Apprenez-en davantage sur le sondage et participez ici. Souvent, les fabricants du secteur alimentaire actualisent et modifient leurs produits. Elle entrera en fonction le 3 novembre Reenders, K. Diabetes and its long-term complications in general practice: a survey in a well-defined population. Family Practice , 10 2 , p. Weir, M. Albuminuria predicting outcome in diabetes: Incidence of microalbuminuria in Asia-Pacific Rim.
Kidney Int, 66 s92 , p. Warram, J. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology , 7, p. Kidney Int , 66 s92 , p. Otsuka Canada Pharmaceutique. Maladie polykystique des reins MPR. Management of ESRD in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Vol. Mars pp Face aux faits infographique portrait Face aux faits infographique paysage. Leon, fait remarquer Paul Shay. Bureau national - , boul. English Connexion Recherche :. Search: Search. Un investissement dans l'avenir de la recherche sur la transplantation.
Ashenmil de la Fondation canadienne du rein. Ashenmil du Dr Julian Midgley. Avis du financement de la recherche sur le syndrome d'Alport. Information importante au sujet des additifs de potassium. Publication des nouvelles statistiques sur la dialyse et les transplantations. Vous subissez des traitements de dialyse? Cessez de fumer. A Pain intensity using the NRS 0— EXP baseline: 4. CONT baseline: 4. B Kinesiophobia using the Tampa scale 0— EXP baseline: CONT baseline: D Work disability: impact of pain on daily life using the Quebec questionnaire 0— Practice of Physical Activity The number of workers who declared that they were prac- ticing a regular leisure-time physical activity increased in both groups.
At 6 months, the number increased to 15 The number of workers who declared that they were practicing walking also increased. The increase in the EXP group was from The group that started the intervention in July reported a slightly higher rate in the practice of physical activities outside the workplace 2 months after the intervention.
Our major finding is that the intervention proved to be clinically and statistically relevant in favor of the EXP group at 2 and 6 months. A higher difference in change is observed in the EXP group. Those results are in accordance with the current evidence suggesting that exercise treatment programs and regular physical activity are likely to be benefi- cial for chronic LBP by decreasing pain severity and reducing physical deconditioning.
Much of the latest available evidence on LBP is in support of interventions that tackle pain effectively. The effectiveness of this intervention was reflected by a significant decrease in perceived pain intensity NRS , work disability RMDQ, Quebec, and Dallas questionnaire , and kinesiophobia Tampa scale and an improvement in physical parameters and back-specific functions anterior inclination, Fig 3. Evolution of the Dallas questionnaire. A Impact of pain on daily activity Ddaily. B Impact of pain on work and recreational activity Dwork-recr. C Impact of pain on anxiety and depression symptoms Danx-dep.
D Impact of pain on social activity Dsocial.
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Those benefits translate into substantial health gains and are similar to findings in comparable studies. The strength of this investigation compared with previous studies is that rehabilitation interventions took place at the workplace on workers with chronic LBP rather than in a hospital with patients on sick leave. H Baseline Q Baseline HF Baseline Incli Baseline In a recent cohort study26 evaluating the short-term and midterm effectiveness of a retrospective back school — , results proved to be positive on pain and functional status but inconclusive on health impact.
In addition, a 1-year cognitive-behavioral intervention resulted in a mean improvement of 2. The exact duration and type of physical activity have not been analyzed. The onset of LBP increases the risk of sedentary behavior because of fear of movement and pain, thus resulting with time in a decline of physical fitness, and a negative health impact and quality of life.
Physical activity in the workplace offers an answer to the management of LBP, since all types of LBP benefit from exercise. Scientific research has consistently proven that LBP is a form of age-related disorder because of biomechanical predisposition and postural evolution. It is aggravated or accelerated by several multifac- torial events and factors. On the contrary; a dilemma persists between physical activity and LBP prevalence and severity. The contribution of exercise to the onset and severity of LBP is still debatable.
In a recent study29 aiming at clarify- ing the ambiguous evidence, results reveal that participating in physical activity contributes indirectly to the severity of LBP but has no effect on its prevalence. We excluded workers with severe psychological problems to minimize the confounding variables. An important factor in- terfering with the analysis is the timing of the intervention that coincides with the peak of the economic crisis, affecting the automotive industry especially hard.
Under similar stressful conditions, workers from both groups might have overesti- Fig 4. Evolution of flexibility and endurance.
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CONT baseline: 9. C Flexibility: anterior inclination A. Incli by measuring the FFD. E Endurance of the back muscles using the Sorensen test.
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F Endur- ance of the abdominal muscles using the Shirado test. Despite the presence of similar underlying ex- ternal uncontrollable factors, which might have affected our results by overestimating some subjective parameters, the sta- tistical difference observed within this limited time in our study is strong and remains promising.
Furthermore, workers in our study showed a high degree of kinesiophobia and work disability scores at baseline. Reviews evaluating different types of physical exercise interventions have reported small to moderate changes in certain outcome measures pain intensity, return to work, physical parameters , and the progress was clinically more relevant in patients who had lower baseline scores.
From a broad spectrum, our results imply that an interven- tion combining physical activity promotion and exercise ther- apy, along with advice on a healthy lifestyle, is effective in the short-term, but needs to be maintained with a form of physical exercise for the benefits to persist. A targeted 2-month inter- vention at work helps employees decrease perceived pain, kinesiophobia, and work disability and improves their physical parameters more rapidly than leisure-time physical activity and advice alone.
Further research is needed in real work settings to add to these findings, to better understand the functionality and effi- ciency of physical activity promotion in workers with chronic LBP. Study Limitations Potential limitations in this study are as follows: 1 Because of the complexity of the workplace setting, there could be no patient blinding.
Nevertheless, our results reflect a real case scenario with challenges faced when applying recommenda- tions within the workplace. Engag- ing in an active lifestyle provides protective effects by reducing the negative impact of LBP. The contents of the program are not work specific and can be performed in different groups or settings. The results offer ample opportunities and perspectives. As such, a similar intervention strategy in the workplace can achieve substantial gain for the individual and the group by decreasing the burden of pain and physical deconditioning.
More randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes are recommended to detect low to medium effect sizes. Schaal, Mr. Berthelot, Mr. Sedeaud, and Ms. El Helou for carefully reviewing the manuscript; and Mrs. Godon, A. Briquet, MD, and C. Andlauer, MD, for their input and advice during the intervention. References 1. Accessed June, Exercise therapy for chronic nonspe- cific low-back pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol ; Joint Bone Spine ; A systematic review of low back pain cost of illness studies in the United States and internationally.
Spine J ; Epidemiology and natural history of low back pain. Eura Medicophys ; Interven- tion practices in musculoskeletal disorder prevention: a critical literature review. Appl Ergon ; Waddell G, Burton AK. Occupational health guidelines for the management of low back pain at work: evidence review. Occup Med Lond ; Back pain and work.
Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol ; Effec- tiveness of a multimodal treatment program for chronic low-back pain. Pain ; Level of education and back pain in France: the role of demographic, lifestyle and physical work factors. Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; Multidisci- plinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for subacute low back pain in working-age adults: a systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group.
Spine Phila Pa ; A systematic review.
BMC Med ; Exercise as a treatment for chronic low back pain. Spine J ; Low back pain: state of art. Eur J Pain Suppl ; Sustainable MSD prevention: management for continuous improvement between prevention and production. Meta- analysis of workplace physical activity interventions. Am J Prev Med ; American College of Sport Medecine. Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Spinal muscle evaluation using the Sorensen test: a critical appraisal of the literature. Effects of chronic low back pain on trunk coordination and back muscle activity during walking: changes in motor control.
Eur Spine J ; Ann Readapt Med Phys ; Ann Phys Rehabil Med ; Clinically important outcomes in low back pain. What do the numbers mean? Normative data in chronic pain measures. A minimal clinically important difference was derived for the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire for low back pain. J Clin Epidemiol ; Ann Readapt Med Phys ; Efficacy of a functional restoration program for chronic low back pain: prospective 1-year study. Advice for the management of low back pain: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.
Man Ther ; Physical activities and low back pain: a community-based study. Med Sci Sports Exerc ; Vuori IM. Dose-response of physical activity and low back pain, osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis. Med Sci Sports Exerc ; S; discussion Comparison of a functional restoration program with active individual physical therapy for patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Physical conditioning programs for workers with back and neck pain: a Cochrane systematic review. Spine Phila Pa ; E Exercise and chronic low back pain: what works?.
Workplace stress, lifestyle and social factors as correlates of back pain: a representative study of the German working population. Group cognitive behavioural treatment for low-back pain in primary care: a randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis. Lancet ; Manchikanti L. Epidemiology of low back pain. Pain Physician ; Krismer M, van Tulder M. Strategies for prevention and manage- ment of musculoskeletal conditions.
Low back pain non-specific. Man- aging pain in the workplace: a focus group study of challenges, strategies and what matters most to workers with low back pain. Disabil Rehabil ; Tucker P, Gilliland J. The effect of season and weather on phys- ical activity: a systematic review. Public Health ; Snook SH. Work-related low back pain: secondary intervention. J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; Suppliers a.
R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Warm-up duration per session: 10min. Proprioceptive exercises: For a better general mobility and balance. Preventing kinesiophobia by learning the benefits of movement duration per session: 15min. Muscular strengthening-endurance: Reinforcing major muscle groups back muscles, abdominals, buttock, psoas, hamstrings, latissimus dorsi, etc using simple techniques and workouts duration per session: 10min.
Warm pack physiotherapy: For optimal muscle relax- ation at the end of the session before resuming work and preventing muscle aches and uncomfortable positions duration per session: 15min. Total: 60 minutes per session An additional prevention course was given to explain anat- omy and biomechanics of LBP while describing the recom- mended prevention techniques and exercise guidelines.
Warm-up Proprioceptive exercises A B C Muscular strengthening workout D E F Stretching H Practical demonstration with sample pictures. A Ret- roversion pelvic exercise on the balloon associated with respi- ration techniques and abdominal workout. B Proprioceptive exercises to improve balance and prevent injuries. C Mobility workout on unstable surface: sitting position, moving face down. D Progressive resistant work with elastic.
E Specific muscular reinforcement, F Balance and resistance. G Stretching of the spine, the quadriceps, and the whole posterior chain. H Stretching of the lumbar muscles. Summary The increase of sedentary lifestyle in the French population and the decrease in the time daily devoted to physical activity has raised public concerns. Promotional campaigns to raise energy expenditure and health awareness have recently increased.
Nevertheless, although the recognition of such an imbalance is becoming more evident in the population, a real beneficial modification is still far from a full success. Numerous working groups are seeking to broaden the scope of action and take advantage of environments that facilitate the application of strategies. Local settings such as schools, businesses, urban authorities and sports representatives clubs, leagues and associations progressively increase their engagement. S38 H. Nassif et al. Expertise Inserm. Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. Physical activity promotion through the mass media: Inception, production, transmission and consumption.
Am J Prev Med ;S2. Octobre Promotion of physical activity in primary health care: update of the evidence on interventions. J Sci Med Sport ;7 Suppl Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study.
The Lancet. Mortality of French participants in the Tour de France Eur Heart J. Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure- regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors. The effect of baseline physical activity on cardiovascular outcomes and new-onset diabetes in patients treated for hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study. J Intern Med. Expertise Collective. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. Duclos M. Sci Sports. Praagh EV, Collectif. Bruxelles: De Boeck; Rev Neuropsychol Neurosci Cogn Clin.
Lepers R, Cattagni T. Do older athletes reach limits in their performance during marathon running? European Commission. Ageing well: Under what conditions? Ageing is a complex universal process, un-programmed and multi-factorial. Within a species, genome organisation determines average life span but for each individual it is mainly shaped by outside constraints.
Lengthy old age remains the privilege of developed populations: the role of a clement environment, shaped by man, is of capital importance. But until when do we age? And under what conditions? Does the accumulation of present constraints limit our powers of adaptation at a time when certain asymptotes talk of a ceiling within one or two generations? Mal ou bien? Shakespeare, Macbeth V. Je veux pleurer des torrents de larmes. Pour les dix premiers sauteurs en hauteur mon- diaux, hommes ou femmes, les meilleures marques ne progressent plus depuis 25 ans figure 5.
Figure 5. Figure 7. Figure 6. Figure 8. Avant les mots, les langes de la vie. Exposition Paris. World records progression announces the end of a brief ultra-physiological quest. A double exponential dependence toward developmental growth and time degradation explains perfor- mance evolution in individual athletes and human species. Expertise col- lective. Measuring the mortality compression, Demog Res. Age-related changes in km ultra-marathon running per- formance. Age- associated changes in skeletal muscles. J Appl Physiol. Validation des tests physiques Diagnoform.
Fayard, Neural mecha- nisms underlying motivation of mental versus physical effort. PLoS Biol; vol. Genetic signatures of exceptional longevity in humans. How unrealistic optimism is maintained in the face of reality. Nature Neuroscience, vol. Brit Med J. For commercial re-use, please contact journals. Email: juliana. In a study of life-span densities total number of life durations per birth date , we analyzed 19, Olympians and 1, supercentenarians deceased between and Among most Olympians, we observed a trend toward increased life duration.
This trend, however, decelerates at advanced ages leveling off with the upper values with a perennial gap between Olympians and supercentenarians during the whole observation period. Similar tendencies are observed among supercentenarians, and over the last years, a plateau attests to a stable longevity pattern among the longest-lived humans. This topic is of great concern for public health and policymakers and has worldwide implications as it may affect the sustainability of modern societies and health care systems 1—3.
Yet, the issue of longev- ity trends has divided researchers and remains a matter of controversy 4. The origin of this divergence is not only a philosophical matter, but it is also supported by differing methods of investigation. Based on past life table trends, the prolongevist side claims that life expectancy will con- tinue to increase linearly 5,6.
We propose an intermediate approach to investigate life-span trends with novel tools. The approach consists in analyzing life-span density trends of two highly selected populations with a propensity to live longer. Their current maximum life-span trends may figure the general popula- tion in the near future. Conversely, a deceleration among longer lived cohorts could be seen as a sign of a close life-span limit 2.
The first population selected was made up of all world- wide Olympic athletes that had participated in the Olympic Games and were already deceased. Other sources analyzing Olympians longevity, whether medallists or not, have demonstrated a similar advantage 12, To the best of our knowledge, Olympians consti- tute the sole worldwide well-defined population that has a proven survival advantage, including all ethnicities and dat- ing back to the 19th century.
The registered longest-lived member of any species defines its maximum life span The density analysis total number of life dura- tions per birth date reveals distinct life-span trends accord- ing to the number of subjects with time. Hence, it allows for a highly informative description of life-span upper limits and its relative relevance within the wide range of lifetime values.
Therefore, we aimed to describe life-span density trends of worldwide deceased Olympians and supercentenarians. Data came from the most authoritative source of Olympians biography Study Population—Supercentenarians A verified and validated complete cohort of deceased supercentenarians born after was collected from the Gerontology Research Group Life-span Density Function The life-span density of Olympians and supercentenar- ians was estimated over a two-dimensional mesh.
The frame was defined within the intervals: X Olympians in [; ]; Y Olympians in [80; ]; and X supercentenarians in [; ]; Y supercentenarians in [; ]. The frame selected in X cor- responded to the first year forming a density layer up to the last year of a complete cohort. The life-span trends dynamics, for each birth date in the selected frame, was calculated by the sum of differences between adjacent densities in the Y life span direction see Supplementary Material.
All analyses were performed using Matlab 7. The first Modern Games occurred in Thus, Olympians born before participated in the early edi- tions at a more advanced age Thedenserareas,correspondingtothelifespanthatconcen- trates the highest number of subjects, is formed by Olympians born between and that died around years-old. None of the Olympians reached the status of supercen- tenarian; therefore, a gap separates the two populations throughout the entire period.
The denser area among the supercentenarians is formed by subjects born between and that died around years-old. The convex envelope points out the Olympians life-span upper limit observed. The density layers, below this convex envelope, move upward with birth date leveling off with the upper limit envelope. A similar pattern is present among supercentenarians.
The densities layers above this envelope evolve with time, but the upper limit remains steady and a plateau may be visualized up to now. We observe a different slope progression of the density lines according to the life span. The density slope of Olympians decelerates with time as their life span increases. Regarding supercentenarians, the density slope increases slightly with time at the beginning of the observation period, at a similar pace among the densities layers.
Then, the density slopes remains stable for the upper values. This results in a plateau attesting a stable phenomenon among supercentenarians in recent years. Densification Phenomenon Life span increase leveling off with the upper values entails an accumulation of individuals close to the survival convex envelope and reveals a densification phenomenon. The graphs describe an increased densification trend more continuous and more intense among supercentenar- ians than among Olympians.
Discussion Learning From Leaders This study demonstrates the life-span trends in popu- lations with a propensity to live longer, Olympians and supercentenarians.
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Among Olympians, we observe a trend of increasing life duration, which slows down at advanced ages. Olympic participants undergo a highly selective pheno- typic process based on rare physiological aptness At the age of cohort entry, they were healthy subjects under favorable conditions genetic and environmental 17 reaching high standards of physical performances. Studies have shown that Olympians have healthier lifestyles after their career and maintain a good physical condition All these factors contribute to greater longevity 18— Window: X Olympians in ; ; Y Olympians in [10;]; X supercentenarians in [;]; and Y supercentenarians in [;].
The vertical dashed line delimitates the complete cohort, when the population has entirely died out. Isolated life spans are not represented in the figure because of their small density values. Beyond that age physical function or biomedical parameters may less accurately predict mortal- ity Despite the gap, Olympians and supercentenarians pre- sent similar life-span trends and densification phenomenon, intensified among supercentenarians.
This common pattern may indicate that both populations are under similar mor- tality pressures, despite the different phenotypic selection criteria of each population. Such forces increase with age, and both populations respond similarly by a densification phenomenon. Concerning supercentenarians, the increasing den- sity slope at the beginning of the observation period may be related to the greater number of recruited subjects and to a more reliable registry.
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Thereafter, the stable trends observed attest for a life-span plateau over the recent years. Accordingly, the life-span density trends provide no signs of a recent increased longevity pattern among the longest-lived, despite of an intense densification phenomenon. This scenario seems to be represented here, through the densification phenomenon, alluding to a rectangularization of the survival curves 22, To sup- port life-span extension forecasts, we would expect to find signs of expansion trends, people living each time longer at advanced ages 2. Life-span Record Holders The fittest subjects of each country compose the world- wide Olympians cohort This population is mostly formed by athletes from regions that have historically dominated sport performances and the world record for life expectancy as well.
A Contour of the life-span density layers of Olympians and supercentenarians. Selected window: X Olympians in [;] first year forming a density layer up to the last year of a complete cohort ; Y Olympians in [80;]; and X supercentenarians in [;]; Y supercentenarians in [;]. Graphs B and C represent the increase of the density layers with time in the direction of the upper life span values measuring the densification phenomenon. Even though in the absolute sense Olympians constitute a small subset of gifted athletes, validated super- centenarians compose an even smaller subset of outliers.
The trend among most Olympians toward an increased lifetime throughout the century is similar to what has been described in terms of life expectancy 5,24 and life-span modal analyses 3 in record-holding countries. Modal age at death, estimated in United States, Canada, and France, show similar increasing trends. Japan, however, has recently leveled off 3 comparably to Olympians life-span trend at advanced ages. The similar densification among Olympians and supercentenarians and their unclosing gap both strengthen the arguments defending that human biology may not allow most of us to become a centenarian Indeed, becoming one of them takes a complex sequence of rare and specific circumstances, involving constant favorable interactions between genetics 27 and environment Hence, it seems appropriate to distinguish the interpretation of actu- arial trends on all-cause mortality from biologic aging possibilities.
Method Considerations Our study reinforces biologic forecasts 10,25,29 con- trasting with extension claims 7,30, However, our period of observation is restricted, and the size of the pop- ulation studied is relatively small. In addition, life expec- tancy increase has been discontinuous due to historical changes; our cohorts could reveal a transitional trend only.
After this period, all demographic forecasts are based on period life tables death rates from a calendar year applied to peo- ple still alive and remain speculative 9. The underlying assumptions are deterministic—based on the premise that the future will repeat past trends. In addition, death rates at extremely older ages are uncertain Hence, analyzing a concrete cohort presenting a survival advantage may be an alternative method for understanding the present dynamics of maximal age trends.
In light of the continuous reductions in mortality rates at advanced ages in high-income countries 6 possibly the den- sification phenomenon will intensify in most developed coun- tries. For instance, compression of deaths above the mode—a comparable measure for densification—has been observed in high-income countries 3.
Then, the probability of surviving people, pushing the limits forward and leading to a life-span extension may be bigger. However, this scenario defended by prolongevists, seems to be possible only if nutritional, cli- matic, social, or economic conditions continuously improve. Important medical and technological advances may also lead to life extension 31 , but major health determinants already contribute to reduce life expectancy progression in developed countries 33, In addition, the current tendency in world climate change and environmental resources degradation may result in adverse health consequences especially affect- ing the eldest individuals Conclusion Most Olympians follow the general population tendency of a life span increase with time, a trend which deceler- ates as life span increases.
At advanced ages, the slow pace on life duration progression leads to a densification of subjects dying simultaneously after reaching the highest ages. The common trends between Olympians and supercen- tenarians indicate similar mortality pressures over both populations. These forces increase with age, scenario bet- ter explained by a biologic barrier limiting further life-span progression. Although this forecast may be felt to be less optimistic, to consider the line of reasoning underlying it may contribute to a better understanding of life-span trends and better prevent what may decelerate further progression.
Kryger, and Carole Birkan- Berz for reading the manuscript and providing valuable advice. Conflicts of Interest The authors confirm that there are no conflicts of interest. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript. In search of Methuselah: estimat- ing the upper limits to human longevity. Increase of maxi- mum life-span in Sweden, Ouellette N, Bourbeau R. Changes in the age-at-death distribution in four low mortality countries: a nonparametric approach. Demographic Res. Couzin-Frankel J. A pitched battle over life span.
Oeppen J, Vaupel JW. Broken limits to life expectancy. Vaupel JW. Biodemography of human ageing. Ageing popu- lations: the challenges ahead. Hayflick L. Biological aging is no longer an unsolved problem. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Prospects for human longevity. Survival of the fittest: retrospective cohort study of the longevity of Olympic medallists in the modern era.
Br Med J. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Mortality of top athletes, actors and clergy in Poland: follow-up study of the long term effect of physical activity. Eur J Epidemiol. Life at the extreme limit: phenotypic characteristics of supercentenar- ians in Okinawa. Coles LS. Validated worldwide supercentenarians, living and recently deceased. Rejuvenation Res. Disease-specific mortality among elite athletes. J Am Med Assoc. Natural selection to sports, later physical activity habits, and coro- nary heart disease.
Age-specific and sex- specific mortality in countries, a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study Physical independence and mortality at the extreme limit of life span: supercentenarians study in Japan. The future of human longevity. In: Uhlenberg P, ed. International Handbook of Population Aging. New York: Springer; — Kannisto V. Measuring the compression of mortality. Health span approximates life span among many supercentenarians: compression of morbidity at the approximate limit of life span.
Reductions in mor- tality at advanced ages: several decades of evidence from 27 countries. Popul Dev Rev. How long must humans live? Can human biology allow most of us to become centenarians? Survival of parents and siblings of supercentenarians. Stress biology and aging mechanisms: toward understanding the deep connection between adaptation to stress and longevity. Demography of human supercentenarians.
Wilmoth JR. Escape velocity: why the prospect of extreme human life extension matters now. PLoS Biol. NonagenariansandcentenariansinSwitzerland, a demographic analysis. J Epidemiol Community Health. Olshansky SJ. Projecting the future of U. Health Aff Proj Hope. Preston SH, Stokes A. Contribution of obesity to international differ- ences in life expectancy.
Am J Public Health. Impact of climate change on elder health.
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This data now allows an accurate measurement of human physiological capabilities such as the running speed and jumping, throwing distances. The technological innovations, medicine, geopolitical environment, climate, impact athletic performance. Among those, the chronological age has been shown to significantly affect the development of physical and intellectual performance. The resulting shape is asymmetrical and U-inversed, with a similar and limited performance at extreme age bands, and peak performance occurring around the age of Other species such as mouse or greyhound also exhibit the same pattern in the age-performance relationship.
A few studies have demonstrated the beneficial aspect of physical activity at different age, and the provided gains in terms of longevity. However, further investigations are needed to better understand how the primary energy consumption, economic and environmental aspects can impact this U shaped curve. Seul Dan H. Ainsi, les impacts historiques et culturels, comme les guerres mon- diales par exemple, sont observables dans ces deux populations.
Depuis peu, Sue, Baker, A. Percentage decline in masters superathlete track and field per- formance with aging. Experimental aging research, 29 1 , Berthelot, G. Age, 34 4 , Athlete atypicity on the edge of human achievement: performances stagnate after the last peak, in PLoS One, 5 1 , e The citius end: world records progression announces the completion of a brief ultra-physiological quest. PLoS One, 3 2 , e Blest, D. Lower bounds for athletic performance. Boot, A. Peak bone mineral density, lean body mass and fractures.
Bone, 46 2 , Bronikowski, A. The evolution of aging and age-related physical decline in mice selectively bred for high voluntary exercise. Evolution, 60 7 , Coles, L. Rejuvenation research, 11 1 , El Helou, N. Journal of sports sciences, 28 7 , Impact of environmental parameters on marathon running performance. PLoS One, 7 5 , e Eynon, N. Genes and elite athletes: a roadmap for future research. The Journal of physiology, 13 , Fogel, R. Technophysio evolution and the measurement of economic growth. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 14 2 , Germine, L. Where cognitive development and aging meet: Face lear- ning ability peaks after age Cognition, 2 , Guillaume, M.
Success in developing regions: World Records evolution through a geopolitical prism. PLoS One, 4 10 , e Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 43 11 , Kannisto, V. Demographic Research, 3 6 , Kasemsap, P. Cotton leaf photosynthesis and age relationship is influenced by leaf position.
Nat Sci, 31, Reproductive functions of the ageing male. Human Reproduction Update, 10 4 , Lui, J. Mechanisms limiting body growth in mammals. Endocrine reviews, 32 3 , Malik, V. Global obesity: trends, risk factors and policy implications. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 9 1 , Marijon, E. European heart journal, 34 40 , Moore, D. Nature, , Morgan, T. Ontogenies in mice selected for high voluntary wheel— running activity. Mean ontogenies. Evolution, 57 3 , Neptune, R. The influence of muscle physiology and advanced technology on sports performance.
Annual review of biomedical engineering, 11, Nevill, A. Are there limits to running world records? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37 10 , Salthouse, T. When does age-related cognitive decline begin? Neurobiology of aging, 30 4 , Schoenberg, J. Growth and decay of pulmonary function in healthy blacks and whites. Respiration physiology, 33 3 , Sedeaud, A. BMI, a perfor- mance parameter for speed improvement. PloS one, 9 2 , e Smith, K. Energy and human health. Annual Review of public health, 34, Sue, R. Temps et ordre social. Tanaka, H.
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Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 1 1 , Watts, G. Leonard Hayflick and the limits of ageing. The Lancet, , Aims The aim of the present study was to assess the ac- curacy of 1-RM prediction from ratings of perceived ex- ertion RPE of resistance exercises performed at submaximal sets intensity and volume in older adult males before and after a week rehabilitation program.
Methods 18 untrained subjects The RPE was recorded immediately after the sets. That RPE associated to its corresponding load was sub- jected to a linear regression analysis to extrapolate the maximal RPE score and its corresponding 1-RM. Differences between measured and pre- dicted 1-RM were reduced from the beginning to the end of training but standard deviations remained high Conclusions In older subjects, RPE may be used to pre- dict 1-RM; however, the predicted value deviates consid- erably from the measured one, necessitating cautious application.
Keywords Strength training! Perceived exertion! One-repetition maximum! Rehabilitation Introduction Aging is associated with decreased strength and muscle mass that is defined as sarcopenia . Strength training in the elderly increases protein synthesis, muscle mass and strength, and improves locomotor functions such as walk- ing speeds and postural control [2, 3]. As a consequence, strength training in rehabilitation program for older adults is largely promoted .
Peterson et al. Obviously, these limitations of 1-RM testing may be enhanced in elderly [6, 7]. In training and rehabilitation fields, 1-RM is frequently predicted using submaximal tests and applications of equa- tions for 1-RM prediction . The accuracy of these equa- tions has been linked to specific exercises, to the populations assessed and to the relative strength used for repetition maximum testing [8, 9].
Some studies reported that the use of such prediction equations for older adults may be valid for 1-RM estimate although errors of estimate may appear slightly high [6, 10, 11]. Furthermore, direct as well as indirect assessment of 1-RM require participants to perform repetitions until muscular failure which enhance muscular and cardiovascular health risks in untrained individuals and particularly elderly .
To avoid risks associated with tests performed until exhaustion in population at risk, including older adults, some authors supported the use of ratings of perceived exertion RPE during graded exercises to predict maximal oxygen consumption [12—14]. A similar use of RPE to predict 1-RM was reported as providing highly accurate estimates although the loads to lift were presented in a ran- dom order and was not apparent to subjects . The protocol used in this study was similar to that proposed by Eston and Evans  using light to moder- ately heavy loads and a very low repetition number during resistance exercise sets.
The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of 1-RM prediction from RPE of resistance exercises performed in submaximal sets in older adults at the beginning and the end of a week strength training program. Materials and methods Subjects Eighteen subjects
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