Thomas Paris, Bibl. MS III. The Latin texts, which are rhapsodic and sometimes elliptical, are closely aligned with an ornate musical style that extends the boundaries of contemporary practice. The principles of Christian rhetoric as set forth by St. Augustine inform the monastic devotional practices for which the music was designed. Hildegard claimed to be uneducated. An uneducated woman had taught me. Women had few rights, and public speech was by and large forbidden to them. Though enclosed religious women had more options for literacy, including musical literacy, than their secular counterparts, it was the norm that their writings and compositions would not circulate outside of the community.
As we know, Hildegard was initially fearful of the consequences of revealing and recording her visions and only did so after she received permission from the ecclesiastical authorities. Even then she waited until her reputation as a prophet was secure before she ventured to speak boldly in public and to undertake preaching journeys.
As head of the community, she had a special responsibility to insure the spiritual well-being of the nuns the cura monialium , one she took seriously. As the ars praedicandi art of preaching and the codes of monastic devotion were both fundamental to the religious life and founded in the principles of rhetoric, she would have gained familiarity with their rhetorical underpinnings from daily exposure as St. Augustine advised: For those with acute and eager minds more readily learn eloquence by reading and hearing the eloquent than by following the rules of eloquence. There is no lack of ecclesiastical literature, including that outside of the canon established in a place of secure authority, which, if read by a capable man, even though he is interested more in what is said than in the eloquence with which it is said, will imbue him with that eloquence while he is studying.
And he will learn eloquence especially if he gains practice by writing, dictating, or speaking what he has learned according to the rule of piety and faith. Augustine was educated in the classical, Ciceronian-based rhetorical tradition. While he shared the concerns of the early church authorities regarding transactions with pagan culture and literature, including rhetoric, he nevertheless defended its use as a tool for preachers and teachers.
In Book IV of De Doctrina Christiana On Christian Doctrine or On Christian Teaching , he declines to lay out the rules of rhetoric, as they are available elsewhere, and instead addresses the need for effective speaking that is based in virtue and divine inspiration: But if those who hear are to be moved rather than taught, so that they may not be sluggish in putting what they know into practice and so that they may fully accept those things which they acknowledge to be true, there is need for greater powers of speaking. Here entreaties and reproofs, exhortations and rebukes, and whatever other devices are necessary to move minds must be used.
While preaching had as its aim to move the listener toward virtue and a right moral course, its methods relied more heavily on Scriptural authority and personal virtue than on the formal procedures of classical argument. The ultimate aim of the ars praedicandi was to persuade, but listeners were not to be moved by the logic of the argument so much as they were encouraged to awaken themselves to the activity of the proper spiritual path of which they were already aware in theory.
In this way, the signs and other rhetorical devices employed by the speaker were more properly understood to be merely evocative triggers. Texts were read slowly and mouthed aloud. The intent was to firmly fix an image or idea in the mind of the reader with the aim of encouraging self-motivation, in a fashion similar to the hearing of a sermon. Narrative again was less significant than the individual elements of language. Sentence structures were more likely to be episodic or to run together a stream of images than to serve a linear plot. Readers were also to be able to begin anywhere.
Symphonia armonie celestium revelationum (Musical score, ) [esicywowyq.tk]
When the texts are considered in relation to the unusual melodic architecture, a unique musical form of monastic meditatio emerges. That Hildegard would apply selected rhetorical strategies to song is not really surprising. As head of the community, she had a certain license to encourage devotion along creative lines.
We see evidence of at least one inventive and unconventional practice in her communications with the Abbess Tengswich Tenxwind. Mistress Tengswich objected to Hildegard permitting probably more likely encouraging her nuns to dress in white, with crowns and veils on their unbound hair for certain high feast days.
Duruflé Requiem: A concert in memory of Carl Crosier
Hildegard defended her decisions in a long response and gave as her reason the special place held by virgins in the celestial hierarchy. As a result, many times when a person hears a symphony, he sends forth a lamentation since he remembers that he was sent out of his fatherland into exile. I want to have one warlike, to sound the note or accent which a brave man utters in the hour of danger and stern resolve.
Like Plato, music theorist John Affligemus affirms the different powers of individual modes to affect moral rectitude: Music has different powers according to the different modes.
E. C. Schirmer Music
Thus, you can by one kind of singing rouse someone to lustfulness and by another kind bring the same man as quickly as possible to repentance and recall him to himself. As far as the association between melody and words, the theorists recognized two intersections. The music should reflect the intent and mood of the texts, and focal modal tones were regarded as grammatical markers similar to those of language.
Guido refers to this correspondence as a twofold melody: Consider, then, that just as everything that is spoken can be written, so everything that is written can be made into song. Thus, everything that is spoken can be sung, for writing is depicted by letters. And if music be added to this, with a similar interrelationship, you will be doubly charmed by a twofold melody. Likewise, when a chant makes a pause by dwelling on the fourth or fifth note above the final, there is a colon; when in mid-course it returns to the final, there is a comma; when it arrives at the final at the end, there is a period.
Her musical style is unique, not so much because of the originality of any particular element, but because of the composite of its structural gestures. This unique style can be attributed, at least in part, to the alliance Hildegard envisioned between monastic devotion and music as a heightened communicative mode.
Acting under the mandate for a Christian to speak as a teacher and preacher, Hildegard undertook the writing of theological books, preaching journeys, correspondence with a large outside audience, and the composition of music. While the theological books and sermons were addressed to an outside audience, the music was intended primarily for performance within the community.
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According to Baird and Ehrman, one of the functions of the medieval letter was that of the sermo absentium the speech of those who are absent. Letters were rarely intended only for their designated recipients, and because they were usually meant to be read aloud to their wider audience, they served as mini-sermons. One of the key innovations of the ars dictaminis was the separation of the salutatio and the exordium , respectively the salutation and securing the good will of the recipient through praise. Curiously, the salutatio and the exordium are regular attributes of the Symphonia songs.
Though elaborate chants existed in the repertory, the Gregorian standard had not been abandoned. The uniqueness of her style evolves from a creative reworking and expansion of what she heard, but the real innovation lies in the rhetorical use of musical structures to highlight the text and even to contribute to meaning in their own right.
That said, it must also be pointed out that not all of the Symphonia songs are equal in their rhetorical import or musical complexity. As the reader will see from the transcriptions, there is considerable variety among genres and pieces within the genres. The rhetorical features of the Symphonia songs are most closely associated with the epideictic genre and the procedures of the lectio divina and the sermo absentium. Epideictic form presents a subject for praise or blame. The idea is to set forth a model for contemplation before the eyes and ears of the audience.
The traits of the subject serve to move the listener toward spiritual progress in accordance with the goals of the ars praedicandi. The devices of formal argument are absent, and the attributes of the subject serve in their place. Many songs begin with a salutation salutatio that is frequently set melismatically and outlined by the final of the mode.
The elaborate forms of praise that follow the salutatio in many of the songs are consistent with the exordium identified by the ars dictaminis. Key points and images are heightened by the musical substructure. While some pieces contain a petition to God or to a saintly figure to uplift or pray for the supplicants, the petitio is usually not the primary muscial focus. Other song texts are more akin to the sermo absentium , in which a theological theme is articulated. Klavierkompositionen: aus der Italien-Zeit.
Ars Musici AM Dist. Sonata movement in E major -- Sonata in c minor--Sonata in g minor--Lied op. Lied, Op. Hyperion CDA, p Teldec , p Opus OPS , p Im Herbste.
Duruflé Requiem: A concert in memory of Carl Crosier
Harfners Lied. Warum sind denn die Rosen so blass. Die Augen sind es wieder. Ich wandelte unter den Baumen. Nach Suden. Kommen und Scheiden.
- Antiphones — O coruscans lux stellarum;
- My Life Is Just A Basketball Game?
- Antiphones — O viridissima virga!
- Tom Ames Prayer?
Gondellied--Lied fur Klavier--Trio op. Lyrische Stucke: fur Klavier. Melodie, no. Nachtreigen: fur 8 stimmigen gemischten chor a cappella. Die Nonne: op. Oratorium auf Worte der Bibel: Deutsches Requiem. Carus-Verlag Oratorium nach Bildern der Bibel. Piano music. BIS CD, p Piano trio in D minor, op.
Piano trio, op. Largo Records LC , p Romances sans paroles. Sechs Lieder, Op. String quartet in E flat major. CPO cpo , p Suleika und Hatem. Trio d-Moll op. Bayer Records Dist. Verlust: op.
Vier Lieder fur das Pianoforte,Op. Serenade, from Quartet, Op. Hortus deliciarum. Sol oritur occasus nesciusHortus deliciarum. Leto leta concio--Hortus deliciarum. Blue cathedral. Telarc CD, p City scape. Concerto for orchestra. NB: This work is a complete revision of an earlier opera from with revisions in The earlier versions were all titled The Hill.
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These works may be performed in a variety of ways: as concert works without staging , semi-staged, or with full staging. They may also be performed alone or in combination with other similar works. Hansen tenor , Tija Danilovics harp and Ken Smith piano. Duration: 17' Continuum: Time Contemplates Her Own Eternity , for large orchestra, soprano solo, and children's chorus; commissioned by the Elmhurst Symphony Orchestra, Stephen Alltop, conductor, and performed on May 12 and 13, It is listed here for documentation and reference purposes only.
Red Death, improvised incidental music for piano, violin and percussion for the theatre production of the same title at the Bailiwick Theatre, Chicago, produced in March and April, Words and Music , two songs and incidental music, scored for voice and four instruments, for the Samuel Beckett play in a student performance at Northwestern University's Struble Theatre in Spring Chrysostom's Church. Paul, MN; first performed on February 15, See also Psalm 96 listed below. Variations on a Theme of Tchaikovsky , for piano solo, commissioned by Sandra Von Valtier; first performed by Ken Smith at a private concert on January 1, Originally conceived as a teaching piece, but the work has been included frequently in concert programs.
Alphonsus Church, Seattle, Portrait: John Eros Spends the Summer in Evanston, for trumpet solo; first performed at a private concert on July 12,
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