Thus, Baines, like other explorer artists, not only conformed to hegemonic European scientific and artistic conventions of the time, in many ways they contributed towards and entrenched these. From his own writings it is evident that Baines was familiar with the notion of the picturesque, also as a means to articulate his own responses to natural scenery. Eastern Portion of the Victoria Falls, , oil on canvas, Figure 7 T. In effect, we argue, the black body becomes a corpus nullius. Once constructed as such, these constructions of the other tend to crystallise into a cultural projection of negative concepts and may then serve as justification for a number of material practices such as colonisation.
Bunn suggests that they remain this way as long as they are not harnessed to the larger project. We will take this further and suggest that the representational practices create a bounded colonial world, the object of the colonial gaze, in which the natives are indistinct transitional figures so long as they remain unharnessed to the colonial project.
Through the loyal ethnic figures framing the scene, Bunn argues, the relationship between the colonist and the landscape is harmonized. The presence of the transitional figures as what frames the colonial project, harmonizes and justifies the colonial engineering project Bunn This genealogy runs along the continuum from encounters with sublime nature to picturesque representations of cleared and now safe colonial spaces.
Ndebele describes black South Africans as moving into and out of the clearing as faceless while in the clearing serving the larger project of leisure colonialism, but who ultimately remain as inscrutable as the bush beyond the carefully maintained boundary of the clearing. It is the movement of these transitional anonymous figures into and out of the cleared space that, more than anything else, marks the boundary between the safe cleared colonial setting in which natives serve - and the inscrutable dense bush beyond in which inscrutable natives loom threateningly, weapons poised.
In the painting, the photograph and the game lodge, the line between the social, understood to be that enclosed within the cleared colonial spaces, and the natural, understood to be a threatening and inscrutable zone beyond that space, has the wider effect of constructing black South Africans as framing of and in service of the colonial project.
Tellingly, the representational strategies that effect this construction do not seem to follow from a conception of the landscape. Rather, a particular conception of the landscape as the object of an objectifying gaze emerges out of a set of representational strategies aimed at bounding the colonial landscapes settlers encountered in order to render them familiar and dominatable; in order to domesticate them to the colonial project.
A notion of landscape as domesticated and bounded thus emerges out of the representational practices intended to confer upon settlers an identity better than pariah. These practices deploy familiar tropes to activate the myth of natural right. One very important consequence of these representational practices is the transformation of natives into transitional figures that move between the Nature settlers confront in paintings of the Sublime, and the harmonized relationship between settlers and landscape depicted as the cleared colonial spaces characteristic of picturesque landscape art as discussed above.
Landscape as place In order to make this claim, we must do away with the notion that perception a colonial gaze follows from conception. Focusing on the representation of colonial spaces, as we do in our discussion of landscape paintings, risks leaving opaque the relationship between paintings or passages of text and ordered spaces such as the game lodge.
They, rather, referred to landscapes through which bodies can move. How these landscapes are bounded, how they delimit and prescribe those movements, through such measures as the Land Act, are what lie at the heart of the pariah status of black South Africans. Ingold distinguishes between land and landscape, arguing that land is a quantitative concept and that landscape is a qualitative one.
For example, one can ask how much land a person has, but not about what that land is like. Its basic unit is abstract and perfectly interchangeable: the square metre, the hectare, the acre. Land is an alienated and measurable commodity. It can belong to someone, but someone cannot belong to it. Landscape, by contrast, is qualitative. One cannot ask how much landscape a person has, but one can ask what a landscape is like. As soon as one asks about the qualities of an area of land, about its soils, its minerals, its biota, its vistas, one moves into the realm of landscape.
Ingold uses the Marxian distinction between exchange value and use value to further inform this distinction. Exchange value is the perfectly interchangeable value of a commodity. For Ingold, then, landscape is nothing other than the congealment of what he terms the taskscape, which he describes as the patterns of production, consumption, movement and exchange that constitute lives lived locally on the land The landscape by this definition emerges from patterns of habitation.
We can begin to suggest that what paintings and game lodges have in common is that both emerge out of the colonial imperative to create a world of extractable and exploitable qualities. Mbembe 25 suggests that the colonial sovereignty that rendered black South Africans pariahs as reflected in the Land Act and the game lodge rests on three sorts of violence. The first is what he terms founding violence. This is the violence of conquest, the violence that constituted a space over which colonial sovereignty could be exercised.
Through this violence, colonial sovereignty assumed its own supreme right, and the supreme denial of right. Paintings, passages of prose, game lodges and the Land Act all exercise the violence of conquest to simultaneously open up bounded colonial spaces of supreme right for a settler elite while exercising the supreme denial of right over the bodies of black South Africans.
The second sort of violence Mbembe refers to is the violence that functions to give meaning to the bounded spaces opened up by the violence of conquest. It is the violence of legitimation. The third type of violence, is the violence intended to harmonize the imaginary of colonial sovereignty with that of broader society. This violence was of a very particular sort, immediately tangible, and it gave the natives a clear notion of themselves in proportion to the power they had lost. We want to suggest that the Land Act, the game lodge, landscape painting and prose have in common is that they all generate bounded colonial spaces under the power of colonial sovereignty, all give to those spaces a meaning that is no more than the rendering of the founding violence in the form of an authorizing authority, and they all are part of a complex of reiterative violence that reciprocally confirms the legitimacy and correctness of the boundary making practices through which natives recognize themselves in proportion to the power they have lost.
These three seamlessly blended sorts of violence are what create natives as pariahs at home. It would, thus, be a mistake to suggest that bounded colonial landscapes, such as the game lodges critiqued by Ndebele , followed from representations of colonial landscapes as simple manifestations of the colonial gaze.
Rather, we use Ingold to suggest that these bounded landscapes are each the result of a colonial mode of habitation; a complex of domesticating boundary practices. The ordering strategies that the game lodge emerges from as a bounded precious and safe space amidst a frightening jungle of unfamiliarity, and the picturesque representational strategies that landscape paintings emerge from as bounded colonial spaces both stem from the colonial drive to create a world of extractable qualities.
In the following two sections, we will first draw from historical and ethnographic material to illustrate what we mean by domesticating boundary practices. Treating the colonial landscape as the congealment of all the embodied activities that make up the domesticating colonial taskscape Ingold , we argue following Mbembe , that the body of the native is as much the raw material of colonial government as what Wolpe and Magubane described as the raw material of colonial production in a system of permanent primitive accumulation.
Natives became pariahs as a new world was created around them, one in which they were framed by domesticating acts of government as objects in a colonial territory. Black South Africans became pariah as colonial patterns of production, consumption, movement and exchange, what Lefebvre might term colonial capitalist social space, slotted into place another piece of government fixing them as an exploitable quality of one of its territories.
In that new world, the native, having lost the right of habitation, could move, produce, consume and exchange only insofar as these activities ministered to the needs of colonial modernity Magubane ; insofar as these activities confirmed the native as an extractable quality of colonial territory.
The Land Act thus constituted part of an apparatus that removed from black South Africans the power to produce landscape. Wolpe , Magubane and other political economists of race and class in South Africa have, however, reminded us that the landscape of the native was not utterly destroyed. Magubane argues that the boundaries of the bantustans were not intended to keep them separate from colonial South Africa. Rather, these boundaries were intended and shaped to keep these areas subordinated to the broader colonial capitalist system as reservoirs of labour.
These boundaries were intended to keep the native a quality of colonial territory. The caricature of ethnic sovereignty that was cultivated in these bantustans is thus best understood as part of colonial government, part of a complex pressing black bodies into the position of pure labour. Magubane argues that the purpose of these bounded landscapes was to racialize the relations of production and build a system of permanent primitive accumulation. What the bantustans show well is that black South Africans were made invisible — corpus nullius - interchangeable so that their bodies could be looted, and that this was done by simultaneously making them highly visible as sovereign ethnic subjects.
Their ethnic sovereignty was the necessary foundation for their reduction to an extractable quality of colonial territory. It is as if black South Africans were made to embody the distinction between value and use value, land and landscape, inasmuch as they had thrust upon them a caricature of ethnic sovereignty in order that they might be reduced to pure commoditized labour in service of colonial capitalism.
These, indeed, are the two modes of presence in colonial landscape art. These two modes of incorporating Africans into bounded colonial landscapes encountered in landcape art through the sublime and picturesque aesthetic modalities are again evident in the history of Etosha National Park in Namibia and Matobo National Park in Zimbabwe. Ranger describes the Matobo area as falling into the European zone as defined by the Land Apportionment Act of There were, however, no Europeans living in the area, and the area was listed as a preservation area after the London convention.
What followed this initial commitment to declaring the area a nature reserve was a struggle between romantic and scientific versions of conservation. In , R. It was envisioned that the labour for essential Park work such as the building of dams would be drawn from these families Ranger By the mid s a formal National Parks Department was well established, and what Ranger terms a purist parks ideology rose to the fore, with the director of national parks returning time and again to the question of finally removing all permit holder families from the Park.
This proved an impossible prospect, but in October , all kraals were removed from the scenic tourist roads and other tourist infrastructure. Schoeman, youth novelist, volkekundige, game warden and staunch Afrikaner Nationalist found himself at the centre of a similar contest in Etosha National Park in Namibia in the s. While the Matobo example seemed to hinge predominantly on ecological concerns, the case had hinged more simply on questions of ethnic authenticity.
Schoeman resigned his chair of Volkekunde at University of Stellenbosch in Gordon 98 in order to take up writing full-time. Due to financial difficulties, he was however, forced to accept the position of chief game warden in South-West Africa in Gordon As a consequence of this appointment he also found himself at the head of the Commission for the Preservation of the Bushmen.
In Schoeman wrote that they were not and recommended that they be removed Gordon As with Matobo National Park, the decision was between allowing people without history, and as such unable to effect any agentive transformation on the landscape, to remain, or removing them because their habitation resulted in a taskscape at odds with colonial taskscapes. Here an imaginary version of San culture moves through the pages of his stories in seamless harmony with nature.
The romantic trope of ethnic villages in pristine nature, both uncorrupted by civilization, thus lived on in the pages of youth fiction. The boundary that is characteristic of cleared colonial landscapes is, therefore, central to the emergence of the dual nature that positions black South Africans as lootable in the system of permanent primitive accumulation described by Wolpe and Magubane.
To understand this dual nature, we need to understand how the notion of territory encapsulates both land and landscape, subordinating the latter to the logic of the former. Mbembe describes the colonial territory as follows: The colonial territory had its space, its shape, its borders. It had its geological make-up and its climates. It had resources; it had its soils, its minerals, its animal and plant species, its empty lands. In short, it had its qualities.
There were, above all, the people who inhabited it, their characters and their customs…their ways of acting and thinking, their habits, the events they have lived. It is these people who were labelled native. They constituted the raw material, as it were, of government One can only have rights over the qualities within the boundaries of that area, and the qualities are anything that can be transformed into value.
This includes natives as pure labour and their way of life in terms of a caricature of which their status as pure labour is cemented. Territory is the space of colonial modernity in terms of which quality is quantified, and the violence of the quantification is qualified and reiterated.
Landscape art is part of that reiteration. The first part of our argument is thus that the pariah status Plaatjie described, resulted from the destruction of the world-in-progress in which the native played a human part and its replacement by another, in which the native was no longer an agent of landscape, but an object of territory. We argue this based on a consideration of a set of boundary making practices out of which a territorial ontology emerges. We have argued that landscape, in painting, in literature and as material process, emerges as a world of extractable qualities from a set of boundary making practices characteristic of colonial modernity.
We have termed this world of extractable qualities the territorial ontology, a world known through, and as extractable qualities.
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Our plea is, thus, for a larger decolonial collaborative project between artists and humanities and social science scholars to identify, interrogate, problematize and reimagine the constellations of everyday boundary objects and practices out of which the territorial ontology emerges daily. It is, we feel, only through confronting the reiterative power of the boundary practices that underpin the territorial ontology that we can begin to reverse the decentering consequences of the Land Act in Landscape art and processes raise to view the practices of boundary making, but they are not exhaustive.
A broader and more sustained interrogation of the boundaries reiterated in everyday life is required. Perhaps this is where ethnographic research can revitalize itself. French born, Claude of birth Chilvers, Stemming from ideal landscape painting of the Italian tradition the northern European tradition of landscape cf. Chilvers, Post-colonial Coetzee, J. White Writing: On the Transformation. London: Routledge. Culture of Letters in South Africa. New Haven: Yale University Press. Auerbach, J. The picturesque and the homogenisation of Empire.
British Art Edgar, A. Cultural Journal, 5 1 Theory — the Key Concepts. Boehmer, E. Colonial and Postcolonial Literature. New York: Oxford Edwards, S. Apocalyptic sublime: On University Press. Historical Materialism, 17 2 : Boime, A. Leaving the ox-wagon Century. London: Thames and Hudson. Paper presented Phaidon. Postcolonial Studies. Garrard, G. The Life York: Routledge. Cape Godby, M. In Brooke Simons, P. The Childs, P. The Routledge life and work of Charles Bell. Vlaeberg: Dictionary of Literary terms.
London: Fernwood Press. Gordon, R. Dictionary of Art and Artists. New Historia. York: Oxford University Press. Hills, P. Picturing progress in the era of Chu, P. Nineteenth Century European Westward expansion. In Treutner, W. New York: Prentice Hall. The west as America: reinterpreting images of the frontier — Clarke, M. New York: Press. Oxford University Press. A short Cochraine, T. The emotional experience guide to the theory of the sublime, Style of the sublime. Canadian Journal of 36 4 Philosophy, 42 2 Hoskins, L. Eurocentrism vs Afrocentrism: a geopolitical linkage analysis.
Journal of Black Studies. Struik Pty Ltd. Ingold, T. The Perception of the Plaatjie, S. London: King. Dwelling and Skill. Ranger, T. The Case Jacobs, M. Journal Travel and Exploration Labuscagne, C. Representing the South Rossler, M. Bollig and O. Journal Bubenzer Eds. African Landscapes: of Literary Studies 23 4 : Interdisciplinary Approaches.
New York: Springer, pp. Lamprecht, A. Cape Town African Arts, 44 2 Standard Bank. Pierneef: Master South African Painter.
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Lefebvre, H. The Production of Space. The Charles Davidson Date of access: 4 April Trust Collection: a catalogue and Van Eeden, J. The colonial gaze: critical study. Design Issues, 20 2 Magubane, B. The Political Economy Spring. Wolpe, Harold. Capitalism and cheap London: Review Press. On the Postcolony. Los segregation to apartheid. Economy and Angeles: University of California Press. Society, 1 4 : Ndebele, N. He has conducted ethnographic research on rock climbing and on sport hunting. His research interests include the politics of landscape and nature in South Africa.
He is a practicing artist and holds a B-Tech degree in Fine Art. Verwoerd was assassinated in parliament by Demitrios Tsafendas. During his appearance before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Tsafendas was reduced to a mere contextual component. A handful of people attended his funeral following deliberate efforts to keep this event too under wraps. Thirty two years later, Dutch author Henk van Woerden published the first biographical novel about Tsafendas — a work entitled A mouthful of glass However, for the most part, both the person of Tsafendas and the events of 6 September have neither featured significantly in Afrikaans literature, nor in writings on historical events of the time.
This investigation serves to determine whether literature and published history contribute more to a memory bank than history per se. Verwoerd is op 6 September deur Demitrios Tsafendas in die parlement vermoor. Twee-en-dertig jaar later verskyn die eerste biografiese roman oor Tsafendas — Een mond vol glas deur die Nederlandse skrywer Henk van Woerden. No tombstone has been erected above it.
No sign identifies the spot. It has simply disappeared among the mounds, rubble and tangled grass in the immediate vicinity. Hendrik F. Verwoerd — ontwerp en vervaardig. Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd Van Wyk, Sedert is Van Woerden se biografiese roman ook plaaslik as Afrikaanse en Suid-Afrikaanse Engelse weergawes beskikbaar. Sluipmoorde in Suid-Afrika Die sluipmoord op eerste minister dr. Hendrik Verwoerd in word alom beskou as die eerste politieke sluipmoord in Suid-Afrika.
The apartheid state had a shocking and sometimes brutally effective record of inhumane laws, harassment, imprisonment, torture and other oppression to terrorize, silence or otherwise neutralize opposition. The list of those who were assassinated is long, and they come from a wide political spectrum. The apartheid government became so organized that they held courses for killers in several highly secret assassin training camps across the country.
Organizations such as the Civil Cooperation Bureau CCB reported only to a select group of senior defence, police and political leaders, and had access to vast and secretly budgeted funding to plot and carry out their bizarre projects. Resistance to apartheid from within and overseas grew tremendously in the s, and effectively there was a low-grade civil war in progress in South Africa. This was regularly not confined to within its borders. Apartheid agents and assassins travelled to Maputo, Gaborone, Maseru, etc.
Aanvanklik is Matthys de Villiers ook bekend as Kaalvoet Thysie van die moord verdink, maar is nooit daarvoor vervolg nie en die saak is steeds onopgelos kyk Venter This [ Dorsman Oulitnet3 voer immers aan dat vier van die belangrikste politieke sluipmoorde in internasionale verband in die sestigerjare van die vorige eeu plaasgevind het: H. Verwoerd, John F. Verwoerd vermoordde? Yet, nowhere in the contemporary excess of post-apartheid memorialisation, was there public acknowledgement of the importance of this event, or of the person responsible for its execution.
They spoke in low tones. An hour went by. Another thirty minutes. The stillness of the town was palpable. It was true: an entire country could hold its breath. Public life came to a halt. It is quite amazing how often it comes up. As an event, it is about the killing of apartheid, an almost classical slaying of the apartheid idea.
Everyone of my generation was grappling with that. Toe is ek hoe oud? Seker agt jaar of so iets. Dit was sy verjaarsdag, dis hoekom ek dit nog so goed onthou. Dan gaan ek nou na oom Daantjie en auntie Pop Storm toe. Hulle was baie siek, dan gaan ek nou agtermiddag na hulle toe. Hulle sit in die agtermiddagsonnetjie op die matras en dan luister hulle die Springbokradiostories. Ons ken nie dit eintlik in die Karoo nie. Daai dag sit ek nog so voor hom toe raak die radio net ewe skielik stil in die storietyd, hy maak net piep-piep-piep.
Alles is nou dood. Schoeman se Die sluipmoord op dr. Die Suid-Afrikaanse publiek is geregtig daarop om alles te wete te kom van hierdie man, sy agtergrond, sy verbintenisse en enige ander feite wat lig kan werp op sy daad [ Not a single scholar in the discipline has considered his life or his actions worthy of detailed historical analysis.
Yet there is a substantial body of archival material on Tsafendas […] Madness in South African historiography has been consigned to the archives and to the study of institutions for the insane. Drie-en-twintig jaar daarvan was in eensame aanhouding kyk Winter, Regter Cooper Oulitnet voer aan dat Tsafendas streng gesproke nooit juis verhoor is nie omdat hy nooit die geleentheid gekry het om op die aanklag teen hom te pleit nie. Onder die ANC-regering word hy in oorgeplaas na die Sterkfontein- psigiatriese hospitaal waar hy in aan longontsteking sterf Van Woerden Political assassination is not something I or the ANC have ever supported.
Die sluipmoord op Verwoerd word breedvoerig ondersoek en bespreek in J. Scholtz se Die moord op dr. Verwoerd en B. Verwoerd In polities-ideologiese publikasies soos Wat skuil agter Sluipmoord? Kennedy in November en weerlegging van die bevindinge in die Verslag van die kommissie van ondersoek Die genoemde samesweringsteorie word later ook in Elsdon se feiteroman, The tall assassin, opgehaal as daar gespekuleer word dat generaal Lang Hendrik van den Berg en minister B.
Verder is daar inskrywings oor die sluipmoord self met beperkte vermelding van Tsafendas in publikasies oor ware misdaadvoorvalle o. Marsh ; Sifakis ; oor die kriminele reg o. Hoctor , kriminologie o. Mantzaris — , geskiedkundige oorsigte o. Standard Encyclopaedia of South Africa — , biografiese tekste o. Die implikasie is dat die kommissie van ondersoek reeds al die nodige inligting oor Tsafendas opgeskryf het kyk ook Wolf, vir ooreenkomste tussen die hantering van Pratt en Tsafendas in die Suid-Afrikaanse geskiedenis. Yet murder can be approached analytically from an entirely different angle.
Besides being a daily subject in the news media, it is a recurring obsessive theme in a wide variety of artistic fictions. In this form, murder can be studied in a relatively disinterested mode as a morally neutral phenomenon, in contrast to the approach taken by the sociologist, the criminologist, and the pathologist, all of whom begin their investigation of actual murder with the assumption that murder is a moral problem and a social, as opposed to a metaphysical, evil.
Van Woerden stel hom dit met A Mouthful of Glass ten doel om die Suid-Afrikaanse trauma van apartheid deur Tsafendas se verhaal te rekonstrueer. Regter J. Bestel jy koffie, bring hy tee. Hy het die verkeerde dokumente aangedra en in jou kantoor agter jou rug deur jou dokumente gekrap. Uiteindelik sien die omvang van wat wel opgelewer is, egter teleurstellend daar uit. In word hy twee maande lank in diens geneem as Engels-onderwyser in Turkye Schoeman Tydens aanhouding in Mosambiek versoek hy dat boeke en leesmateriaal vanuit Pretoria aan hom gestuur word Van Woerden 85—86 en toe hy in Suid-Afrika aankom, registreer hy in Durban by die plaaslike hof as vertaler uit Grieks en Portugees Van Woerden Tydens sy aanhouding in die Pretoria- Sentraal-gevangenis versoek Tsafendas die volgende ongeredigeerd aangehaal in Adams — : I need certain books, schoolbooks I mean which are difficult to obtain here, and will have to be purchased outside that also requires money.
In order to understand the prison authorities I am trying to learn more Afrikaans. I am much too old to be in a place like Maximum. I am willing to give these books to the Prison Library after I have read them. At Maximum I see and hear the death marches [of] the prisoners every week.
I was victimized so much that I had to abscond. I was so disgusted that I left for the U. Because of all this, racialism ruined my whole life. I did not get my degree. However my brother did succeed and was working with Iscor. This is just a glimpse of my Experiences in an Abnormal World. I intend writing a Book if ever I have the opportunity, but medical attention is what I need at present. Tydens haar besoek aan Henk van Woerden in Amsterdam vra iemand haar op die stasie uit na dit wat sy besig is om te lees.
Sy antwoord: Ek lees oor die man wat Verwoerd vermoor het. Tsafendas in die letterkunde Waar die geskiedenis dan te kort skiet, hoop ons sal die letterkunde aanvul en onthou. In the small hours of a Saturday morning he is awakened from a drunken stupor by urgent knocking at the door of his tiny Sofasonke home. Scara stumbles out of bed to find the most unexpected visitor imaginable staring into his incredulous red eyes: the white President of a beleaguered government and one of his ministers.
They have come to ask a favour. Die visstok, die slaapklere, die warmwatersak, die goue vulpen, alles, alles!
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Een mond vol glas word in 10 tale in 14 verskillende uitgawes gepubliseer. Dit sluit onder meer Engelse en Afrikaanse vertalings in, maar ook Spaans, Frans, Portugees, Italiaans en Grieks — vyf tale wat Tsafendas self ook magtig was. Heruitgegee in deur Picador New York. Herdruk in deur Berliner Taschenbuch Berlin. Hoewel daar heelwat voorafbemarking en -blootstelling aan Antjie Krog se vertaling in die Afrikaanse media gegee is, is die ontvangs daarvan — weens die tematiek sowel as die kwaliteit van die vertaling — nie juis positief nie kyk Van Coller 8; Venter Die is die teenoorgestelde van die ontvangs en bekroning wat die oorspronklike publikasie in Nederland ontvang het.
Kategorisering van Henk van Woerden se Een mond vol glas — biografie, reisverhaal, roman of niefiksie? A Mouthful of Glass word in Engelse dag- en weekblaaie uiteenlopend in resensies en besprekings gekarakteriseer, o. In die Engelse media is die ontvangs heel positief en die resensies toegespits op die feitelike inhoud van die boek eerder as Jacobson se vertaling of probleme met die kategorisering. Negatiewe ontvangs van die Afrikaanse vertaling H. Hoewel daar in enkele resensies melding gemaak word van vertaalprobleme in die teks o. Brink a; Venter ; Wasserman 15 , is dit egter H.
Hierdie vertaalprobleme het te make met die titel, styl, ideologiese wysigings, grammatikale tyd, taalfoute en registerprobleme Van Coller — Voorts is daar talle wysigings van ideologiese aard wat neerkom op verwerking en nie vertaling nie. Verwoerd se dood [ Van Woerden se roman het waarskynlik — veral wat die Afrikaanse vertaling betref — nie die nodige impak op die Suid- Afrikaanse letterkunde gehad wat vir blywendheid en sentraliteit van kanonposisie sal sorg nie. At the age of twelfth or Engelse boer en sakeman se poging om die thirteen [he] was familiar with five languages, Suid-Afrikaanse eerste minister dr.
Hendrik but he could speak none of them correctly.
His Verwoerd te vermoor. Pratt skiet Verwoerd Arabic lay in the past. In Middelburg he dreamed epilepsielyer word weens psigiatriese redes nie in Greek and woke in Afrikaans. Lydia van Eeden se outobiografiese roman, Die verlore saak Praag, , opgeskryf as 8 Van Coller self oor interpreteer die sluipmoord op die karakter Dawn Sutcliffe. Aangehaalde werke Adams, Zuleiga. Southern Africa 23 1 : 57— SA cannot flourish in Universiteit van die Wes-Kaap.
The Mercury, 5 April, Anstey, Gillian. Sunday Times, 19 August: 1. Two Hills and Three Walls of Remebrance. The Archival Bullock, James. Why are political Platform, besoek op 14 Julie killings increasing in South Africa? Insig, Maart: Burbidge, Matthew. The worm turns. Acta Criminologica 20 3 : 87— Kaapstad: Tafelberg. Biberauer, Theresa.
In search of the real Tsafendas. The Sunday Independent, 18 Clogg, Richard. The Greek June: Diaspora in the Twentieth Century. London: McMillan Press. Black, Joel. A quest Contemporary Culture. Baltimore: for Mimis. Sekretaresse vir die Verwoerds: Dankbare Herinneringe. Lynnwood: Boemerang Publikasies. Boshoff, Annatjie. Betsie Verwoerd, die vrou. Orania: Afrikanervolkswag. Crwys-Williams, Jennifer. Verwoerd is dead. London: the Best in South African Journalism. Books of Africa. Johannesburg: Ashanti.
The sad life and mad De Kock, Eugene. Johannesburg: Contra. Dolly, Caryn. New claims made about Creative non-fiction: a conversation. Johannesburg: Die Transvaler who-killed-robert-smit Dorsman, Robert. Hepple, Alexander. Oulitnet, besoek op 13 Julie by: Middlesex: Penguin Books. I remember King Kong The Boxer. Johannesburg: Jacana. Elsdon, Alan D. The Dancing and the South Africa. Cape Town: Umuzi. Death on Lemon Street. Woordeloos tot Hoctor, Shannon. Tracing the origins verhaal. Stellenbosch: Sun Press. Marginal law.
Fundamina 17 2 : 70— Johannesburg: Wits University Press. Hopler, Jay. Edinburgh: Geyser, O. Kaapstad: Hough, Barrie. Boek vol pyn oor Tafelberg. Tsafendas se lewe. Rapport, 11 Junie: Gobodo-Madikizela, Pumla. Chaotic life of a Forgiveness. Claremont: David Philip. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Kakaza, Luvuyo. In the footsteps of an assassin.
Man van die December: 3. Key, Liza. New York: Keys Groenink, Evelyn. Dulcie September Films. Writing Africa, 6 Keyser, Gawie. Feiteroman verskyn August, besoek op 1 Julie by: oor moord op Verwoerd. November: Living in Hattingh, C. Hy was groot en strange lands: The Testimony of Dimitri gelief: Roudienspreke by die afsterwe Tsafendas. New York: PlayScripts, Inc. Johannesburg: Voortrekkerpers. Briewe uit die Tankwa. Pretoria: Lapa Uitgewers. Mandela, Nelson. London: Abacus. In: Clogg, Richard. The Greek Diaspora in the Twentieth Century.
Pauw, Jacques. Rapport-Weekliks, 13 Julie: 8—9. Marais, Jaap. Die era van Verwoerd. Pretoria: Aktuele Publikasies. Pike, H. A History of Communism in South Africa. Germiston: Christian Marais, J. Founders of the Mission International. New South Africa. There are many potential confounding factors in the evaluation of the EONC effect — the Hawthorne effect of observation or participation itself may have altered performance or behaviour in the study centres, and therefore the outcome may not be sustained on a larger scale.
Nie 'n Trouman Nie (Afrikaans, Paperback)
The majority of mothers studied in this review continue to choose delivery at home without professional care as their norm for childbirth, yet we did not identify any study in our search that examined social business models for providing skilled attendance proximal to home. The global systematic review literature on perinatal health suggests that EONC interventions have had a greater impact on maternal and perinatal mortality in China, the Americas, and South Asia than any of the interventions described in this African review.
The absolute gains achievable by simple packaged emergency obstetric interventions are significant, even though the proportional gain may appear small. This review cautiously supports the expansion of these interventions in rural Africa, along with the further evaluation of the impact of the interventions. The maternal health agenda is intersectoral, and does not stand in public health alone.
In regions where women do not have access to obstetricians, this review challenges the obstetric clinical community to consider the sustainable development of capacity in emergency obstetric services. FMC is the guarantor. MNiB conceived the idea. Both authors took part in drafting the article and revising it for critically important intellectual content, and both gave final approval of the version to be published. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors.
Any queries other than missing content should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. Volume , Issue 2. Special Issue: Beyond The future of women's health globally. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.
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Nie-fiksie / Non-fiction: Biography & Autobiography / Biografie & Outobiografie
Data collection and analysis Data were extracted and all relevant studies independently appraised using structured abstraction and appraisal tools. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. The effect was larger in the district hospitals 40 Supportive engagement over time with lead health professionals encourages intrinsic leadership motivation without the need for financial incentivisation. The gap is in the assessment of clinical behaviour on a return to work.
The centralisation of training discriminates against the rural healthcare provider who has the greater logistical issues with travel and emergency cover. Facilitation of this learning is the challenge. The merit is in the level of service provided, which may address absolute mortalities. The contributory factors included delayed, prolonged transportation and sequential facility transfer as a result of facility supply and cover issues 45 The failure to acknowledge and recognise the emergent nature of obstetric complications is observed not only at family level but also at community and facility level: there is an absence of the appropriate level of urgency.
Partner involvement and risk awareness increased the OR of facility birth to over 2. In four rural comprehensive EONC with operating facilities, the caesarean section rate was 0. A previous unfavourable facility experience reduces the likelihood of a return for a facility birth. The acknowledgement of the indigenous opinion leaders and cultural belief in the expert elders preclude behavioural change in the younger women. There are inconsistent results the effect of peer educators on facility birth rates in participatory change cycle research Use of a skilled birth attendant increased from Peer counsellors contributed to an increase in breastfeeding Disclosure of interests The authors have no interests to declare.
Contribution to authorship FMC is the guarantor.
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Funding No funding was received for this study. PubMed search history.
Table S2. Search question development. Table S3. Ranked search terms. Table S4. Number of articles recovered following search. Table S5. Scoping search: further development of search build in PubMed. Table S6. Search results in other databases. Table S7. Characteristics and quality assessment of studies included. A New method for deriving global estimates of maternal mortality. Stat Politics Policy ; 3 : pii: — Crossref PubMed Google Scholar. Google Scholar. Crossref Google Scholar.
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