a particular desire or aim.

Whereas a hypothetical imperative by contrast does assume this: it directs us to take certain steps as effective means to achieve a specific end. Whether the desire is for a particular thing, or whether it is for something more general, such as certain kinds of agreeable feelings or pleasures, the corresponding imperative is hypothetical. The argument for the two principles of justice does not assume that the parties have particular ends, but only that they desire certain primary goods. These are things that it is rational to want whatever else one wants.

Thus given human nature, wanting them is part of being rational; and while each is presumed to have some conception of the good, nothing is known about his final ends. The preference for primary goods is derived, then, from only the most general assumptions about rationality and the conditions of human life. To act from the principles of justice is to act from categorical imperatives in the sense that they apply to us whatever in particular our aims are. This simply reflects the fact that no such contingencies appear as premises in their derivation Rawls , p.

Thus, Rawls develops the following chain of definitions: autonomy is the combination of freedom and rationality; rationality is the urge to win for oneself the highest index of primary social goods, necessary to maintain a freely chosen plan of life;. A plan of life includes ends, such as life, liberty and welfare , as well as interests. Some of the definitions in this chain came under criticism. Levine states that Rawls tries to frame Hobbesian egoistic rationality in Kantian universalist terms, which leads to incoherence.

Oliver Johnson takes similar stance in his paper. He argues that Rawls and Kant advance different and irreconcilable models of human being, which make key notions and principles of Kantian moral philosophy - i. His main argument is that, although decisions in the original position are made in view of individual interests so could be considered heteronomous, later decisions to adhere to principles of justice in ordinary life are autonomous in Kantian sense.

Still, as Johnson responds , his argument regarding the original position stands. The issues raised by the critics are essentially anthropological, they touch upon Kant's ultimate question of human nature, of what it means to be autonomous, to be rational and reasonable, to pursue interests and ends, etc.

While Rawls centers his interpretation on autonomy, Levine, Johnson and Darwall turn towards rational agency. So the ultimate good becomes for Rawls, at least in this important line of arguments, the same as for Aristotle, not Kant. Rawls is very clear about his reasons for the exclusion of anything grand, ultimate and universal from his political anthropology:. This element forces either mortal conflict moderated only by circumstance and exhaustion, or equal liberty of conscience and freedom of thought.

Except on the basis of these last, firmly founded and publicly recognized, no reasonable political conception of justice is possible. And it ought to be done not only privately, but also publically, politically. Perhaps both are right, but one view has to prevail. This formula is naturally the most popular in liberal philosophy, because on the surface it seems to prescribe treating individuals as ends.

It is humanity in individuals that Kant literally proclaims an end, not individuals per se although, of course, humanity consists of individuals. This would deeply distort the spirit of Kantian philosophy. This is not to say that treatments of the second formula by Rawls and Nozick are incorrect, it is only to note that they are biased towards individualism that is not quite Kantian in spirit. It requires not only respect for individual rights and the equal worth of. Although Richard Dean is defending the.

We might expect that in order for this discussion to happen at all, these species. If we get rid of these features, the very idea of original position seems to become empty as well. Maybe not. We can probably further generalize it and imagine rational beings that would decide upon protecting their rationality, morality. Nozick , p. This would certainly mean treating not only humanity, but also any other form of reasonable being, as an end in itself.

One of the ways to introduce this modification would be to expand the meaning of rationality, or, more precisely, subjugate rationality to a higher faculty. If we expand the notion of rationality,. English dictionary look-up results also include synonyms, example sentences, related phrases, tips and audio pronunciations by native speakers. Also, you'll earn while you learn!

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