Air Raid Warning System


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Individuals must go to the shelters or their homes, lock the doors and the windows, take the appropriate protective actions, and listen through the radio and television to the instructions of civil defense. China has sirens located in most cities and towns, particularly those located in or near disputed territories.

If the state declares a state of emergency due to attacks, invasion, or when there is a very high risk of military conflict, sirens will warn the public of possible attacks or invasion. The sirens are controlled by the People's Liberation Army. Also, there are annual or semi-annual test runs, often chosen at commemorative dates, usually associated with the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Taiwan has sirens that cover at least some metropolitan areas. The government holds annual air-raid drills. During the air raid siren, the populace is not supposed to walk on the streets and cars must pull over for at least 30 minutes. Mumbai has around — functional sirens. In Mumbai civil defence, sirens were used during the Indo-Pakistan wars of and , warning civilians about air raids by the Pakistan Air Force.

At night, sirens were also used to indicate blackout , when all lights in Mumbai were switched off. Sirens are also used to denote a minute's worth of 'silence' at special occasions. Israel has more than 3, warning sirens. During the early s, the mechanical sirens were gradually phased out and replaced by electronic ones. Although the mechanical ones were generally left standing. In recent conflicts, use of the all clear signal has been discontinued, as it was seen as causing unnecessary confusion and alarm. In certain regions in the south of Israel, which regularly undergo rocket attacks from Gaza , a specialized system called Red Color is installed.

The all clear signal is used three times per year to denote a moment of silence of one or two minutes : once on Israel's Holocaust Remembrance Day and twice on the Day of Remembrance. Singapore currently has a network of over 2, stationary sirens named the Public Warning System which warns the entire country of air raids, and human-made and natural disasters except earth tremors.

On the first day of every month, Singapore's sirens are tested. During the test, the sirens sound a light cheerful chime instead of any of its three signals. The sirens look very similar to the ECN Israel version. Nearly all towns and cities are equipped with civil defense sirens in case of natural disasters or missile attacks from North Korea.

South Korea holds civil defense drills every month to prepare for such scenarios.


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Austria is fully covered with an operational air-raid siren system consisting of 8, devices as of They are tested weekly at noon on Saturdays except in Vienna with the sirenenprobe signal, a second continuous tone. Every year on the first Saturday of October, the whole range of alarm signals with the exception of the fire alert is sounded, like a system test Zivilschutz-Probealarm and to familiarize the population with the signals. Belgium used to test its air raid sirens every first Thursday of the trimester. Sirens are Sonnenburg Electronic sirens. When the air-raid sirens are tested, the message proefsignaal or signal d'essai is pronounced every time the sirens work.

There are sirens placed all across the country. The Czech Republic has around 6, sirens. They are tested every first Wednesday of the month. There are three warning signals, which are accompanied by a verbal message in Czech and mostly with an English and German translation on electronic sirens. The sirens are placed on the top of buildings or masts. This warning system makes it possible to warn the population in all urban areas with more than 1, inhabitants. The function of the sirens is tested every night, without producing any sound. Once every year, on the first Wednesday of May at , the sirens are tested with sound.

A general alarm consists of a repeating 1-minute sound that consists of tones ascending for 7 seconds and descending for 7 seconds. The end of danger is signaled by a 1-minute continuous tone. Warning sirens are tested on the first Monday of every month at noon. The testing alarm is shorter than the general alarm only lasting for 7 or 14 seconds and may be a flat tone.

It consists of about 4, electronic or electromechanical sirens placed all over France. The most common siren type is the electromechanical KM Europ 8 port single tone siren. These sirens have a very characteristic sound: a very fast wind-up and a lower pitch than most sirens the pitch is comparable to a STL on a lower frequency resulting on a lower pitch. A recording of these sirens was used in the movie Silent Hill. As the civil defense sirens were also frequently used to alert volunteer firefighters, many sirens were sold to municipalities for a symbolic price; others were dismantled.

In the s, it was realized that the ability to warn the public is not only necessary in cases of war, but also in events like natural disasters, chemical or nuclear accidents, or terrorist attacks. In Hamburg , the sirens are still operational. They warn the public during storm surges. The majority of operational sirens in Germany are either electric-mechanical type E57 or electronic sirens. During World War II, Berlin's air raid sirens became known by the city's residents as "Meiers trumpets" or "Meiers hunting horns" due to Luftwaffe chief Hermann Goering's boast that "If a single bomb ever falls on Berlin, you can call me Meier!

The Italian War Ministry began installing air raid sirens and issuing air defence regulations in Production was entrusted to La Sonora, founded in and still active today. During World War II every town had one, and several were present in each large city. Even after the danger of bombings had ended, they were kept to provide warning in case of any threat e. As of , some of them still survive. For instance, as many as 34 have been located in Rome by crowdsourcing. Up until the s they underwent routine maintenance and sounded at noon.

France's Wednesday warning sirens to sound at different time - The Local

Also, the Protezione Civile Civil Protection operates sirens to warn the public in case of a threat to the citizen population. Protezione Civile also provides transport needs and military defence for the Government of Italy. These defence systems were put in place in the s and are occasionally still used today.

The Netherlands tests its air-raid sirens once per month, on the first Monday at noon, to keep the public aware of the system. There are about 4, sirens placed all across the country. Norway has about 1, operational sirens mostly Kockums air horn units rather than motorized sirens , primarily located in cities. Three different signals are used. The 'air raid, take cover' signal is an intermittent signal lasting for about a minute. The 'all clear' message is a continuous signal sounded for about 30 seconds.

The 'critical message, listen to radio' is three periods with three signals, separated by one minute between the periods. The 'critical message' signal is followed by a radio broadcast. The sirens are tested twice each year. At noon on the second Wednesday of January and June. As of , only the 'critical message' signal is used, but before this the signal tested in June would be 'air raid' and 'all clear'.

The latter two are no longer used in peacetime.


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The 'critical message' signal is used in peacetime to warn the population about major accidents, big fires and gas leaks. In Romania , civil defense sirens have been used since the early s. Originally, each street had a small siren on top of high-rise buildings. Each siren could be powered mechanically.

During World War II , the sirens had a single continuous tone to warn of an air strike. Throughout the Cold War , bigger sirens manufactured locally were installed on various public buildings and residences. An 'all clear' signal was played after the area has been deemed safe for the general public. Since the s, civil defense sirens have been replaced by electronic sirens, and the procedure has been simplified. Taking shelter is no longer a legal requirement, although ABC shelters are operational.

In August , Romanian authorities started to perform monthly defence sirens tests. The first such test took place on August 2, and is scheduled to be repeated on the first Wednesday of each month, between and AM local time. Slovenia has 1, operable civil defence sirens. Civil defence sirens are mounted on fire stations, town halls, etc. Three siren tones are used in the whole country: [25]. The signal is seconds long—it consists of a second wailing tone followed by a second steady tone and a second wailing tone.

The municipalities of Muta, Vuzenica, Podvelka, Ribnica na Pohorju and Radlje ob Dravi use a second signal—a 4 second wailing followed by 4 seconds of silence, for the immediate danger of flash floods used in the event of overflow or collapse of a hydroelectric dam. Emergencies of smaller extent are announced via regional radio and TV stations. Few sirens used for civil defence against bombing during the Spanish Civil War are preserved. The Guernica siren has a highly symbolic value because of the impact of the Bombing of Guernica. Another siren from civil war years is also preserved in Valencia.

The Swedish alarm system uses outdoor sirens in addition to information transmitted through radio and television. Special radio receivers are handed out to residents living near nuclear power plants. These sirens were first tested in , mounted to cars and bikes sent out by the government.

Now the sirens are found on tall buildings all around Sweden. The sirens are driven by compressed air in giant tanks, but are successively being replaced by modern electronic sirens which use speakers. The emergency services are also able to send out speaking messages through the new sirens. The outdoor signals used are as follows:. The outdoor sirens are tested four times per year: the first non-holiday Monday of March, June, September, and December, at local time. The test consists of the general alarm for 2 minutes, followed by a second gap before the 'all clear' is sounded.

There are usually around 15 to 20 general alarms per year. The most common cause of general alarms is fire. Especially in situations that involve industries, landfills, and other facilities consisting of dangerous substances which can create hazardous smoke. The peak in alarms 54 that year is attributed to the Sweden wildfires which alone caused over 20 general alarms.

Other possible attributing factors could be the increased public safety awareness after the Stockholm truck attack. During this test, general alert sirens, as well as the sirens near dams, are tested to see if they are in working order. The tones of the different sirens are provided on the last page of all phone books as well as on the Internet. The 'general alert' siren goes off when there is a possible threat to the population.

Sirens for this alert have a regularly ascending and descending tone lasting a minute and repeated after a 2-minute interval. The population is instructed to inform those around them to proceed inside. The flood alert is activated once the general siren is sounding.

Testing the sirens is important

If heard by the population in danger zones such as near dams they must leave the danger area immediately or find shelter. These tones would be initialized by the Royal Observer Corps spotting Luftwaffe aircraft coming toward Britain, helped by coastal radar stations. The red warning would be sounded when the Royal Observer Corps spotted enemy aircraft in the immediate area. Page Air raid warning system.

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    Illinois Blue Books. Illinois Centennial Business Collection. Illinois Constitution. Illinois Historic Aerial Photographs, If you hear the siren at another time, go indoors immediately. Close all doors and windows and turn on the radio or TV and find the emergency station.

    There are approximately 3, public warning sirens in the Netherlands. They are all operated by local public authorities. If there is an emergency in the area where you live, the local siren will sound a warning. If you wish to complain about the public warning siren, or if you are unable to hear it, you should contact the nearest fire service in Dutch. You are here: Home Topics Counterterrorism and national security Question and answer When are the public warning sirens tested?

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