Jésus (CHRONIQUES HIST) (French Edition)

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Table of Contents

Deacons belonged to the clergy, but only assisted at the liturgy. The sources show us that even Chrysostom did not manage to place the three grades of the ecclesial order in a clear historical continuity There were Jewish models for the priesthood, but the episcopate and diaconate were instituted by the Apostles. It is not clear what should be understood by these notions.

The fourth century marked the end of the process which led to the recognition of the diaconate as a grade or degree in the ecclesial hierarchy, placed after the bishop and the priests, with a well-defined role. Linked to the bishop himself and his mission, this role encompassed three tasks: the service of the liturgy, the service of preaching the Gospel and teaching catechesis, and a vast social activity concerning the works of charity and administrative action in accordance with the bishop's directives.

In the apostolic era different forms of diaconal assistance offered to the Apostles and communities by women seem to have been institutional. Thus Paul recommends to the community at Rome "our sister Phoebe, servant [ he diakonos ] of the Church at Cenchreae" cf. Rom Although the masculine form of diakonos is used here, it cannot therefore be concluded that the word is being used to designate the specific function of a "deacon"; firstly because in this context diakonos still signifies servant in a very general sense, and secondly because the word "servant" is not given a feminine suffix but preceded by a feminine article.

What seems clear is that Phoebe exercised a recognised service in the community of Cenchreae, subordinate to the ministry of the Apostle. Elsewhere in Pauls writings the authorities of the world are themselves called diakonos Rom , and in Second Corinthians he refers to diakonoi of the devil. Exegetes are divided on the subject of First Timothy The mention of "women" following the reference to deacons may suggest women deacons by parallel reference , or the deacons' wives who had been mentioned earlier.

In this epistle, the functions of the deacon are not described, but only the conditions for admitting them. It is said that women must not teach or rule over men 1 Tim But the functions of governance and teaching were in any case reserved to the bishop 1 Tim and to priests 1 Tim , and not to deacons. Widows constituted a recognised group in the community, from whom they received assistance in exchange for their commitment to continence and prayer. First Timothy stresses the conditions under which they may be inscribed on the list of widows receiving relief from the community, and says nothing more about any functions they might have.

Later on they were officially "instituted" but "not ordained"; 58 they constituted an "order" in the Church, 59 and would never have any other mission apart from good example and prayer. At the beginning of the second century a letter from Pliny the Younger, governor of Bithynia, mentioned two women who were described by the Christians as ministrae , the probable equivalent of the Greek diakonoi 10, It was not until the third century that the specific Christian terms diaconissa or diacona appeared.

From the end of the third century onwards, in certain regions of the Church 60 and not all of them , a specific ecclesial ministry is attested to on the part of women called deaconesses. Towards there appeared a singular canonico-liturgical compilation, the Didascalia Apostolorum DA , which was not official in character. It attributed to the bishop the features of an omnipotent biblical patriarch cf. DA 2, , 3. He was at the head of a little community which he governed mainly with the help of deacons and deaconesses.

This was the first time that deaconesses appeared in an ecclesiastical document. In a typology borrowed from Ignatius of Antioch, the bishop held the place of God the Father, the deacon the place of Christ, and the deaconess that of the Holy Spirit the word for "Spirit" is feminine in Semitic languages , while the priests who are seldom mentioned represented the Apostles, and the widows, the altar DA 2, 26, There is no reference to the ordination of these ministers.

The Didascalia laid stress on the charitable role of the deacon and the deaconess. The ministry of the diaconate should appear as "one single soul in two bodies". Its model is the diakonia of Christ, who washed the feet of his disciples DA 3, 13, However, there was no strict parallelism between the two branches of the diaconate with regard to the functions they exercised. The deacons were chosen by the bishop to "concern themselves about many necessary things", and the deaconesses only "for the service of women" DA 3, 12, 1.

The hope was expressed that "the number of deacons may be proportionate to that of the assembly of the people of the Church" DA 3, 13, l. Like the bishop, they were maintained at its expense. Deacons are called the ear and mouth of the bishop DA 2, 44, Men from among the faithful should go through the deacons to have access to the bishop, as women should go through the deaconesses DA 3, 12, One deacon supervised the entries into the meeting place, while another attended the bishop for the Eucharistic offering DA 2, 57, 6.

Deaconesses should carry out the anointing of women in the rite of baptism, instruct women neophytes, and visit the women faithful, especially the sick, in their homes. They were forbidden to confer baptism themselves, or to play a part in the Eucharistic offering DA 3, 12, The deaconesses had supplanted the widows. The bishop may still institute widows, but they should not either teach or administer baptism to women , but only pray DA 3, 5, , 6, 2. The Constitutiones Apostolorum, which appeared in Syria towards , used and interpolated the Didascalia, the Didache and the Traditio Apostolica.

The Constitutiones were to have a lasting influence on the discipline governing ordinations in the East, even though they were never considered to be an official canonical collection. The compiler envisaged the imposition of hands with the epiklesis of the Holy Spirit not only for bishops, priests and deacons, but also for the deaconesses, sub-deacons and lectors cf.

CA 8, Bishop and priests were paralleled with the high priest and the priests respectively of the Old Covenant, while to the Levites corresponded all the other ministries and states of life: "deacons, lectors, cantors, door-keepers, deaconesses, widows, virgins and orphans" CA 2, 26, 3; CA 8, 1, The deacon was placed "at the service of the bishop and the priests" and should not impinge on the functions of the latter. The bishop pronounced the following prayer: "Eternal God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, creator of man and woman, who filled Myriam, Deborah, Anne and Hulda with your spirit; who did not deem it unworthy for your Son, the Only-Begotten, to be born of a woman; who in the tent of witness and in the temple did institute women as guardians of your sacred doors, look now upon your servant before you, proposed for the diaconate: grant her the Holy Spirit and purify her of all defilement of flesh and spirit so that she may acquit herself worthily of the office which has been entrusted to her, for your glory and to the praise of your Christ, through whom be glory and adoration to you, in the Holy Spirit, world without end.

The deaconesses were named before the sub-deacon who, in his turn, received a cheirotonia like the deacon CA 8, 21 , while the virgins and widows could not be "ordained" 8, The Constitutiones insist that the deaconesses should have no liturgical function 3, 9, , but should devote themselves to their function in the community which was "service to the women" CA 3, 16, 1 and as intermediaries between women and the bishop.

It is still stated that they represent the Holy Spirit, but they "do nothing without the deacon" CA 2, 26, 6. They should stand at the women's entrances in the assemblies 2, 57, Their functions are summed up as follows: "The deaconess does not bless, and she does not fulfil any of the things that priests and deacons do, but she looks after the doors and attends the priests during the baptism of women, for the sake of decency" CA 8, 28, 6. This is echoed by the almost contemporary observation of Epiphanius of Salamis in his Panarion, in around "There is certainly in the Church the order of deaconesses, but this does not exist to exercise the functions of a priest, nor are they to have any undertaking committed to them, but for the decency of the feminine sex at the time of baptism.

The Council of Chalcedon can. Even in the fourth century the way of life of deaconesses was very similar to that of nuns. At that time the woman in charge of a monastic community of women was called a deaconess, as is testified by Gregory of Nyssa among others. Until the sixth century they still attended women in the baptismal pool and for the anointing. Although they did not serve at the altar, they could distribute communion to sick women. When the practice of anointing the whole body at baptism was abandoned, deaconesses were simply consecrated virgins who had taken the vow of chastity.

They lived either in monasteries or at home. The condition for admission was virginity or widowhood and their activity consisted of charitable and health-related assistance to women. At Constantinople the best-known of the fourth-century deaconesses was Olympias, the superior of a monastery of women, who was a protegee of Saint John Chrysostom and had put her property at the service of the Church. She was "ordained" cheirotonein deaconess with three of her companions by the patriarch.

Canon 15 of the Council of Chalcedon seems to confirm the fact that deaconesses really were "ordained" by the imposition of hands cheirotonia. Their ministry was called leitourgia and after ordination they were not allowed to marry. In eighth-century Byzantium, the bishop still imposed his hands on a deaconess, and conferred on her the orarion or stole both ends of which were worn at the front, one over the other ; he gave her the chalice, which she placed on the altar without giving communion to anyone.

Deaconesses were ordained in the course of the Eucharistic liturgy, in the sanctuary, like deacons. These ordinations were intended mainly for the superiors of monasteries of women. It should be pointed out that in the West there is no trace of any deaconesses for the first five centuries. The Statuta Ecclesiae antiqua laid down that the instruction of women catechumens and their preparation for baptism was to be entrusted to the widows and women religious "chosen ad ministerium baptizandarum mulierum".

To prevent any confusion the Council of Epaone forbade "the consecrations of widows who call themselves deaconesses". The present historical overview shows that a ministry of deaconesses did indeed exist, and that this developed unevenly in the different parts of the Church. It seems clear that this ministry was not perceived as simply the feminine equivalent of the masculine diaconate. At the very least it was an ecclesial function, exercised by women, sometimes mentioned together with that of sub-deacon in the lists of Church ministries. The text of the Constitutiones Apostolorum would seem to suggest this, but it is practically the only witness to this, and its proper interpretation is the subject of much debate.

It is difficult to tackle the question on the basis of historical data alone. In the following chapters some elements will be clarified, and some questions will remain open. In particular, one chapter will be devoted to examining more closely how the Church through her theology and Magisterium has become more conscious of the sacramental reality of Holy Orders and its three grades.

But first it is appropriate to examine the causes which led to the disappearance of the permanent diaconate in the life of the Church. At Rome, from the third century onwards, each deacon was at the head of one of the seven pastoral regions, while the priests had a smaller titulus the future parish. Deacons were charged with administering funds and organising charitable works. The Council of Neo-Caesarea, at the beginning of the fourth century, had asked that each Church, however big it was, should have no more than seven deacons, in memory of Acts They were to define themselves more and more explicitly by reference to their liturgical attributes, and come into conflict with the priests.

The functions of deacons were progressively being taken over by other ministers. As early as the Traditio Apostolica 13 , "sub-deacons" were appointed "to follow the deacon". Those who "followed the deacon" soon became his "acolytes". It was also the acolytes who took it to those who were absent. The "door-keepers" also fulfilled a function which had originally been the task of the deacons. It may be considered that the minor ministries resulted from a sharing-out of diaconal functions.

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The state of sub-deacon approached that of deacon more closely. Towards , in the East, the Council of Laodicea tried to prevent sub-deacons from encroaching on the liturgical functions of deacons, stating that they should content themselves with looking after the doors. The African councils of the last part of the fourth century demanded continence on the part of clergy "who serve at the altar", 85 The Canones in causa Apiarii extended this requirement to sub-deacons, "who touch the sacred mysteries". Cyprian had already found it necessary to remind people that deacons had been instituted by the Apostles and not by the Lord himself.

The Council of Aries reminded them that they could not offer the Eucharist can. Nicaea forbade them to give communion to priests, or to receive it before the bishops: they were to receive communion from the bishop or from a priest, and after them. They were not to sit among the priests. Towards the anonymous Ambrosiaster , composed at Rome, witnessed to the persistent tension between the presbyterate and the diaconate.

Deacons, who had wanted to exercise the liturgical and teaching functions reserved to priests, now suffered from a backlash against such an attitude: they became subordinate to the priests, their direct link with the bishop faded away, and they ended up having no specific function. The clergy of the Church in the Empire progressively forgot about their function of service and maintained the concept of the sacredness of the priesthood, towards which all the other degrees of the clerical career tended. The deacons were the first to suffer the consequences of this.

Towards the end of the fifth century the thinking of Pseudo-Dionysius began to have a lasting influence both in the East and in the West. In Dionysius' hierarchically structured view of heaven and the Church, every being received its specific determination and function from the order to which it belonged. The ecclesiastical hierarchy was composed of two groups of three. The first group contained the order of the hierarchs or bishops, the order of priests, and the order of "liturges" or ministers.

This latter order included the ecclesiastical orders from deacon to door-keeper. The diaconate no longer had any specific mark to distinguish it from the other orders beneath the priests. Still towards the end of the fifth century, the career path of the clergy was defined in function of their liturgical attributes as well as the demand of continence for those who served in the sanctuary, or related positions. Leo the Great considered that the ideal path, before proceeding to the priesthood and the episcopate, was to go through all the degrees of the clergy with an appropriate interval between each.

There were eight at Rome in the time of Pope Cornelius. The sacramentary of Verona around contained a prayer of "consecration" for the bishop and the priest, and a prayer of "blessing" for the deacon. It said that the deacon was essentially ordained in view of liturgical ministry; he should be an example of chastity. Progress through the clerical career path was still often made per saltum. At Rome in the ninth century the sub-diaconate was the only obligatory degree before major orders.

All the popes between and had been sub-deacons. Five had then become deacons before being raised to the episcopate, and nine passed directly from the sub-diaconate to the priesthood and then to the episcopate. One of the former competencies of deacons, the management of the funds of the community, was also lost to them.

The Council of Chalcedon sanctioned this development, laying down that each bishop should entrust this responsibility to an officer chosen from "among his own clergy" can. Aid to the poor was often looked after by monasteries. Under Gregory the Great, the huge "Patrimony of Saint Peter" was managed by defensores or notarii , who were added to the clergy, in other words at least given the tonsure.

The Seven, it observed, were neither deacons nor priests nor bishops. They were people who were "charged with administering the common property of the community of that time.. They are an example of charity" can. The Byzantine rite had two preparatory stages for the sacred ministry: those of lector or cantor and sub-deacon, conferred by cheirothesia, and obligatory before the diaconate.

According to the ritual of the Constitutiones Apostolorum , which was still applied in the East, admission to the minor orders of sub-diaconate and lectorate was accomplished by the imposition of hands and the handing over of the instruments of office. In the West too, the activity of deacons was reduced, in practice, to their liturgical functions.

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It did not occur to them to call for deacons. From the tenth century onwards, at least in the Holy Roman Empire, the rule was ordination per gradum. The reference document was the Pontifical Romano-Germanique , composed at Mainz in around It was in direct continuity with the tradition of the Ordines Romani of the preceding centuries, to which it added plentiful elements from the Germanic ritual.

The ordination of deacons included the handing over of the book of the Gospels, signifying their function of proclaiming the Gospel in the liturgy. The deacon here appears closer to the sub-deacon than to the priest. The priest was the man of the Eucharist; the deacon attended him at the altar. This ritual was introduced at Rome through the Germanic emperors' zeal for reform at the end of the tenth century.

Rome fell into line with the per gradum career path for clergy which was the rule in the Empire. From that time on the history of the ordination rites attests perfect continuity. The patristic and liturgical texts of the first millennium all mentioned the ordination of bishops, priests and deacons, but they did not yet explicitly raise the question of the sacramentality of each of these ordinations.

The history of the ministries shows that the priesthood has had a tendency to take over the functions of the lesser orders. When the progression through the various orders became stabilised, each grade possessed the competencies of the previous grade, plus some additional ones-what a deacon can do, a priest can also do. The bishop, being at the summit of the hierarchy can exercise all the ecclesiastical functions. The fact that the different competencies fitted together in this way and that lesser functions were taken over by higher ones; the fragmentation of the original role of deacons into many different functions to be performed by subordinate clergy; and the progression to the higher functions per gradum, all go to explain how the diaconate as a permanent ministry lost its reason for existing.

All that was left were liturgical tasks exercised for a given time by candidates for the priesthood. After the tenth century deaconesses were only named in connection with charitable institutions. A Jacobite author of that time notes: "In ancient times, deaconesses were ordained. Their function was to look after women so that they should not have to uncover themselves before the bishop.

But when religion spread more widely and it was decided to administer baptism to infants, this function was abolished. For today deaconesses are no longer ordained, although the name of deaconesses is wrongly given to those who belong to communities of ascetics.

They lived in monasteries which no longer practised works of diakonia except in the field of education, medical care, or parish service. The presence of deaconesses is still attested in Rome at the end of the eighth century. While the Roman rituals had previously not mentioned deaconesses, the sacramentary Hadrianum , sent by the pope to Charlemagne and spread by him throughout the Frankish world, includes an Oratio ad diaconam faciendum. It was in fact a blessing, placed as an appendix among other rites of first institution.

The Carolingian texts often combined deaconesses and abbesses. The Council of Paris of contained a general prohibition on women performing any liturgical function. Once again, this was merely a blessing accompanied by the handing over of the stole and veil by the bishop, as well as the nuptial ring and the crown.

Like widows, the deaconess promised continence. This is the last mention of "deaconesses" found in the Latin rituals. In fact the Pontifical of Guillaume Durand at the end of the thirteenth century speaks of deaconesses only with reference to the past. In the Middle Ages, the nursing and teaching religious orders of nuns fulfilled in practise the functions of diakonia without, however, being ordained for this ministry. The title, with no corresponding ministry, was given to women who were instituted as widows or abbesses.

Right up until the thirteenth century, abbesses were sometimes called deaconesses. The sacramentally of the diaconate is a question which remains implicit in biblical, patristic and liturgical texts which have just been discussed. We now need to see how the Church first became explicitly conscious of it in a period in which, apart from certain rare exceptions, the diaconate was simply a stage on the way to the priesthood. Although "sacramentality" can have a broad, generic meaning, in the strict sense it refers to the seven sacraments outward and effective signs of grace , among which is the sacrament of "Holy Orders".

Within this sacrament were different "orders" or "grades", between seven and nine in number. The diaconate and the priesthood were always listed among the ordines sacri of the sacrament, and the sub-diaconate began to be included among them because of its requirement of celibacy; the episcopate was excluded from them in most cases.

Although he held that all the ordines were spirituales et sacri, he underlined the excellence of the diaconate and the priesthood, the only ones which existed in the primitive Church by the will of the Apostles, while the others had been instituted by the Church in the course of time. He did not consider the episcopate to share in this excellence, saying that it did not belong to the sacramental ordines but rather to the domain of dignities and offices.

Saint Thomas' teaching on the diaconate included the fact that it was a sacrament insofar as it belonged to Holy Orders, one of the seven sacraments of the new law. He considered that each of the different orders constituted in some way a sacramental reality; however, only three priest, deacon and sub-deacon could strictly be said to be ordines sacri by reason of their special relation to the Eucharist.

The way that the unity and oneness of the sacrament of Holy Orders was bound together in its different grades had to do with their reference to the Eucharist, Sacramentum sacramentorum. Through ordination priests received the power to consecrate, while deacons received the power to serve the priests in the administration of the sacraments. The relationship of each order to the Eucharist became the deciding factor in avoiding the idea that each order gave the power to administer a specific sacrament. The same criterion also served to exclude the orders of psalmist and cantor from the sacramental orders.

But this criterion was also used to exclude the episcopate from sacramentality. Because the diaconate is a sacrament, it is an ordo which imprints a character on the soul. Saint Thomas applies this doctrine to baptism, confirmation and Holy Orders. His thinking on this developed with time. On the subject of the diaconate, he explained all its potestates , in relation to the dispensatio of the sacraments, as something that seemed to belong rather within the domain of what was "licit" and not within the domain of a new radical enablement with regard to the "validity" of the functions in question.

According to this line, only ordination to the priesthood is a "sacrament"; the other orders, including the diaconate, were only "sacramentals". The diaconate, on the other hand, grants the capacity to do licite something that he could in fact do before, although illicitly, and this is why the diaconate can be considered as an institution or ecclesial deputation to exercise certain functions;. He distinguished in his turn between a deputatio which had its origin in God himself, and made the order in question a sacramentum, and an ecclesiastical deputatio instituted by the Church, which only made the orders in question all the other orders sacramentalia.

In this sense it could be said that the diaconate imprints a character; the doubt or debate concerned exactly when the character was imprinted, since some maintained that it would come "in traditione libri evangeliorum" an opinion which Durandus rejected while others held that it came "in impositione manuum" an opinion which he appeared to adopt. The Council of Trent chose to make a dogmatic definition of Holy Orders as a sacrament; the direction of its doctrinal statements leaves no doubt on the subject.

However, it is not clear to what extent the sacramentality of the diaconate should be considered as being included in this definition. The question has remained a controversial one to the present day, although very few people indeed now debate the subject. This makes it necessary to interpret the statements of the Council of Trent. As against the denials of the Reformers, Trent declared the existence of a hierarchia in Ecclesia ordinatione divina which led to a rejection of the statement "omnes christianos promiscue Novi Testamenti sacerdotes esse" and also a hierarchia ecclesiastica which led to the distinction between the different grades within the sacrament of Holy Orders.

The references by Trent to the diaconate which it also refers to explicitly need to be set within the general theology of the sacrament of Holy Orders. However, it is not entirely certain that the dogmatic declarations of Trent on the sacramentality and the sacramental character of the priesthood, to which Trent refers explicitly, include an intention on the part of the Council to define the sacramentality of the diaconate as well. According to Trent deacons are mentioned directly in the New Testament, although it is not stated that they were instituted directly by Christ the Saviour.

In accordance with the way the other orders are envisaged, the diaconate is also conceived of as a help to exercising "dignius et maiore cum veneratione ministerium tarn Sancti sacerdotii" and to serve the priesthood "ex officio" it is not said to be "ad ministerium episcopi".

Furthermore, the diaconate appears to be a stage on the way to the priesthood - there is no explicit mention of a permanent diaconate. When Trent defined dogmatically that ordo or sacra ordinatio was "vere sacramentum", there was no explicit mention of the diaconate, which was included among the ordines ministrorum.

Something similar can be said on the subject of the doctrine of "sacramental character". There is no mention made of "deacons", either direct or indirect; therefore it would be difficult to see in the text of Trent any intention to establish the dogma of character for the diaconate. Right up until the day before its approval 14 July , the text of can. That day, in view of petitions made by a Spanish group, the expression aliis ministris was altered to exclude the word aliis.

But the reasons and scope of this change are not very clear. How should the term ministris , and their inclusion in the hierarchia , be interpreted? The exclusion of the word aliis means, according to some, that the dividing line within the ecclesiastical hierarchy should be drawn between sacerdotes bishops and priests on the one hand, and ministri on the other; the suppression of the word aliis was intended to stress once again that the bishops and priests are not "nudi ministri" but "sacerdotes Novi Testamenti".

The history of the text in question, in the light of its previous formulations, would seem to suggest a broad understanding of ministri , to include "diaconos caeterosque ministros", corresponding to a triple division of the hierarchy "praecipue episcopi, deinde praesbyteri, diaconi et alii ministri". But it must not be forgotten that according to other authors the suppression of the term aliis meant that the subdiaconate and other minor orders were excluded from the hierarchy "divina ordinatione instituta" - an expression whose interpretation is in its turn polemical.

To sum up, whether one interprets it exclusively or inclusively, it cannot be doubted that deacons are included in the term ministri. But the dogmatic consequences concerning their sacramentality and their inclusion in the hierarchy will differ, depending on whether the word ministri refers to deacons alone, or includes the other orders too. After the Council of Trent, in the theology of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a majority of opinions maintained the sacramentality of the diaconate, with only a minority questioning or denying it. However, the form in which this sacramentality was defended had many differing nuances, and it was generally considered to be a point which had not been dogmatically defined by Trent, and which was reasserted doctrinally in the Roman Catechism where it describes the functions of deacons.

Thus for example, F. He established the sacramentality of Holy Orders "vere ac proprie sacramentum novae legis" as a fundamental principle admitted by all Catholic theologians and denied by Protestant heretics. But as regarded the sacramentality of the individual orders he felt it necessary to make a distinction, because although there was unanimous agreement on the sacramentality of the priesthood, this was not the case for the other orders. Bellarmine declared himself clearly in favour of the sacramentality of the episcopate "ordinatio episcopalis sacramentum est vere ac proprie dictum" , as against the scholastics of old who denied it; and he considered this an assertio certissima , based on Scripture and Tradition.

Moreover, he spoke of an episcopal character which was distinct from and superior to the character of the presbyterate. As regards the doctrine of the sacramentality of the diaconate, Bellarmine adopted it, considering it very probable; however, he did not take it as a certainty ex fide , since it could not be deduced from the evidence of Scripture nor Tradition nor any explicit pronouncement on the part of the Church. Bellarmine was also in favour of the sacramentality of the sub-diaconate, basing his opinion on the doctrine of character, on celibacy, and on the common opinion of theologians, although he recognised that this doctrine was not as certain as that of the diaconate.

Sometimes it was stated simply in passing, or indirectly, or faintly. Check out the trailer after the jump and see what you think. Awkwafina has also joined the cast while Rhys Darby and Nick Jonas are apparently reprising their roles from the previous film. James Cameron is still the king of the world… for now. With Toy Story 4 still expected to dominate multiplexes and Spider-Man: Far From Home still a few days away, things are pretty quiet in terms of new theatrical releases this weekend. The biggest new movie in wide release is Annabelle Comes Home , the third spin-off in The Conjuring Universe to revolve around the creepy possessed doll.

Marvel is also hoping to capitalize on a quiet weekend by re-releasing Avengers: Endgame one last time in over theatres to try and top Avatar once and for all. In limited release, we also have the epic sailing documentary Maiden and Ophelia , a Shakespeare adaptation with a twist starring Daisy Ridley. What will you be watching this weekend? I guess the idea is that this is set in the same universe as the previous films with Charlie now running a global network of many different teams of Angels, each assigned their own Bosley. Kristen Stewart is the somewhat unlikely lead of this new movie and actually seems to be having a lot of fun with it.

In this case, however, it seems to be isolated to one particular direct-to-DVD animated movie. It will bring back the original voice cast of the animated series but apparently it also has Weird Al Yankovic voicing Gentleman Ghost and Darkseid. The Inquisition , which had been instituted in order to suppress Catharism , finally occupied itself with the Jews of Southern France who converted to Christianity. The popes complained that not only were baptized Jews returning to their former faith, but that Christians also were being converted to Judaism.

In March , Pope Gregory X formulated the following rules: relapsed Jews, as well as Christians who abjured their faith in favor of "the Jewish superstition", were to be treated by the Inquisitors as heretics.

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The instigators of such apostasies, as those who received or defended the guilty ones, were to be punished in the same way as the delinquents. In accordance with these rules, the Jews of Toulouse , who had buried a Christian convert in their cemetery, were brought before the Inquisition in for trial, with their rabbi, Isaac Males, being condemned to the stake.

Philip IV at first ordered his seneschals not to imprison any Jews at the instance of the Inquisitors, but in he rescinded this order. Toward the middle of the treasury was nearly empty, and the king, as he was about to do the following year in the case of the Templars , condemned the Jews to banishment, and took forcible possession of their property, real and personal. Their houses, lands, and movable goods were sold at auction; and for the king were reserved any treasures found buried in the dwellings that had belonged to the Jews.

Chronique de Morée

That Philip the Fair intended merely to fill the gap in his treasury, and was not at all concerned about the well-being of his subjects, is shown by the fact that he put himself in the place of the Jewish moneylenders and exacted from their Christian debtors the payment of their debts, which they themselves had to declare. Furthermore, three months before the sale of the property of the Jews the king took measures to ensure that this event should be coincident with the prohibition of clipped money, in order that those who purchased the goods should have to pay in undebased coin.

Finally, fearing that the Jews might have hidden some of their treasures, he declared that one-fifth of any amount found should be paid to the discoverer. In prison they received notice that they had been sentenced to exile; that, abandoning their goods and debts, and taking only the clothes which they had on their backs and the sum of 12 sous tournois each, they would have to quit the kingdom within one month. Speaking of this exile, an American Rabbi has said,. In striking at the Jews, Philip the Fair at the same time dried up one of the most fruitful sources of the financial, commercial, and industrial prosperity of his kingdom.

To a large extent the history of the Jews of France ceased. The span of control of the King of France had increased considerably in extent. Nine years had hardly passed since the expulsion of when Louis X of France —16 recalled the Jews. In an edict dated 28 July , he permitted them to return for a period of twelve years, authorizing them to establish themselves in the cities in which they had lived before their banishment.

He issued this edict in answer to the demands of the people. Geoffrey of Paris , the popular poet of the time, says in fact that the Jews were gentle in comparison with the Christians who had taken their place, and who had flayed their debtors alive; if the Jews had remained, the country would have been happier; for there were no longer any moneylenders at all. The profits of the former confiscations had gone into the treasury, and by recalling the Jews for only twelve years he would have an opportunity for ransoming them at the end of this period.

It appears that they gave the sum of , livres for the privilege of returning. It is also probable, as Adolphe Vuitry states, that a large number of the debts owing to the Jews had not been recovered, and that the holders of the notes had preserved them; the decree of return specified that two-thirds of the old debts recovered by the Jews should go into the treasury. The conditions under which they were allowed to settle in the land are set forth in a number of articles; some of the guaranties which were accorded the Jews had probably been demanded by them and been paid for.

They were to live by the work of their hands or to sell merchandise of a good quality; they were to wear the circular badge, and not discuss religion with laymen. They were not to be molested, either with regard to the chattels they had carried away at the time of their banishment, or with regard to the loans which they had made since then, or in general with regard to anything which had happened in the past.

Their synagogues and their cemeteries were to be restored to them on condition that they would refund their value; or, if these could not be restored, the king would give them the necessary sites at a reasonable price. The books of the Law that had not yet been returned to them were also to be restored, with the exception of the Talmud. After the period of twelve years granted to them the king might not expel the Jews again without giving them a year's time in which to dispose of their property and carry away their goods.

They were not to lend on usury, and no one was to be forced by the king or his officers to repay to them usurious loans. If they engaged in pawnbroking, they were not to take more than two deniers in the pound a week; they were to lend only on pledges. Two men with the title "auditors of the Jews" were entrusted with the execution of this ordinance, and were to take cognizance of all claims that might arise in connection with goods belonging to the Jews which had been sold before the expulsion for less than half of what was regarded as a fair price.

The king finally declared that he took the Jews under his special protection, and that he desired to have their persons and property protected from all violence, injury, and oppression. On 17 September , Charles VI suddenly published an ordinance in which he declared, in substance, that for a long time he had been taking note of the many complaints provoked by the excesses and misdemeanors which the Jews committed against Christians; and that the prosecutors, having made several investigations, had discovered many violations by the Jews of the agreement they had made with him.

Therefore, he decreed as an irrevocable law and statute that thenceforth no Jew should dwell in his domains "Ordonnances", vii. According to the Religieux de St. Denis , the king signed this decree at the insistence of the queen "Chron. Those indebted to them were enjoined to redeem their obligations within a set time; otherwise their pledges held in pawn were to be sold by the Jews. The provost was to escort the Jews to the frontier of the kingdom. Subsequently, the king released the Christians from their debts.

Archaeological evidence has been discovered of a Jewish presence in Provence since at least the 1st century. The earliest documentary evidence for the presence of Jews dates from the middle of the 5th century in Arles. The Jewish presence reached a peak in , when it probably numbered about 15, Provence was not incorporated into France until , and the expulsion edict of did not apply there.

The privileges of the Jews of Provence were confirmed in However, from , anti-Jewish disturbances broke out, with looting and violence perpetrated by laborers from outside the region hired for the harvest season. In some places Jews were protected by the town officials, and they were declared to be under royal protection. However, a voluntary exodus began and was accelerated when similar disorders were repeated in From , one town after another had called for expulsion, but the calls were rejected by Charles VIII.

However, Louis XII , in one of his first acts as king in , issued a general expulsion order of the Jews of Provence. Though not enforced at the time, the order was renewed in and again in On this occasion, it was definitively implemented. The Jews of Provence were given the option of conversion to Christianity and a number chose that option. However, after a short while — if only to compensate partially for the loss of revenues caused by the departure of the Jews — the king imposed a special tax, referred to as "the tax of the neophytes.

During the second half of the 17th century a number of Jews attempted to reestablish themselves in Provence. Before the French Revolution abolished the administrative entity of Provence, the first community outside the southwest, Alsace-Lorraine and Comtat Venaissin, was re-formed in Marseilles. In the beginning of the 17th century Jews began again to re-enter France. This resulted in a new edict of 23 April [41] which forbade Christians, under the penalty of death and confiscation, to shelter Jews or to converse with them. Alsace and Lorraine were the home of a significant number of Jews.

In annexing the provinces in , Louis XIV was at first inclined toward the banishment of Jews living in those provinces, but thought better of it in view of the benefit he could derive from them. On 25 September , he granted these Jews letters patent , taking them under his special protection. This, however, did not prevent them from being subjected to every kind of extortion, and their position remained the same as it had been under the Austrian government. The Regency was no less severe. By the s there were about 40, to 50, Jews in France, chiefly centered in Bordeaux, Metz and a few other cities.

They had very limited rights and opportunities, apart from the money-lending business, but their status was not illegal. In the course of the 18th century the attitude of the authorities toward Jews changed for the better. A spirit of tolerance began to prevail, which corrected the iniquities of previous legislation. The authorities often overlooked infractions of the edict of banishment; a colony of Portuguese and German Jews was tolerated in Paris. The voices of enlightened Christians who demanded justice for the proscribed people, began to be heard.

The humane minister, Malesherbes, summoned a commission of Jewish notables to make suggestions for the amelioration of the condition of their coreligionists. The direct result of the efforts of these men was the abolition, in , of the degrading poll-tax and the permission to settle in all parts of France.

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  • This pamphlet naturally provoked many writings for and against the Jews, and the French public became interested in the question. On the proposition of Roederer the Royal Society of Science and Arts of Metz offered a prize for the best essay in answer to the question: "What are the best means to make the Jews happier and more useful in France?

    Jews in Bordeaux and Bayonne participated in to the election of the Estates-General but those in Alsace, Lorraine and in Paris were denied this right. Herz Cerfbeer , a French-Jewish financier, then asked to Jacques Necker and obtained the right for Jews from eastern France to elect their own delegates. The Cahier written by the Jewish community from eastern France asked for the end of the discriminatory status and taxes targeting Jews.

    The fall of the Bastille was the signal for disorders everywhere in France. In certain districts of Alsace the peasants attacked the dwellings of the Jews, who took refuge in Basel. On 22 December , the Jewish question came again before the Assembly in debating the issue of admitting to public service all citizens without distinction of creed. Only the Portuguese and the Avignonese Jews, who had hitherto enjoyed all civil rights as naturalized Frenchmen, were declared full citizens by a majority of on 28 January This partial victory infused new hope into the Jews of the German districts, who made still greater efforts in the struggle for freedom.

    They won over the eloquent advocate Godard, whose influence in revolutionary circles was considerable. Unfortunately the grave affairs which absorbed the Assembly, the prolonged agitations in Alsace, and the passions of the clerical party kept in check the active propaganda of the Jews and their friends. A few days before the dissolution of the National Assembly 27 September a member of the Jacobin Club, formerly a parliamentary councilor, Duport, unexpectedly ascended the tribune and said,.

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    I believe that freedom of worship does not permit any distinction in the political rights of citizens on account of their creed. The question of the political existence of the Jews has been postponed. Still the Muslems and the men of all sects are admitted to enjoy political rights in France. I demand that the motion for postponement be withdrawn, and a decree passed that the Jews in France enjoy the privileges of full citizens.

    This proposition was accepted amid loud applause. Rewbell endeavored, indeed, to oppose the motion, but he was interrupted by Regnault de Saint-Jean, president of the Assembly, who suggested "that every one who spoke against this motion should be called to order, because he would be opposing the constitution itself". Judaism in France thus became, as the Alsatian deputy Schwendt wrote to his constituents, "nothing more than the name of a distinct religion". However, in Alsace, especially in the Bas-Rhin the reactionaries did not cease their agitations and Jews were victims of discriminations.

    Some synagogues were pillaged and the mayors of a few eastern towns Strasbourg, Troyes, etc. Meanwhile, the French Jews gave proofs of their patriotism and of their gratitude to the land that had emancipated them. Many of them died in battle as part of the Army of the Republic while fighting the forces of Europe in coalition. To contribute to the war fund, candelabra of synagogues were sold, and wealthier Jews deprived themselves of their jewels to make similar contributions. Though the Revolution had begun the process of Jewish emancipation in France, Napoleon also spread the concept in the lands he conquered across Europe, liberating Jews from their ghettos and establishing relative equality for them.

    The net effect of his policies significantly changed the position of the Jews in Europe. Starting in , Napoleon passed a number of measures supporting the position of the Jews in the French Empire, including assembling a representative group elected by the Jewish community, the Grand Sanhedrin. In conquered countries, he abolished laws restricting Jews to ghettos. In , he added Judaism as an official religion of France, with previously sanctioned Roman Catholicism , and Lutheran and Calvinist Protestantism. Despite the positive effects, it is unclear however, whether Napoleon himself was disposed favorably towards the Jews, or merely saw them as a political or financial tool.

    The decree also restricted where Jews could live, especially for those in the eastern French Empire , with all its annexations in the Rhineland and beyond as of , in hopes of assimilating them into society. Many of these restrictions were eased again in and finally abolished in Such of the enemies of the Jews as cherished the hope that the Bourbons would hasten to undo the work of the Revolution with regard to Jewish emancipation were soon disappointed. The emancipation the French Jews had made such progress that the most clerical monarch could not find any pretext for curtailing their rights as citizens.

    They were no longer treated as poor, downtrodden peddlers [ citation needed ] or money-lenders with whom every petty official could do as he liked. Many of them already occupied high positions in the army and the magistracy, as well as in the arts and sciences. Of the faiths recognized by the state, only Judaism had to support its ministers, while those of the Catholic and Protestant churches were supported by the government.

    Encouraged by these prominent men, the minister of education, on 13 November , offered a motion to place Judaism upon an equal footing with Catholicism and Protestantism as regards support for the synagogues and for the rabbis from the public treasury.

    The motion was accompanied by flattering compliments to the French Jews, "who", said the minister, "since the removal of their disabilities by the Revolution, have shown themselves worthy of the privileges granted them". After a short discussion the motion was adopted by a large majority. In January , it passed in the Chamber of Peers by 89 votes to 57, and on 8 February it was ratified by King Louis Philippe, who from the beginning had shown himself favorable to placing Judaism on an equal footing with the other faiths. Shortly afterward the rabbinical college, which had been founded at Metz in , was recognized as a state institution, and was granted a subsidy.

    The government likewise liquidated the debts contracted by various Jewish communities before the Revolution. Full equality did not occur until By the fourth decade of the nineteenth century, France provided an environment in which Jews took active and many times leading roles. For this they were never forgiven by primarily Royalist and Catholic antisemites.

    While the Jews had been placed in every point the equals of their Christian fellow citizens, the oath More Judaico still continued to be administered to them, in spite of the repeated protestations of the rabbis and the consistory. With this act of justice the history of the Jews of France merges into the general history of the French people.

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    The rapidity with which many of them won affluence and distinction in the nineteenth century is without parallel. In spite of the deep-rooted prejudices which prevailed in certain classes of French society, many of them occupied high positions in literature, art, science, jurisprudence, the army—indeed, in every walk of life. In , the Alliance Israelite Universelle was formed "to work everywhere for the emancipation and moral progress of the Jews; to offer effective assistance to Jews suffering from antisemitism; and to encourage all publications calculated to promote this aim.

    People of Jewish faith in France were becoming assimilated into their lives. After their Emancipation in , Jews in France had new freedoms. For example, Jews were allowed to attend schools that were once delegated for just non-Jews. They were also allowed to pray in their own synagogues.

    Lastly, many Jews found themselves moving from the rural areas of France and into the big cities. In these big cities, Jews had new job opportunities and many were advancing up the economic ladder. Although life was looking brighter for these Western Jews, some Jews who lived in Eastern Europe believed that the Emancipation in Western countries were causing the Jews to lose their traditional beliefs and culture.

    As more and more Jews were becoming assimilated into their new lives, these Jews were breaking away from rabbinical law and rabbinical authority decreased. For example, Jews were marrying outside of their religion and their children were growing up in homes where they were not being introduced to traditional beliefs and losing connection with their roots. Also, in these new urbanized Jewish homes, less and less Jews were following the strict laws of Kosher laws.

    Many Jews were so preoccupied with assimilating and prospering in their new lives that they formed a new type of Judaism that would fit with the times. The Reform Movement came about to let Jews stay connected to their roots while also living their lives without so many restrictions. Alphonse Toussenel was a political writer and zoologist who introduced antisemitism into French mainstream thinking.

    A utopian socialist and a disciple of Charles Fourier. He criticized the economic liberalism of the July Monarchy and denounced the ills of civilization: individualism, egoism, and class conflict. He was hostile to the Jews and also to the British. Toussenel's antisemitism was rooted in a revolutionary-nationalist interpretation reading of French history. He was innovative and using zoology as a vehicle for social criticism, and his natural history books, as much as his political writings, were infused with antisemitic and anti-English sentiments. For Toussenel, the English and the Jews represented external and internal threats to French national identity.

    Antisemitism based on racism emerged in the s led by Edouard Drumont , who founded the Antisemitic League of France in , and was the founder and editor of the newspaper La Libre Parole. After spending years of research, he synthesized three major strands of antisemitism. The first strand was traditional Catholic attitudes toward the "Christ killers" augmented by vehement antipathy toward the French Revolution.

    The second strand was hostility to capitalism, of the sort promoted by the Socialist movement. The third strand was scientific racism, based on the argument that races have fixed characteristics, and the Jews have highly negative characteristics. The Dreyfus affair was a major political scandal that convulsed France from until its resolution in , and then had reverberations for decades more. The affair is often seen as a modern and universal symbol of injustice [50] for reasons of state and remains one of the most striking examples of a complex miscarriage of justice where a central role was played by the press and public opinion.

    The issue was blatant antisemitism as practiced by the Army and defended by traditionalists especially Catholics against secular and republican forces, including most Jews.


    In the end the latter triumphed. The affair began in November with the conviction for treason of Captain Alfred Dreyfus , a young French artillery officer of Alsatian Jewish descent. He was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment for allegedly having communicated French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris, Dreyfus was sent to the penal colony at Devil's Island in French Guiana , where he spent almost five years.

    Two years later, in , evidence came to light identifying a French Army major named Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy as the real spy. After high-ranking military officials suppressed the new evidence a military court unanimously acquitted Esterhazy after the second day of his trial. The Army accused Dreyfus of additional charges based on false documents.

    Word of the military court's framing of Dreyfus and of an attendant cover-up began to spread, chiefly owing to J'Accuse…! Activists put pressure on the government to reopen the case. In , Dreyfus was returned to France for another trial. The new trial resulted in another conviction and a year sentence but Dreyfus was given a pardon and set free.

    Eventually all the accusations against Alfred Dreyfus were demonstrated to be baseless. In Dreyfus was exonerated and reinstated as a major in the French Army. The Affair from to divided France deeply and lastingly into two opposing camps: the pro-Army, mostly Catholic "anti-Dreyfusards" who generally lost the initiative to the anticlerical, pro-republican Dreyfusards. It embittered French politics and allowed the radicals to come to power. The relatively small Jewish community was based in Paris, and very well established in the city's business, financial, and intellectual elite.

    A third of Parisian bankers were Jewish, led by the Rothschild family , which also played a dominant role in the well organized Jewish community. The Dreyfus affair to some degree rekindled their sense of being Jewish. The Jews considered themselves fully assimilated into French culture, for them Judaism was entirely a matter of religious belief, with minimal ethnic or cultural dimensions.

    By the time Dreyfus was fully exonerated in , antisemitism declined sharply and it declined again during the First World War, as a nation was aware that many Jews died fighting for France. However it soared during the s. After a wave of Jewish immigrants arrived, mostly fleeing the pogroms of Eastern Europe. The flow temporarily halted during World War I, but resumed afterwards.

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