The Foundation


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Galp Power, S. Galp Energia, S. A The Foundation's mission is to serve the community and its sustainable development. The Foundation around the world. Governing bodies. Member Carlos Nuno Gomes da Silva. Member Pedro Antunes de Almeida. Following the events on Terminus, Gendibal endeavors to follow Trevize, reasoning that by doing so, he may find out who has altered the mind of the Trantor native. Using the few scraps of reliable information within the various myths, Trevize and Pelorat discover a planet called Gaia which is inhabited solely by Mentalics, to such an extent that every organism and inanimate object on the planet shares a common mind.

Both Branno and Gendibal, who have separately followed Trevize, also reach Gaia at the same time. Gaia reveals that it has engineered this situation because it wishes to do what is best for humanity but cannot be sure what is best.

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Trevize's purpose, faced with the leaders of both the First and Second Foundations and Gaia itself, is to be trusted to make the best decision among the three main alternatives for the future of the human race: the First Foundation's path, based on mastery of the physical world and its traditional political organization i. After Trevize makes his decision for Gaia's path, the intellect of Gaia adjusts both Branno's and Gendibal's minds so that each believes he or she has succeeded in a significant task.

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Branno believes she has successfully negotiated a treaty tying Sayshell to the Foundation, and Gendibal — now leader and First Speaker of the Second Foundation — believes that the Second Foundation is victorious and should continue as normal. Trevize remains, but is uncertain as to why he has intuited is "sure" that Gaia is the correct outcome for the future.

Still uncertain about his decision, Trevize continues on with the search for Earth along with Pelorat and a local of Gaia, advanced in Mentalics, known as Blissenobiarella usually referred to simply as Bliss. Eventually, Trevize finds three sets of coordinates which are very old. Adjusting them for time, he realizes that his ship's computer does not list any planet in the vicinity of the coordinates. When he physically visits the locations, he rediscovers the forgotten worlds of Aurora , Solaria , and finally Melpomenia.

After searching and facing different dilemmas on each planet, Trevize still has not discovered any answers. Aurora and Melpomenia are long deserted, but Solaria contains a small population which is extremely advanced in the field of Mentalics. When the lives of the group are threatened, Bliss uses her abilities and the shared intellect of Gaia to destroy the Solarian who is about to kill them.


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This leaves behind a small child who will be put to death if left alone, so Bliss makes the decision to keep the child as they quickly escape the planet. Eventually, Trevize discovers Earth, but it, again, contains no satisfactory answers for him it is also long-since deserted. However, it dawns on Trevize that the answer may not be on Earth, but on Earth's satellite — the Moon. Upon approaching the planet, they are drawn inside the Moon's core, where they meet a robot named R.

Daneel Olivaw.

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Olivaw explains that he has been instrumental in guiding human history for thousands of years, having provided the impetus for Seldon to create psychohistory and also the creation of Gaia, but is now close to the end of his ability to maintain himself and will cease to function. Despite replacing his positronic brain which contain 20, years of memories , he is going to die shortly. He explains that no further robotic brain can be devised to replace his current one, or which will let him continue assisting for the benefit of humanity.

However, some additional time can be won to ensure the long term benefit of humanity by merging R. Daniel Olivaw's mind with the organic intellect of a human — in this case, the intellect of the child that the group rescued on Solaria. Once again, Trevize is put in the position of deciding if having Olivaw meld with the child's superior intellect would be in the best interests of the galaxy.

The decision is left ambiguous though likely a "yes" as it is implied that the melding of the minds may be to the child's benefit, but that she may have sinister intentions about it. The plot of the series focuses on the growth and reach of the Foundation, against a backdrop of the "decline and fall of the Galactic Empire. The focus of the books is the trends through which a civilization might progress, specifically seeking to analyze their progress, using history as a precedent.

Although many science fiction novels such as Nineteen Eighty-Four or Fahrenheit do this, their focus is upon how current trends in society might come to fruition, and act as a moral allegory on the modern world. The Foundation series, on the other hand, looks at the trends in a wider scope, dealing with societal evolution and adaptation rather than the human and cultural qualities at one point in time.

Furthermore, the concept of psychohistory, which gives the events in the story a sense of rational fatalism, leaves little room for moralization.

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Hari Seldon himself hopes that his Plan will "reduce 30, years of Dark Ages and barbarism to a single millennium," a goal of exceptional moral gravity. Yet events within it are often treated as inevitable and necessary, rather than deviations from the greater good. For example, the Foundation slides gradually into oligarchy and dictatorship prior to the appearance of the galactic conqueror, known as the Mule , who was able to succeed through the random chance of a telepathic mutation.

But, for the most part, the book treats the purpose of Seldon's plan as unquestionable, and that slide as being necessary in it, rather than mulling over whether the slide is, on the whole, positive or negative. The books also wrestle with the idea of individualism. Hari Seldon's plan is often treated as an inevitable mechanism of society, a vast mindless mob mentality of quadrillions of humans across the galaxy. Many in the series struggle against it, only to fail.

However, the plan itself is reliant upon the cunning of individuals such as Salvor Hardin and Hober Mallow to make wise decisions that capitalize on the trends. On the other hand, the Mule, a single individual with mental powers, topples the Foundation and nearly destroys the Seldon plan with his special, unforeseen abilities. To repair the damage the Mule inflicts, the Second Foundation deploys a plan which turns upon individual reactions. Psychohistory is based on group trends and cannot predict with sufficient accuracy the effects of extraordinary, unforeseeable individuals, and as originally presented, the Second Foundation's purpose was to counter this flaw.

Later novels would identify the Plan's uncertainties that remained at Seldon's death as the primary reason for the existence of the Second Foundation, which unlike the First had retained the capacity to research and further develop psychohistory. Asimov tried unsuccessfully to end the series with Second Foundation.

However, because of the predicted thousand years until the rise of the next Empire of which only a few hundred had elapsed , the series lacked a sense of closure. For decades, fans pressured him to write a sequel. In , after a year hiatus, Asimov gave in and wrote what was at the time a fourth volume: Foundation's Edge. This was followed shortly thereafter by Foundation and Earth. The story of this volume which takes place some years after Seldon ties up all the loose ends and brings together all of his Robot, Empire, and Foundation novels into a single story.

He also opens a brand new line of thought in the last dozen pages regarding Galaxia , a galaxy inhabited by a single collective mind. This concept was never explored further. According to his widow Janet Asimov in her biography of Isaac, It's Been a Good Life , he had no idea how to continue after Foundation and Earth , so he started writing the prequels.

Early on during Asimov's original world-building of the Foundation universe, he established within the first published stories a chronology placing the tales about 50, years into the future from the time they were written circa This precept was maintained in the pages of his first novel Pebble in the Sky , wherein Imperial archaeologist Bel Arvardan refers to ancient human strata discovered in the Sirius sector dating back "some 50, years".

However, when Asimov decided decades later to retroactively integrate the universe of his Foundation and Galactic Empire novels with that of his Robot stories, a number of changes and minor discrepancies surfaced — the character R. Daneel Olivaw was established as having existed for some 20, years, with the original Robot novels featuring the character occurring not more than a couple of millennia after the earlyst century Susan Calvin short stories.

Also, in Foundation's Edge , mankind was referred to as having possessed interstellar space travel for only 22, years, a far cry from the 50 millennia of earlier works. In the spring of , Asimov published an early timeline in the pages of Thrilling Wonder Stories magazine based upon his thought processes concerning the Foundation universe's history at that point in his life, which vastly differs from its modern-era counterpart.

Many included stories would later be either jettisoned from the later chronology or temporally relocated by the author. Also, the aforementioned lengthier scope of time was changed. For example, in the original s timeline, humanity does not discover the hyperspatial drive until around AD, whereas in the reincorporated Robot universe chronology, the first interstellar jump occurs in AD, during the events of I, Robot. Below is a summarized timeline for events detailed in the series.

In Learned Optimism , [9] psychologist Martin Seligman identifies the Foundation series as one of the most important influences in his professional life, because of the possibility of predictive sociology based on psychological principles. He also lays claim to the first successful prediction of a major historical sociological event, in the US elections , and he specifically attributes this to a psychological principle.

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In his book To Renew America , U. House Speaker Newt Gingrich wrote how he was influenced by reading the Foundation trilogy in high school. Paul Krugman , winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences , credits the Foundation series with turning his mind to economics, as the closest existing science to psychohistory. Businessman and entrepreneur Elon Musk counts the series among the inspirations for his career. In , the Foundation trilogy beat several other science fiction and fantasy series to receive a special Hugo Award for "Best All-Time Series".

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Heinlein , Lensman series by Edward E. Smith and The Lord of the Rings by J. Asimov himself wrote that he assumed the one-time award had been created to honor The Lord of the Rings , and he was amazed when his work won. The series has won three other Hugo Awards. Foundation's Edge won Best Novel in , and was a bestseller for almost a year. Retrospective Hugo Awards were given in and for, respectively, "The Mule" the major part of Foundation and Empire for Best Novel and "Foundation" the first story written for the series, and second chapter of the first novel for Best Short Story For instance, "The Guide" of the former is a spoof of the Encyclopedia Galactica , and the series actually mentions the encyclopedia by name, remarking that it is rather "dry", and consequently sells fewer copies than the guide; the latter also features the ultra-urbanized Imperial planet Helior, often parodying the logistics such a planet-city would require, but that Asimov's novel downplays when describing Trantor.

It takes place about 2, years after Foundation , after the founding of the Second Galactic Empire. It is set in the same fictional universe as the Foundation series, in considerable detail, but with virtually all Foundation -specific names either changed e. The novel explores the ideas of psychohistory in a number of new directions, inspired by more recent developments in mathematics and computer science , as well as by new ideas in science fiction itself.

The oboe -like holophonor in Matt Groening 's animated television series Futurama is based directly upon the "Visi-Sonor" which Magnifico plays in Foundation and Empire. During the — Marvel Comics Civil War crossover storyline, in Fantastic Four Mister Fantastic revealed his own attempt to develop psychohistory, saying he was inspired after reading the Foundation series.

It's been a while but I'm sure you've made the right connection Asimov was required reading in the 60's. A BBC 7 rerun commenced in July The failure to develop a new franchise was partly a reason the studio signed on to produce The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. Michael Wimer was named as co-producer.

This project failed to materialize and HBO acquired the rights when they became available in However on April 18, , Josh Friedman left the project as co-writer and co-showrunner. This was apparently planned, with either Friedman or screenwriter David Goyer leaving and the other staying. The series is set in the same universe as Asimov's first published novel, Pebble in the Sky , although Foundation takes place about 10, years later. Pebble in the Sky became the basis for the Empire series. Thus, all three series are set in the same universe, giving them a combined length of 18 novels, and a total of about 1,, words see the List of books below.

The merge also created a time-span of the series of around 20, years. The stand-alone story Nemesis is also in the same continuity; being referenced in Forward the Foundation , where Hari Seldon refers to a twenty-thousand-year-old story of "a young woman that could communicate with an entire planet that circled a sun named Nemesis. The foreword to Prelude to Foundation contains the chronological ordering of Asimov's science fiction books. Asimov stated that the books of his Robot , Empire , and Foundation series "offer a kind of history of the future, which is, perhaps, not completely consistent, since I did not plan consistency to begin with.

Forward the Foundation , Nemesis , and The Positronic Man do not appear in Asimov's list, as they were not yet published at the time, and the order of the Empire novels in Asimov's list is not entirely consistent with other lists. Also, although it was not mentioned in Asimov's "Author's Note", Asimov tied The End of Eternity into his broader Foundation Series by suggesting in Foundation's Edge that it is set in a universe where Eternity had existed but was destroyed by Eternals, resulting in an all-human galaxy.

The End of Eternity is vaguely referenced in Foundation's Edge , where a character mentions the Eternals, whose "task it was to choose a reality that would be most suitable to Humanity". The End of Eternity also refers to a "Galactic Empire" within its story. As for Nemesis , it was written after Prelude to Foundation , but in the author's note Asimov explicitly states that the book is not part of the Foundation or Empire series, but that some day he might tie it to the others.

In Forward the Foundation , Hari Seldon refers to a thousand-year-old story of "a young woman that could communicate with an entire planet that circled a sun named Nemesis", a reference to Nemesis. In Nemesis , the main colony is one of the Fifty Settlements, a collection of orbital colonies that form a state.

The Fifty Settlements possibly were the basis for the fifty Spacer worlds in the Robot stories. The implication at the end of Nemesis that the inhabitants of the off-Earth colonies are splitting off from Earthbound humans could also be connected to a similar implication about the Spacers in Mark W. Tiedemann 's Robot books. According to Alasdair Wilkins, in a discussion posted on Gizmodo, "Asimov absolutely loves weird, elliptical structures.

In The Robots of Dawn , Dr. Asimov's novels covered only of the expected 1, years it would take for the Foundation to become a galactic empire. The novels written after Asimov did not continue the timeline but rather sought to fill in gaps in the earlier stories. The Foundation universe was once again revisited in 's Foundation's Friends , a collection of short stories written by many prominent science fiction authors of that time. Orson Scott Card 's " The Originist " clarifies the founding of the Second Foundation shortly after Seldon's death; Harry Turtledove 's "Trantor Falls" tells of the efforts by the Second Foundation to survive during the sacking of Trantor, the imperial capital and Second Foundation's home; and George Zebrowski 's "Foundation's Conscience" is about the efforts of a historian to document Seldon's work following the rise of the Second Galactic Empire.

Also, shortly before his death in , Asimov approved an outline for three novels, known as the Caliban trilogy by Roger MacBride Allen , set between Robots and Empire and the Empire series. The Caliban trilogy describes the terraforming of the Spacer world Inferno, a planet where an ecological crisis forces the Spacers to abandon many long-cherished parts of their culture.

Allen's novels echo the uncertainties that Asimov's later books express about the Three Laws of Robotics , and in particular the way a thoroughly roboticized culture can degrade human initiative. After Asimov's death and at the request of Janet Asimov and the Asimov estate's representative, Ralph Vicinanza approached Gregory Benford , and asked him to write another Foundation story. He eventually agreed, and with Vicinanza and after speaking "to several authors about [the] project", formed a plan for a trilogy with "two hard SF writers broadly influenced by Asimov and of unchallenged technical ability: Greg Bear and David Brin.

These books are now claimed by some [35] [36] to collectively be a " Second Foundation trilogy", although they are inserts into pre-existing prequels and some of the earlier Foundation storylines and not generally recognized as a new Trilogy. In an epilogue to Foundation's Triumph , Brin noted he could imagine himself or a different author writing another sequel to add to Foundation's Triumph , feeling that Hari Seldon's story was not yet necessarily finished.

He later published a possible start of such a book on his website. More recently, the Asimov estate authorized publication of another trilogy of robot mysteries by Mark W. These novels, which take place several years before Asimov's Robots and Empire , are Mirage , Chimera , and Aurora These were followed by yet another robot mystery, Alexander C. In , Donald Kingsbury published the novel Psychohistorical Crisis , set in the Foundation universe after the start of the Second Empire.

Novels by various authors Isaac Asimov's Robot City , Robots and Aliens and Robots in Time series are loosely connected to the Robot series, but contain many inconsistencies with Asimov's books, and are not generally considered part of the Foundation series.

In November , the Isaac Asimov estate announced the publication of a prequel to I, Robot under the working title Robots and Chaos , the first volume in a prequel trilogy featuring Susan Calvin by fantasy author Mickey Zucker Reichert. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.


  1. Foundation series - Wikipedia.
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    Main article: Second Foundation. Main article: Foundation's Edge. Main article: Foundation and Earth. Main article: Foundation TV series. Therefore at least this part of the book would be located after the events of Foundation and Chaos , Foundation's Triumph and the first chapter of Foundation. Hugo Award. Retrieved July 28, New England Science Fiction Association. International Journal of Economics and Finance. La edad de oro II. Foundation's Edge. Halmstad: Spectra. Foundation and Earth. Retrieved Tor, Learned Optimism c by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. USA Today. February 6, The New York Times.

    Garden City, New York: Doubleday. Of course, you'll remember the holophonor [ Peter Jackson: A Film-maker's Journey. London: Harpercollins. Film Buff OnLine. Retrieved 11 November Retrieved 14 April Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 27 June Retrieved 29 August The Hollywood Reporter. From Robots to Foundations. Prelude to Foundation. Kitsap Regional Library.

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