There have been many volumes written on this topic. Here is a summary of how I explain the different ways that people make decisions. Characteristics of this type of decision-maker: Very direct and straightforward. Strongly opinionated, decisive, and forceful. Do not want to see a lot of paperwork or take part in a lot of small talk about the weather and what movie you saw.
Want to consider a few options and then make a decision quickly and get on to the next thing. How to meet the personality needs of a quick decision-maker: Listen more than talk. Be direct and to the point. Expect abruptness. Provide the person with three options and ask which one he or she thinks would be most appropriate.
Often the quick decision-maker will choose one of the options, but then make a few changes to it.
As long as the changes fit within the parameters of what you were hoping for, go along with the changes. Limit socializing and avoid small talk. Be brief, emphasize real results, and follow-up with bullet point summaries. Characteristics of this type of decision-maker: Like small talk about non-business issues. Very people-oriented and really enjoy getting to know you as a person: what makes you tick, where you grew up, who your family members are, and what your favorite hobbies are. They very much want the business relationship to feel right.
They want to get excited about working with you. They are not into paperwork. How to meet the needs of an emotional decision-maker: Be casual and friendly. Start off with small talk. Relax, smile, and engage in a fun conversation. Emphasize the importance this person brings to the project. Use handwritten note cards to follow-up with them.
Characteristics of this type of decision-maker: Logical decision-makers want to move from point A to point B in very logical steps. They want to see how all of the pieces fit together before they make a decision. They listen more than they talk. They do not like quick changes. They do not want to engage in small talk. They want to analyze facts and data before they make a decision. They want to know why you are doing what you are doing.
They enjoy going through paperwork. Through quorum sensing, bacteria are able to sense the density of cells, and regulate gene expression accordingly. This can be seen in both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. This was first observed by Fuqua et al. The first major model for communication was introduced by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver for Bell Laboratories in  The original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technologies.
Principles of Communication
Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of a telephone a person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other person. Shannon and Weaver also recognized that often there is static that interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation , which they deemed noise. In a simple model, often referred to as the transmission model or standard view of communication, information or content e.
This common conception of communication simply views communication as a means of sending and receiving information. The strengths of this model are simplicity, generality, and quantifiability. Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver structured this model based on the following elements:. Shannon and Weaver argued that there were three levels of problems for communication within this theory.
Daniel Chandler  critiques the transmission model by stating:. Wilbur Schram also indicated that we should also examine the impact that a message has both desired and undesired on the target of the message. These acts may take many forms, in one of the various manners of communication. The form depends on the abilities of the group communicating. Together, communication content and form make messages that are sent towards a destination. The target can be oneself, another person or being, another entity such as a corporation or group of beings. Communication can be seen as processes of information transmission with three levels of semiotic rules:.
Therefore, communication is social interaction where at least two interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules. This commonly held rule in some sense ignores autocommunication , including intrapersonal communication via diaries or self-talk, both secondary phenomena that followed the primary acquisition of communicative competences within social interactions.
In light of these weaknesses, Barnlund proposed a transactional model of communication. In a slightly more complex form a sender and a receiver are linked reciprocally. This second attitude of communication, referred to as the constitutive model or constructionist view, focuses on how an individual communicates as the determining factor of the way the message will be interpreted. Communication is viewed as a conduit; a passage in which information travels from one individual to another and this information becomes separate from the communication itself.
A particular instance of communication is called a speech act.
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- Meet the Communication Needs of the Other Person.
The sender's personal filters and the receiver's personal filters may vary depending upon different regional traditions, cultures, or gender; which may alter the intended meaning of message contents. In the presence of " communication noise " on the transmission channel air, in this case , reception and decoding of content may be faulty, and thus the speech act may not achieve the desired effect.
One problem with this encode-transmit-receive-decode model is that the processes of encoding and decoding imply that the sender and receiver each possess something that functions as a codebook , and that these two code books are, at the very least, similar if not identical. Although something like code books is implied by the model, they are nowhere represented in the model, which creates many conceptual difficulties.
Theories of coregulation describe communication as a creative and dynamic continuous process, rather than a discrete exchange of information. Canadian media scholar Harold Innis had the theory that people use different types of media to communicate and which one they choose to use will offer different possibilities for the shape and durability of society. Papyrus is what he called ' Space Binding '. The other is stone and ' Time Binding ', through the construction of temples and the pyramids can sustain their authority generation to generation, through this media they can change and shape communication in their society.
In any communication model, noise is interference with the decoding of messages sent over a channel by an encoder. There are many examples of noise:. To face communication noise, redundancy and acknowledgement must often be used. The act of disambiguation regards the attempt of reducing noise and wrong interpretations, when the semantic value or meaning of a sign can be subject to noise, or in presence of multiple meanings, which makes the sense-making difficult.
Disambiguation attempts to decrease the likelihood of misunderstanding. This is also a fundamental skill in communication processes activated by counselors, psychotherapists, interpreters, and in coaching sessions based on colloquium. In Information Technology, the disambiguation process and the automatic disambiguation of meanings of words and sentences has also been an interest and concern since the earliest days of computer treatment of language.
The academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication is communication studies. The discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting. Communication studies also examines how messages are interpreted through the political, cultural, economic, semiotic, hermeneutic, and social dimensions of their contexts. Statistics , as a quantitative approach to communication science, has also been incorporated into research on communication science in order to help substantiate claims.
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Main article: Nonverbal communication. Main article: Business communication. Main article: Interpersonal communication. See also: Biocommunication science , Interspecies communication , and Biosemiotics. Main article: Models of communication. Main article: Communication studies. Media portal Sociology portal Technology portal. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved Canada: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on The office of superintendent of Public Instruction.
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First published: 3 November About this book What every electrical engineering student and technical professional needs to know about data exchange across networks While most electrical engineering students learn how the individual components that make up data communication technologies work, they rarely learn how the parts work together in complete data communication networks.
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