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NIST team reports strides on stability and accuracy of non-contact thermal-infrared-detecting instruments for field use. Optics of Photosynthesis Lab says better detection of chlorophyll fluorescence improves sensing of terrestrial carbon sinks, plant health. Blocking an immune-related molecule lodged in blood vessels stops memory loss -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.
Light pollution is threatening the night sky, a phenomenon that has left the Milky Way invisible to one-third of the The ability to optically detect nanoparticles and single molecules could be improved by introducing a sensor that is based on Most companies conduct a financial audit once a year. Publishing companies, however, undergo an audit of their circulation. The audits Trial on 60 patients in Czech Republic indicates potential for more rapid treatment of atrial fibrillation. Plans for thousands of new communications satellites would revolutionize global telecommunications but also raise risks of disaster in Earth orbit From Indonesia to Sweden, educating children on the importance of photonics will be a major goal of International Day of Moonquakes still shake and reshape the lunar surface in ways that could threaten future astronauts and habitats -- Read more Coherent Solutions and ficonTEC Services have partnered to advance electro-optical measurement capability for use in volume testing within the manufacturing A new microchip contains a network of artificial neurons that works with light and can imitate the behavior of the SAIC to research laser bioeffects, advance vision science, Nanopixels that are 1 million times smaller than those being used in smartphones have been constructed from gold nanoparticles encapsulated A photoswitching scaffold called Donor-Acceptor Stenhouse Adducts DASAs has shown exceptional versatility and could expand the functionality and use of Donald Battistoni has joined Headwall Photonics as vice president of sales and marketing where he is leading and developing the To prevent sandhill cranes from colliding with power lines as they fly to roosting sites, scientists at EDM International mounted A new study suggests primordial seawater may lurk hidden at the hearts of many comets -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.
Continued market weakness in automotive, lighting and mobile devices hits photonics giant, which announces remedial actions. In the past, measles outbreaks have been brought under control with vaccines, but the dynamic may be shifting -- Read A nanodevice for harvesting solar energy, called an evolutive dipole nanoantenna EDN , has demonstrated the ability to generate a thermoelectric Infinera Corp. Visionlink is now a new distribution partner with Vision Components GmbH, together serving the industrial, scientific, medical, and security market Greek researchers believe that a new all-optical architecture could help resolve a long-standing bottleneck between CPUs and RAM.
Fraunhofer ILT project eVerest develops laser machine that triple production rate of tools for car parts. PerkinElmer's DA optical analyzer provides food processors with "improved quality and process control". On its own, the neural network seems to recap a process experienced by human infants -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.
Researchers from the University of Padova have developed an all-fiber device to generate the quantum states necessary for quantum key A photo-electrochemical device, combined with a solar concentrator, could lead to cheaper, more efficient production of solar-irradiation-derived hydrogen fuel. A new study adds to growing evidence that immune system dysfunction and altered gut microbes may contribute to the development Researchers at the University of Innsbruck have demonstrated a method for measuring visible light particles nondestructively.
The method could be Overall sales up but photonics segment down amid weak macroeconomic environment and microelectronics slowdown. First full quarter since Oclaro acquisition, results include impact of restructure and costs related to shift in datacom strategy. Tuesday morning speakers covered applications ranging from cancer treatment to self-driving vehicles.
Study on 22 patients with the disease shows that real-time diagnostic and staging approach is 'feasible and safe'. Sales and earnings up strongly again, thanks in part to the growing contribution of extreme ultraviolet optics. A CLEO workshop explored the long road ahead in the quest for universal, fault-tolerant quantum computers—and what they might be Radiant Vision Systems, a provider of visual test and measurement solutions for lighting and displays, has opened an office in Physicists from the University of Vienna and the Institute of Photonic Sciences have shown that graphene structures can be tailored A proposed experiment to swap fundamental properties between photons carries profound implications for our understanding of reality itself -- Read New technique creates working models—with a little help from grocery-store food coloring -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.
The International Day of Light, a global initiative that celebrates the central role of light in science, culture, art, education, Nikon Metrology NV and Pixelink have entered into a strategic partnership to accelerate sales of affordable industrial microscopy cameras in Researchers may have already glimpsed the first-known exomoon—a satellite of a planet orbiting another star; but confirmation of that potential Lab on a Chip is delighted to share with you our Thematic Collection on droplet-based single-cell sequencing. The droplet-based single-cell Lab on a Chip is delighted to share with you our Thematic Collection on personalised medicine-liquid biopsy.
This collection of Mathieu Odijk is an associate Professor at the University of Twente running his own research theme on Micro- and Nanodevices UK-based epitaxial wafer foundry expecting two more customers to move to scale in next few weeks. A better understanding of the interaction between laser and metal could give industry more control over laser welding, according to Thorlabs will acquire Columbia, S. Digital Metrology Solutions, a provider of measurement software, consulting, and training founded in by Mark Malburg, is marking its Basler Inc.
Capacity of first US quantum-secured optical network "Phio" boosted, making affordable secure communications for Wall Street traders. Physicists, philosophers debate whether research can ever solve certain mysteries of the universe—and the human mind -- Read more on Leading edge of 5G network deployments and a strong uptick in bookings from China and India help fill the order Low-cost, high-spec scope from University of Connecticut suits low-resource situations, such as in developing countries.
Australian team uses computational light field imaging through multimode fiber, potentially deepening the views available from clinical endoscopes. An obscure nocturnal phenomenon prevents the night sky from becoming completely dark. Even if the moon, all artificial lights, and Research has ground to a halt, and many scientists have left the country out of desperation -- Read more on Nikon will manufacture lidar sensors for Velodyne with plans to start mass production later in Mass production of new laser diodes key as IPG seeks to extend its competitive edge in fiber lasers.
Design allows for system miniaturization and long-life solutions where previous technologies could not; also intended to replace mercury lamps. Machine vision specialist reports strong growth in logistics applications, offset by weaker demand elsewhere. RMIT University gathers data for stereo imaging from the fiber bundles commonly used in 2D endoscopy. A growing body of research is challenging the assumption that neonicotinoids are safer and less likely to spread than other A new approach to solar sail design using diffractive optics could enable spacecraft to photograph the poles of the sun Quantum memory efficiency, an essential component for quantum computers, is the focus of joint research from the Hong Kong University A team June event in Munich will feature presentation by Anton Zeilinger alongside application panels and numerous exhibitors offering quantum expertise.
Danish—German research team believes that coupled-waveguide architecture could help enable practical quantum photonic logic gates for multi-qubit quantum computing. Because lasers can offer less-invasive procedures for both diagnosis and treatment, their role in the medical field is on the Each year, Atomic layer deposition thin film coating with passivation boosts output and energy efficiency of micro-LEDs.
The human energizer can also improve the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells -- Read more on ScientificAmerican. The active ingredient in a strong cup of coffee can rev up the efficiency and staying power of some next-gen A new detector using photonics to identify E. University of Copenhagen researchers have developed a nanocomponent, called a nanomechanical router, that emits quantum information carried by photons and Ravi Guntupalli has been appointed vice president and general manager of Teledyne Princeton Instruments, part of Teledyne Technologies Inc.
Scalable quantum computing. Multiphoton microscopy for noninvasive brain imaging. The latest chapter on laser-matter interactions. These subjects and more are When an ultrathin magnet is hit with a laser, it demagnetizes and then recovers. Scientists at the University of Colorado Conservation plans should consider such links between land-based and marine ecosystems -- Read more on ScientificAmerican. Purveyors of hyperspectral cameras, retinal imaging systems, and high-performance lighting recognized in annual awards for enterprise.
New study gets closer to restoring natural communication for those who cannot speak -- Read more on ScientificAmerican. Researchers create photoresponsive molecules that can be used to externally control how bacteria react to their environment and regulate gene The startup understand. Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology Tokyo Tech have discovered a way to make a submicron-size cylinder disappear without using Kit developed by Physical Optics Corporation expected to produce high-performance fiber on board International Space Station. Applied Energetics has appointed Gregory J.
Quarles as president, CEO, and board member, effective May 6. He will lead the Photronics Inc. We are pleased to announce the release of the Semrock Master Catalog. Mantis shrimp — a distant relative of the prawn that hang off the edges of cocktail glasses — were the Approach offered by U. For the first time, researchers have successfully 3D-printed chalcogenide glass, a unique material used to make optical components that operate Presents driver of armored fighting vehicle with twin images of surroundings in shortwave or visible light formats. Team at two Rochester institutions combines theory and experiment to create a phonon laser using optical tweezers and clever feedback Researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital MGH in Boston are conducting a feasibility study to determine the initial safety and efficacy Nearly two million tiny tremors could help explain the inner workings of key faults -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.
Fatty liver disease, linked to gene interactions with a high-sugar diet, can cause cancer and organ failure -- Read more A still-controversial test could be administered to toddlers to gauge their chances -- Read more on ScientificAmerican. Results may explain why collective action on climate change and health policy is so difficult -- Read more on ScientificAmerican. Patent and Trademark Office for its next-generation, diamond-based multilayer With the deliveries Optical sensing technology company Neonode Inc.
According to the Cobolt Inc. Showers of interstellar debris could speed up the assembly of worlds around young stars -- Read more on ScientificAmerican. Camera giant FLIR uses Baltimore expo to showcase latest generation of thermal kit designed for auto-safety systems. Progress with upgraded equipment and EUV tool optics will see lithography technology migrate into memory chip production. Cosmologist Lee Smolin says that at certain key points, the scientific worldview is based on fallacious reasoning -- Read more An expert offers a scientific perspective on what has been lost and what can be restored -- Read more on A phonon laser based on the optical tweezing technique invented by Nobel Prize recipient Arthur Ashkin was developed by researchers Yes, you A new way to passivate defects in next-generation optical materials could improve quality in optoelectronic applications and enable the miniaturization The ultrashort-pulse ultrafast laser domain is on the rise in a growing number of biomedical applications, from multiphoton imaging and Effectively changing public understanding of science, according to two organizational-behavior researchers, requires not just facts, but efforts to build trust Palomar Technologies has expanded its Innovation Center in Singapore to meet the demanding assembly needs of advanced photonics packages.
A new technique for decontaminating organs before transplantation using UV and red light irradiation has been developed by researchers at Known for climate change work, the pioneer says global warming, AI and genetic engineering are self-inflicted threats to humanity Long-serving executive has worked at the laser company since ; global search for successor under way.
Atmospheric currents are transporting plastic pollution into remote, pristine areas, showing the global nature of the problem -- Read more In an agreement with the U. A new optical nanosensor could be used to quickly detect leaks when hydrogen mixes with air. Hydrogen, a clean and The science and art of password setting and cracking continues to evolve, as does the war between password users and The anesthetic-cum-party drug restores the ability to make connections among brain cells -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.
Approach of German—U. AIM Photonics is getting ready for its Summer Academy, a week of intensive short courses on integrated photonics. Engineers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have developed a compact, single-shot, free-space-coupled spectrometer with hyperspectral imaging capabilities that can be The second tiny ancestor found in the islands of southeast Asia, Homo luzonensis challenges prevailing views of early human dispersal Floods dump tons of pathogen-laden manure into U.
Active Silicon has opened a new, state-of-the-art production and operations facility in Langley, England, where the company has relocated its Currently, rapid data transfer via optical fiber is accomplished by transmitting light signals that code data by modulating the light Social neuroscientists ask what happens at the level of neurons when you tell someone a story or a group watches After more than a decade of effort, a global network of radio telescopes has revealed the first-ever picture of an Engineers create metamaterial devices with unique optical and electrical properties by combining 3-D printing technology with metal-coating and wet-etching techniques.
The Event Horizon Telescope EHT captured the first picture of a black hole by using its eight ground-based radio telescopes New combination of fiber laser and waveguide could help adoptiom of chip-integrated sensing technology. The fabrication methods used A picture may be worth more than a thousand words after passing through mathematical algorithms and modern computer hardware.
The discovery helps explain why pyroclastic flows can travel so far, so fast -- Read more on ScientificAmerican. Researchers are unraveling the psychological reasons why some people relentlessly self-diagnose themselves online for hours a day -- Read more Engineers fashion strong polymer films that allow simultaneous tuning of thermal and color properties, with potential applications in architecture and Researchers at the California Institute of Technology Caltech are investigating ways in which to better image cancer cells by using SPI Lasers, the U.
Using a technique that someday could help alleviate data congestion and prevent information loss, University of Central Florida UCF researchers Domestic felines distinguish between their monikers and similar-sounding words, new research shows -- Read more on ScientificAmerican. Racial and ethnic minorities have less access to solar power, regardless of income, highlighting the need for environmental justice The iron core of what was once a world has been found around a white dwarf star, shedding light on A new technology can rapidly rebuild a protective coating on existing lead pipes, but some consider this approach impractical Combining a dielectric metasurface with hyperspectral imaging results in a sensor that can analyze individual molecules at extremely low concentrations.
Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT have optically engineered a polymer material to allow its color and thermal A novel composition of germanosilicate glass, created by adding zinc oxide, has properties that could be valuable for lens applications Poking around a store in Point Warfare is not as simple as it once was when sovereign nations waged armed conflict against one another until one The global machine vision equipment market is expected to grow at a CAGR of An interactive vision-guided assembly system and some of the latest solutions for factory automation will be exhibited by Leoni Engineering Researchers at Washington University in St.
Five pigs were tested from each herd and examined for seven genes for antimicrobial resistance.
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The geographical location had a limited impact on the levels of antimicrobial resistance, while lifetime exposure to antimicrobial agents had a clear effect on these levels. However, antibiotic consumption can only explain up to approximately 40 per cent of the variation in the resistance level — so it is clear that other — as yet unknown — factors are involved.
Vast amounts of data are collected minute by minute from wind turbines around the world. In connection with his business PhD at Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy, Martin Bach-Andersen from DTU Compute has found new ways to treat these data flows—providing insights which can be used to lower wind turbines maintenance costs and increase wind turbine uptimes.
Martin Bach-Andersen demonstrates how simple data streams from sensors using more advanced data modelling techniques can be used to issue warnings about critical faults in the turbine over a month earlier than existing alarm systems. In addition, he shows that artificial intelligence machine learning can solve one of the most complex tasks associated with remote wind turbine diagnostics—namely early fault identification—using complex vibration patterns.
In some cases, this system can detect faults months before human experts. Wind turbine owners and operators can utilise data from these systems directly to optimize maintenance and keep the turbines operational—possibly reducing the cost of wind energy over the long term. The transition to sustainable energy sources such as solar and wind power is revolutionizing the global energy landscape.
This, in turn, means that electrochemical and biochemical processes will play an increasingly major role in chemical industries. In order to obtain a more fundamental understanding of these processes there is a need for rapid and sensitive measurements in real time.
The instrument, which uses a mass spectrometer to analyse volatile reaction products in liquids, has been used to detect two new phenomena—which would otherwise not have been visible—in electrochemical processes. Both discoveries reveal important information on fundamental mechanisms in electrochemical reactions and illustrate the huge potential for similar discoveries in the future.
Salmon producers in the aquaculture industry require fish feed with high energy densities and premium physical quality. The feed must contain 40 per cent fat while being able to withstand heavy exposure to external influences en route to the fish cages. At the same time, the feed pellets must not disintegrate or leak oil. A better understanding of the structural impact of the fish feed pellet on the physical quality of the feed is needed in order to address these challenges. In order to achieve this structure, he has developed new nozzles for the production of fish feed.
Fish feed pellets from these nozzles are far stronger and leak far less oil than pellets from traditional nozzles. His dissertation—and the development of the new nozzle technology—has so far resulted in two patent applications. Offshore support structures are thus very heavy and costly to build, move, and install.
Better design will be able to significantly reduce offshore wind expenditure and thus contribute to making wind energy even more profitable. This has never been done before and the method can become a valuable tool for engineers. The method is valuable in the early design phase, while more time-consuming and advanced methods can be used when the design is almost complete. More than one in ten of the larger waterworks has problems removing ammonium below the limit value for drinking water. This is problematic, as it can lead to the growth of micro-organisms in the water supply on its way to consumers.
During the production of drinking water from groundwater, ammonium is commonly removed through a process of nitrification using quick sand filters at the waterworks. Nitrification is a biological process, whereby microorganisms oxidize ammonium into nitrite—and subsequently into nitrate. Among other things, the process requires small amounts of copper. He developed a new method and a new apparatus for dosing copper in very low—and non-polluting—concentrations. Studies were conducted at ten waterworks, and in all of them, the ammonium disappeared, on average, after 19 days.
The effect lasted for over days. Methanation is the conversion of synthesis gas CO and H2 , typically from coal—or biomass into methane. Methane is the main component of natural gas, and as the natural gas infrastructure is well established in Denmark, it is an attractive alternative to the soon exhausted oil reserves. Methanation catalysts are most often based on nickel due to the relatively low price of nickel and an acceptable activity level.
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Unfortunately, they tend to deactivate due to sintering particles clumping together and the formation of carbon. Carbon formation is not a well-described process, and Sine Olesen from DTU Physics has therefore contributed to a greater understanding of carbon formation on nickel catalysts. Four types of carbon were identified, and one type in particular was shown to deactivate the catalyst.
The results showed that temperature in particular has a big influence on which types of carbon are deposited. In the long term, this knowledge may help to extend the life of nickel catalysts. According to EU legislation, all new buildings must be as close as possible to zero energy before the end of Windows are key to whether these requirements can be balanced with a well-lit, pleasant indoor environment that promotes human well-being—and roof windows are a particularly effective source of natural daylight.
Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen Skarning from DTU Civil Engineering identified and compared the various combinations of window sizes and qualities that would make it possible to meet energy, daylight, and thermal comfort requirements. She found that the best standard roof windows can be improved in a way that makes the construction of almost zero-energy houses easier and more cost-effective. Improvements in the roof windows—which reduced heat losses in windows and frame structures—showed savings in the order of EUR per m2 improved window. If similar improvements can be made available within the financial framework, almost zero-energy houses can be built in a more cost-efficient way than at present.
Flux of CO2 from natural ecosystems into the atmosphere plays a crucial role in determining the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere—and its effect on the climate. Flux can be divided into several components—among them CO2 from plants and soil—each of which may react differently to ongoing climate change. Around the world, CO2-flux is often measured using the so-called closed chamber method—but the method has certain drawbacks.
For example, the contribution is overestimated during periods with calm wind conditions. Andreas Braendholt from DTU Environment has quantified the effect of this methodological bias and developed a method that permits precise measurements—even in calm weather. Overall, the dissertation can lead to better predictions as to whether the natural ecosystems will contribute to reducing or worsening the effects of climate change, thus providing a better understanding of the social changes needed in order for us to adapt to the negative consequences of climate change.
In hospitals, the vital parameters of critically ill patients—e. Most medical alarms do not require action, but are due to the fact that the parameters are taken in isolation and out of context. This forces staff to prioritize critical situations—and in the worst-case scenario—results in critical conditions being overlooked and a patient dying. This makes it easier to navigate through extensive patient records and allows for new methods for forming an overview of the condition of the patient during hospitalization. When companies develop a new product, design and functionality are equally important if the product is to be competitive.
By examining the perception of different vases, she has succeeded in identifying the aesthetic features that have the biggest impact on the perception of a product. Her research, which has resulted in a new method and two IT tools, can be used by designers to find new aesthetic product solutions targeted at specific perceptions in consumers. Medical science often faces major challenges in detecting cancer in time for the patient to be treated effectively.
He has demonstrated how magnetic waves hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to detect earlier stages of cancer than has previously been possible. The technology can also spare cancer patients a great deal of suffering and discomfort, as it speeds up the process of determining whether a given treatment will work before adverse reactions occur.
Gene evolution is an extremely complex area of study, as we are unable to see it taking place with our own eyes. However, if we examine the evolution at macro level, we can see how bacterial genes change when they clone themselves. This bacteria, which lives in nature as a harmless soil bacterium, can develop into a hazardous infection in humans.
By studying changes in the bacterial DNA structure over time, Sandra Wingaard Thrane has shown how the bacterium can become immune to external influences—e. The thesis can be a step on the way to designing better treatment for patients and preventing more dangerous bacteria developing resistance through contact with medicinal products.
Chemotherapy is one of the most important forms of cancer treatment. Unfortunately, it is often hampered by low efficacy and serious side affects. By encapsulating the chemotherapeutic drug in liposomal nanoparticles fat membrane with liquid core , the drug can be released directly at the tumour site, thus reducing contact with healthy tissue. However, many liposomes are too stable and will not release the drug into the tumour. This problem can be overcome by manipulating the liposomes with a sustained release mechanism. The systems are sensitive to particular enzymes in the tumour so that the meeting with the enzyme leads to an increased uptake of the liposome in cancer cells—or degradation of the liposome and release of the drug outside the cell.
However, cancer is a very complex disease and very often chemotherapy cannot stand alone. Therefore, experiments on mice with the liposomal oxaliplatin were combined with an immunostimulating agent. This treatment cured 80 per cent of the treated mice. Electrification of the transport sector is a crucial element in global climate change adaptation. Thus, electric cars can support the reduction of CO2 emissions. It may prove challenging to integrate them into the distribution network, as charging many electric cars can overload the electricity grid. With smart management of charging and discharging, electric vehicles will not constitute a burden.
On the contrary, they can be used as a flexible resource to support the grid. Katarina Knezovic from DTU Electrical Engineering has demonstrated how electric cars can actively support grid operation, and how network operators can benefit from electric vehicle properties without significantly increasing costs. She has also demonstrated how mass produced electric cars even now can support different grid services with short response times. However, there is still a gap between political green visions, current standards, and regulatory frameworks. Thus, her dissertation provides a number of recommendations for future adjustments to standards and regulatory frameworks.
The walls in the plant cells account for almost 50 per cent of the biomass available in terrestrial plants and algae—and many of their components already have important industrial uses—among other things—in food and biomedical industries. For example, glucoses from red algae carrageenan oligosaccharides as a stabilizer in chocolate milk and ice cream.
In order to optimize the production and utilization of glucose, there is a need for a better understanding of the cell walls at the molecular level—and here—most studies have focused on terrestrial plants. However, terrestrial plants originate from algae, so greater knowledge of algae cell walls can help to provide a more basic understanding of all plant cell walls. At the same time, this knowledge can be used to design more complex sugars which can be produced by chemical synthesis.
Christine Kinnaert from DTU Chemistry has developed a strategy that allows for the synthetic production of ten types of carrageenan oligosaccharides from a single, sophisticated synthetic product. In , Eastern Denmark experienced an eight-hour power outage and technicians discovered that the electricity grid was moving in a problematic direction. Renewable energy sources and the introduction of market mechanisms in the power grid are making operation ever more complex, and it is uncertain whether the current level of stability can be maintained.
Intelligent or flexible electricity consumption—where certain units such as refrigerators or electric cars postpone their consumption—might be the answer. Martin Lindholm Wittrock from DTU Electrical Engineering has devised an algorithm that makes it possible to determine the loads with the greatest impact on stability—and how much these loads need to utilize their flexible reserve to ensure stability. There is growing interest in introducing separate collection of bio-waste from households, restaurants, and commercial and industrial sources with a view to producing biogas. However, there are technical challenges and barriers that must be overcome in order to render biogas production more attractive—among other things—the need to quantify the potential for different types of urban organic waste.
This is typically done by analysing the biochemical methane potential BMP and by the anaerobic gasification of biogas reactors. However, determining the BMP is extremely time-consuming and can take anywhere from 30 to 90 days—or more. By combining analytical methods and modelling, Temesgen Fitamo from DTU Environment developed a fast, reliable, and robust method for predicting BMP from biowaste of urban origin.
The model provides an initial estimate of BMP and biochemical transformation in less than 72 hours and has the potential to replace conventional techniques. It may allow for effective decision-making with regard to the materials to be used for gasification. Man has two ears at his disposal. Hearing allows us to perceptually locate sounds at the site where they are generated—a phenomenon known as externalization. This ability enables us to identify and pinpoint audio sources in our surroundings.
However, making hearing aids that allow the hearing-impaired to localize audio sources in the same way poses a significant challenge. Directionality is particularly challenging in noisy environments with significant reverberation. In experiments involving both people with normal hearing and the hearing-impaired, Henrik Gert Hassager from DTU Electrical Engineering has analysed the ability to externalize audio sources. The experiments indicate that the ability is maintained if the relationship between the direct and reflected sound remains unchanged when the signal is amplified.
Against this background, Henrik devised a method to amplify sound while retaining the spatial properties. The results may lead to the development of hearing aids which enable the hearing-impaired to pinpoint audio sources—even in rooms with strong reverberation.
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A key aspect of wind energy research is reducing costs. This can be achieved by reducing the total weight of the rotor blades, while at the same increasing their size and performance. However, this requires finding a way to limit the aerodynamic loads on the blades. One possibility is passive control, where the blade is constructed so that the structure load is relieved when deformed.
A wind turbine rotor that can be passively relieved is a cost-effective solution, as it allows a lighter design and longer blades without the need for actuators and other mechanical solutions. Christian Pavese from DTU Wind Energy has discovered a method to exploit the full potential of passive control, and demonstrated how integration of passive control as a design variable can pave the way for wind turbine blades where passive load reduction can result in significantly lower blade weight or enhance wind energy production.
With annual operating costs amounting to several hundred million kroner, planning is paramount at DSB the Danish National Railways. A key planning parameter is ensuring adequate seating for passengers. Another is avoiding empty train compartments. Planning for all these parameters is a time-consuming and complex process—and the planning process is still predominantly manual. He has shown that the integrated planning models can be used to automate processes, which are currently manual—and not least, secure DSB substantial economic efficiency improvements in S-train operation.
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One of the biggest problems in global pig production is Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus PRRSV , which reduces the immune defence system, causes pneumonia, and in gestating sows can lead to miscarriages, premature birth, or stillborn piglets. In an experimental testing of the new RNA vector replicon vaccine, all the vaccinated pigs developed antibodies against the viral vector, but only a few specific killer T cells against PRRSV—and very weak protection against infection.
The conclusion is that the design worked, but that there is still a long way to go before developing a functional vaccine against PRRSV. Billions of bacteria and microorganisms in our intestines—our intestinal microbiome—play an important role in relation to human health. Janne Marie Laursen from DTU Bioengineering has investigated how specific molecules produced by intestinal bacteria endotoxins affect the immune system in the intestines and help develop resistance to insulin—an important factor in type 2 diabetes.
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A newly developed method was used to see which bacteria produce different variants of endotoxin. It showed that contrary to expectations, there are far more bacteria in the intestines producing a non-harmful variant of endotoxin than bacteria producing a harmful variant. The method also showed a correlation between insulin resistance and the quantity of endotoxin-producing bacteria in the intestines.
Further analyses showed that a particular fatty acid can shut down production of pro-inflammatory proteins and instead produce other proteins that maintain healthy intestinal tissue. This knowledge will eventually allow people to be treated by changing the composition of intestinal bacteria that cause lifestyle diseases. There are great expectations of graphene—an extremely stable material consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms. It is currently used in a number of products, but applications where it can have a major impact—such as transparent electrodes in solar cells and flat screens—are still some way off.
Graphene is currently produced via a chemical process whereby it is deposited onto copper. It is then necessary to move the thin graphene layer to another surface before it can be used. This often leads to defects. Patrick Rebsdorf Whelan from DTU Nanotech is addressing this challenge and has developed new ways to transfer the graphene.
In contrast to the existing method, where the copper substrate is etched away, they leave it intact, so it can be used to grow a new layer of graphene. Using these methods, the electronic properties of graphene are also better transferred than using the standard method. The thesis also shows that the electronic properties of the transferred graphene can be mapped using a method that can be used in industrial production, thus ensuring that the transferred graphene is free of defects. Clean water, clean energy and the transition to a bio-based economy are some of the major challenges facing our society.
An advanced new filtering process called biomimetic direct osmosis can help to address them. Protein channels called aquaporins allow water to pass by means of osmosis, whereby the water attempts to dilute a concentrated solution typically salt. The process can be mimicked by inserting aquaporin proteins into a synthetic membrane. By placing a saline liquid on one side of the membrane, and the fluid you want to filter e. Niada Bajraktari from DTU Environment has looked at five applications for biomimetic osmosis and found that they offer promising results in relation to treating municipal wastewater, concentrating bio-products, and energy production based on strong saline solutions.
Normally, when people suffering from the lung disease cystic fibrosis are tested for pneumonia, they undergo a coughing test. Patients with cystic fibrosis often develop pneumonia, as their airways are covered in a thick layer of mucus which stop the cilia from cleaning the respiratory tract. Patients are therefore more susceptible to attack from this bacterium, which is otherwise harmless to healthy people. Nanomaterials are now used in a wide range of products—from suntan lotions to mobile phones—but determining whether nanomaterials constitute a risk to the environment continues to pose a challenge for authorities and researchers.
Rune Hjorth from DTU Environment has therefore analysed the applicability of the risk assessment tools and ecotoxicological tests currently available—and the results are not promising. Thermophilic heat-loving bacteria possess several properties that make them interesting as host organisms in biotechnology.
Among other things, they exhibit increased reaction rates at higher temperatures and a reduced risk of becoming contaminated with bacteria that thrive at moderate temperatures. Ivan Pogrebnyakov from DTU Biosustain has described the development of a number of genetic and molecular tools that can be used to genetically engineer the thermophilic bacteria Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius—and in the course of this project—he has succeeded for the first time ever in genetically engineering the bacteria to produce acetone. This research paves the way to expand and improve the biotechnological processes for the production of acetone and potentially create the basis for industrial applications.
There is an appreciable political desire to save energy in the construction sector. This demands effective solutions. One option features what are known as Thermically Activated Building Systems TABS , which heat up in cold conditions and cool down when the temperature rises.
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