While there, he befriended Giuseppe Garibaldi , whom he had long admired and with whom he shared a commitment to liberal republican principles as well as membership within Freemasonry. Despite Dumas' aristocratic background and personal success, he had to deal with discrimination related to his mixed-race ancestry. In , he wrote a short novel, Georges , that addressed some of the issues of race and the effects of colonialism.
His response to a man who insulted him about his African ancestry has become famous. Dumas said:. My father was a mulatto , my grandfather was a Negro, and my great-grandfather a monkey. You see, Sir, my family starts where yours ends. She had performed her sensational role in Mazeppa in London. In Paris, she had a sold-out run of Les Pirates de la Savanne and was at the peak of her success.
These women were among Dumas' nearly 40 mistresses found by scholar Claude Schopp, in addition to three natural children. His death was overshadowed by the Franco-Prussian War. Changing literary fashions decreased his popularity. In the late twentieth century, scholars such as Reginald Hamel and Claude Schopp have caused a critical reappraisal and new appreciation of his art, as well as finding lost works.
Frank Wild Reed — , the older brother of Dunedin publisher A. Reed , was a busy Whangarei pharmacist who never visited France, yet he amassed the greatest collection of books and manuscripts relating to Dumas outside France. It contains about volumes, including some sheets in Dumas' handwriting and dozens of French, Belgian and English first editions.
This collection was donated to Auckland Libraries after his death. With you, we were D'Artagnan, Monte Cristo, or Balsamo, riding along the roads of France, touring battlefields, visiting palaces and castles—with you, we dream. His novels have been translated into nearly languages. In addition, they have inspired more than motion pictures.
Dumas described a fictional character killing Lord Nelson Nelson was shot and killed by an unknown sniper. Writing and publishing the novel serially in , Dumas had nearly finished it before his death. It was the third part of the Sainte-Hermine trilogy. Claude Schopp, a Dumas scholar, noticed a letter in an archive in that led him to discover the unfinished work. It took him years to research it, edit the completed portions, and decide how to treat the unfinished part.
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Schopp finally wrote the final two-and-a-half chapters, based on the author's notes, to complete the story. Translated into English, it was released in as The Last Cavalier , and has been translated into other languages. Schopp has since found additional material related to the Saints-Hermine saga.
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Schopp combined them to publish the sequel Le Salut de l'Empire in Dumas is briefly mentioned in the film The Shawshank Redemption. The inmate Heywood mispronounces Dumas' last name as "dumbass" as he files books in the prison library. Dumas is briefly mentioned in the film Django Unchained. The Southern slaveholder Calvin Candie expressed admiration for Dumas, owning his books in his library and even naming one of his slaves D'Artagnan.
He is surprised to learn from another white man that Dumas had black ancestry.
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Alexandre Dumas wrote numerous stories and historical chronicles of high adventure. They included the following:. The Valois were the royal house of France from to , and many of Dumas romances cover their reign. Traditionally, the so-called "Valois Romances" are the three that portray the Reign of Queen Marguerite , the last of the Valois:. The Marie Antoinette romances comprise eight novels. The unabridged versions normally chapters or more comprise only five books numbers 1,3,4,7 and 8 ; the short versions 50 chapters or less number eight in total:.
Although best known now as a novelist, Dumas first earned fame as a dramatist. It had fifty performances over the next year, extraordinary at the time. Dumas wrote many plays and adapted several of his novels as dramas. Dumas was a prolific writer of nonfiction. He wrote journal articles on politics and culture and books on French history.
His lengthy Grand Dictionnaire de cuisine Great Dictionary of Cuisine was published posthumously in A combination of encyclopaedia and cookbook, it reflects Dumas' interests as both a gourmet and an expert cook. An abridged version the Petit Dictionnaire de cuisine , or Small Dictionary of Cuisine was published in Alexandre Dumas in his library, by Maurice Leloir.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It is later learned that Dracula successfully purchased multiple estates under the alias 'Count De Ville' throughout London and devised to distribute the 50 boxes to each of them utilizing transportation services as well as moving them himself. He does this to secure for himself "lairs" and the 50 boxes of earth would be used as his graves which would grant safety and rest during times of feeding and replenishing his strength.
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Lucy receives three marriage proposals from Dr. Lucy accepts Holmwood's proposal while turning down Seward and Morris, but all remain friends. Dracula communicates with Seward's patient, Renfield , an insane man who wishes to consume insects, spiders, birds, and rats to absorb their "life force". Renfield is able to detect Dracula's presence and supplies clues accordingly. Soon Dracula is indirectly shown to be stalking Lucy. As time passes she begins to suffer from episodes of sleepwalking and dementia, as witnessed by Mina. When Lucy begins to waste away suspiciously, Seward invites his old teacher, Abraham Van Helsing , who immediately determines the true cause of Lucy's condition.
He refuses to disclose it but diagnoses her with acute blood-loss. Van Helsing prescribes numerous blood transfusions to which he, Seward, Quincey, and Arthur all contribute over time. Van Helsing also prescribes garlic flowers to be placed throughout her room and weaves a necklace of withered garlic blossoms for her to wear. However she continues to waste away — appearing to lose blood every night.
While both doctors are absent, Lucy and her mother are attacked by a wolf and Mrs. Westenra, who has a heart condition, dies of fright. Van Helsing attempts to protect her with garlic but fate thwarts him each night, whether Lucy's mother removes the garlic from her room, or Lucy herself does so in her restless sleep. The doctors have found two small puncture marks about her neck, which Dr. Seward is at a loss to understand. After Lucy dies, Van Helsing places a golden crucifix over her mouth, ostensibly to delay or prevent Lucy's vampiric conversion.
Fate conspires against him again when Van Helsing finds the crucifix in the possession of one of the servants who stole it off Lucy's corpse. Following Lucy's death and burial, the newspapers report children being stalked in the night by a "bloofer lady" i. The suitors and Van Helsing track her down and, after a confrontation with her, stake her heart, behead her, and fill her mouth with garlic.
Around the same time, Jonathan Harker arrives from Budapest , where Mina marries him after his escape, and he and Mina join the campaign against Dracula. The vampire hunters stay at Dr. Seward's residence, holding nightly meetings and providing reports based on each of their various tasks. Mina discovers that each of their journals and letters collectively contain clues to which they can track him down. She tasks herself with collecting them, researching newspaper clippings, fitting the most relevant entries into chronological order and typing out copies to distribute to each of the party which they are to study.
Jonathan Harker tracks down the shipments of boxed graves and the estates which Dracula has purchased in order to store them. Van Helsing conducts research along with Dr. Seward to analyze the behaviour of their patient Renfield who they learn is directly influenced by Dracula. They also research historical events, folklore, and superstitions from various cultures to understand Dracula's powers and weaknesses.
Van Helsing also establishes a criminal profile on Dracula in order to better understand his actions and predict his movements. Arthur Holmwood's fortune assists in funding the entire operation and expenses. As they discover the various properties Dracula had purchased, the male protagonists team up to raid each property and are several times confronted by Dracula.
As they discover each of the boxed graves scattered throughout London, they pry them open to place and seal wafers of sacramental bread within. This act renders the boxes of earth completely useless to Dracula as he is unable to open, enter or further transport them. After Dracula learns of the group's plot against him, he attacks Mina on three occasions, and feeds Mina his own blood to control her.
This curses Mina with vampirism and changes her but does not completely turn her into a vampire. Van Helsing attempts to bless Mina through prayer and by placing a wafer of sacrament against her forehead, but it burns her upon contact leaving a wretched scar. Under this curse, Mina oscillates from consciousness to a semi-trance during which she perceives Dracula's surroundings and actions.
Van Helsing is able to use hypnotism twice a day, at dawn and at sunset, to put her into this trance to further track Dracula's movements. Mina, afraid of Dracula's link with her, urges the team not to tell her their plans out of fear that Dracula will be listening. After the protagonists discover and sterilize 49 boxes found throughout his lairs in London, they learn that Dracula has fled with the missing 50th box back to his castle in Transylvania. They pursue him under the guidance of Mina. They split up into teams once they reach Europe; Van Helsing and Mina team up to locate the castle of Dracula while the others attempt to ambush the boat Dracula is using to reach his home.
Van Helsing raids the castle and destroys the vampire "sisters". Upon discovering Dracula being transported by Gypsies , the three teams converge and attack the caravan carrying Dracula in the 50th box of Earth. After dispatching many Gypsies who were sworn to protect the Count, Harker shears Dracula through the throat with a kukri knife , while the mortally wounded Quincey stabs the Count in the heart with a Bowie knife. Dracula crumbles to dust, and Mina is freed from her curse of vampirism, as the scar on her forehead disappears. Soon after, Quincey dies from his wounds.
The book closes with a note left by Jonathan Harker seven years after the events of the novel, detailing his married life with Mina and the birth of their son, whom they name after all four members of the party, but address as "Quincey". Quincey is depicted sitting on the knee of Van Helsing as they recount their adventure. Seward and Arthur have each gotten married.
A small section was removed from a draft of the final chapter, in which Dracula's castle falls apart as he dies, hiding the fact that vampires were ever there. As we looked there came a terrible convulsion of the earth so that we seemed to rock to and fro and fell to our knees. At the same moment with a roar which seemed to shake the very heavens the whole castle and the rock and even the hill on which it stood seemed to rise into the air and scatter in fragments while a mighty cloud of black and yellow smoke volume on volume in rolling grandeur was shot upwards with inconceivable rapidity.
Then there was a stillness in nature as the echoes of that thunderous report seemed to come as with the hollow boom of a thunder-clap — the long reverberating roll which seems as though the floors of heaven shook. Then down in a mighty ruin falling whence they rose came the fragments that had been tossed skywards in the cataclysm. From where we stood it seemed as though the one fierce volcano burst had satisfied the need of nature and that the castle and the structure of the hill had sunk again into the void.
We were so appalled with the suddenness and the grandeur that we forgot to think of ourselves. Between and , Stoker was a business manager for the Lyceum Theatre in London, where he supplemented his income by writing a large number of sensational novels, his most successful being the vampire tale Dracula published on 26 May Throughout the s and s, authors such as H. Wells wrote many tales in which fantastic creatures threatened the British Empire. Invasion literature was at a peak, and Stoker's formula was very familiar by to readers of fantastic adventure stories, of an invasion of England by continental European influences.
Victorian readers enjoyed Dracula as a good adventure story like many others, but it did not reach its legendary status until later in the 20th century when film versions began to appear. Before writing Dracula , Stoker spent seven years researching European folklore and stories of vampires, being most influenced by Emily Gerard 's essay "Transylvania Superstitions" which includes content about a vampire myth. Later he also claimed that he had a nightmare, caused by eating too much crab meat, about a "vampire king" rising from his grave.
Although it is a widely known vampire novel, Dracula was not the first. John Polidori created the image of a vampire portrayed as an aristocratic man, like the character of Dracula, in his tale " The Vampyre " The Lyceum Theatre where Stoker worked between and was headed by actor-manager Henry Irving , who was Stoker's real-life inspiration for Dracula's mannerisms and who Stoker hoped would play Dracula in a stage version. The Dead Un-Dead was one of Stoker's original titles for Dracula , and the manuscript was entitled simply The Un-Dead up until a few weeks before publication.
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Stoker's notes for Dracula show that the name of the count was originally "Count Wampyr", but Stoker became intrigued by the name "Dracula" while doing research, after reading William Wilkinson 's book An Account of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia with Political Observations Relative to Them London ,  which he found in the Whitby Library and consulted a number of times during visits to Whitby in the s.
In the present day however, dracul means "the devil". Costing six shillings, the novel was bound yellow cloth and titled in red letters. Dracula was not an immediate bestseller when it was first published, although reviewers were unstinting in their praise. According to literary historians Nina Auerbach and David J. Skal in the Norton Critical Edition, the novel has become more significant for modern readers than it was for Victorian readers, most of whom enjoyed it just as a good adventure story. It reached its broad and iconic status only later in the 20th century when the movie versions appeared.
It did not make much money for Stoker. Murnau's unauthorized adaptation of the story was released in theatres in in the form of Nosferatu.
Stoker's widow took affront and, during the legal battle that followed, the novel's popularity started to grow. Nosferatu was followed by a highly successful stage adaptation, touring the UK for three years before arriving in the US where Stoker's creation caught Hollywood's attention and, after the American movie version was released, the book has never been out of print.
However, some Victorian fans were ahead of the time, describing it as "the sensation of the season" and "the most blood-curdling novel of the paralysed century". I think it is the very best story of diablerie which I have read for many years. Similarly good reviews appeared when the book was published in the U. More filters. Sort order. Feb 23, Vida Mraz rated it really liked it. Unrelenting and gut-wrenching, Last Call kept me misty-eyed, glued to its pages, shaking my head, cursing out loud at hard-to-take chapters, and feeling miserable.
No happiness here — just superb writing. Jan 22, Irene Moreno rated it it was amazing. This book was a heart wrencher. I couldn't believe L. But to see her come to in the end was a good sign. This series is addicting! Jan 04, Murphy rated it it was amazing. Love this series and this writer! Theapapi rated it it was amazing Nov 04, Lisa Williams rated it really liked it Mar 13, Dharma rated it liked it Jul 01, Diane rated it really liked it Mar 10, Svetla rated it it was amazing Jan 06, Mary rated it it was amazing Nov 13, Joe Cole rated it liked it Apr 03, Jim rated it it was ok Jul 28, M rated it really liked it Oct 18, Lyrical rated it it was amazing Jul 07, Griffin Bates rated it really liked it Mar 01, Melissa rated it really liked it Mar 02, Liz rated it it was amazing Feb 01, Marque rated it it was amazing Nov 15, Laurie rated it liked it Jul 16, Mary rated it it was amazing Dec 08,
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