That concurred with the development of increasingly sophisticated fortification layout and engineering. The proportional system of calculating plan views used in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries was replaced in the mid-eighteen hundreds by angle-based engineering. The last quarter century witnessed the introduction of the determinate system, which nearly always called for scaled adaptations and hence the imperative use of the proportional compass. Representation underwent parallel change.
Early seventeenth-century plan view and mock-up representation gave way to ever more accurate and geometrically determinate. This depiction of the environs concurred with the enlargement of fortifications with expanded outworks and design systems that were no longer bounded by geometry but flowed from the discretional application of fortification maxims or rules. Drawing instruments also evolved. The use of levels and altazimuths predominated in the eighteenth century at the expense of proportional compasses, as engineering hewed ever more closely to the actual lay of the land where the fortification was to be built.
The study of the instruments, design methods and depiction systems therefore confirms the premise that fortification design began as an inductive process in the sixteenth century, changed with the application of pre-determined geometric models in the Baroque period and evolved in the eighteenth century to a regulated inductive exercise in which these structures were conceived for the terrain. Avenida Juan de Herrera, 4. FLUDD, MUT, , p. MUT, VILLE, , pp.
De las fortificaciones regulares y irregulares, por don Vicente.
Carlos Segundo. In the years of the French Revolution, such procedures morphed into Descriptive Geometry, a science that deals with a wide range of geometric problems, both practical and theoretical. This chapter includes a synchronic presentation of these practices and a diachronic survey of its evolution from the Late Middle Ages to the Enlightenment, finishing with a discussion of the relevance of this field in treatises and didactic practice. Rather than its use in such military construction members as rere-arches, skew arches or stairways, the reason for the importance granted to stereotomy in military construction is to be found in its role in the education of the spatial vision of the engineer.
Engineering, fortification, stonecutting, masonry, stereotomy, drawing, projection, orthographic. These tracings are prepared in order to control the execution of such architectural members as arches, vaults or stairs, using templates taken from full-size drawings [FIGS. The subject may seem elementary at first sight. It is an application of drawing in plan and elevation, which was explained in the booklets by Mathes Roriczer or the well-known letter by Rafaello and Baldassare Castiglione to Leon X2. However, the execution of stonecutting pieces goes further that simple orthogonal projection.
First, once their construction is finished, the elevations of Rafaello and Castiglione can be understood as autonomous documents, independent from the plan. By contrast, stonecutting tracings usually show the plan and the elevation tightly interconnected, since both are necessary in order to understand the complex geometry of the voussouirs of these members. However, this method brings about a great loss of labour and material; most writers suggest the systematic use of templates [FIG.
Intrados faces of arches are frequently dressed using templates whose edges represent two consecutive intrados joints and the chords of the face arches that connect them. Such templates are meant to be placed on a planar surface, and thus they can be materialised in wood. As a consequence, the templates do not represent the actual intrados surface, but rather a polyhedral surface inscribed in the interior of the arch.
The geometrical construction of these templates is solved usually employing rotations about the intrados joints, known as rabattements in nineteenth century descriptive geometry; triangulations are used in some complex problems5. This method can be applied to hemispherical domes, and in fact a number of writers suggest their use when dealing with oval vaults; however, treatises explain a different method for the dressing of domes and sail vaults.
A number of cones, rather. These cones offer two advantages: they furnish a fair approximation to the spherical intrados surface, and can be developed using the simple method that was taught at elementary schools a few decades ago, in contrast with the spherical surface, which is non-developable.
Next, the stonemason should apply the template to the spherical surface, maFIG. Templates for hemispherical and oval domes. Since this template represents a conical surface, it cannot be materialised in wood; Josep Gelabert suggests the use of paper or cardboard, cloth, or other materials6. This idea is applied gradually to arches, in particular the ones in curved walls, where rigid templates are not very useful when controlling the edge between the intrados surface and the faces of the arch; by contrast, flexible templates [FIG.
Although treatises explain the squaring and templates methods separately, in actual practice both may be used at the same time [FIG. In a number of complex pieces, the stonemason proceeds from the initial box-like enclosing block to an intermediate volume dressed using auxiliary templates; then, wedges are taken from the intermediate solid in order to arrive at the final shape of the voussoir. In other cases, voussoirs are dressed by squaring, but the mason determines also the angle between intrados and face joints, which are transferred to the stone by FIG.
Templates for the dressing of voussoirs in an arch opened in a curved wall. Some details in Renaissance stonecutting texts hint that these geometrical operations were performed usually not in ordinary drawings, but rather in full-size tracings executed in floors or walls.
A fair number of these full-size tracings, ranging from the Hellenistic period to the Enlightenment, have been preserved in temples, cathedrals, churches and monasteries. In some occasions, dedicated rooms, called trasurae, casas de la traza or tracing houses were set apart for this purpose. These tracings are more scarce in military constructions, maybe because their wall surfaces and floors have been renovated more frequently; however, the tracing for an arch [FIG.
Generally speaking, such tracings are extremely economic.
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Its easy to understand that to execute them on all fours or on a loose scaffolding is not easy. This extreme austerity makes the interpretation of tracings quite difficult in some occasions, and also highlights another essential trait: these full-size drawings are introspective by nature.
They are not meant to convey instructions from the designer to the actual executors, but rather to help the head stonemason to determine the real shape and size of some elements that are usually deformed in orthogonal projection, such as the shapes of voussoir faces or the angles between their edges In other terms, these drawings are not a means of representation in the strict sense, but rather a method for the resolution of geometrical problems.
Since full-size tracings were used as a formal control method in stonecutting, rather than scale drawings, we may surmise that they offer substantial advantages. First, they furnish a much higher precision than drawings on paper, avoiding the errors associated with scale changes in execution Thus, stonemasons, architects and engineers transformed gradually an FIG. Anyhow, the formation of this system was not immediate, and the leading role in this field of knowledge shifted from stonemasons and architects to clerics and military engineers, while the empirical paradigm of the first phases evolved into the conception of this discipline as an exact science; we shall deal with this evolution in the next section An unknown draughtsman, dubbed as Hand IV by Barnes, interpolated some schemata in a few sheets of the portfolio of Villard de Honnecourt.
Two of them have been identified by Branner, Lalbat et al. If such hypotheses are right, the voussoirs are to be dressed by squaring, maybe with the help of a sauterelle However, they furnish valuable information on the evolution of orthogonal projection, explaining that the stonemason is to construct an elevation around a symmetry axis, tracing orthogonals to the axis that stand for horizontal planes. Next, the mason should bring horizontal measures from the plan to these horizontal lines, guaranteeing the coherence between plan and elevation. Full-size tracing of the vault in the sacristy of the cathedral of Murcia, In each quarter of the vault, tiercerons and liernes should meet in space in a secondary boss; if not, the tiercerons would pass over the liernes, or the other way around, with catastrophic results.
The wall arch is placed in its natural position, while the lierne is projected on the vertical wall plane, and the diagonal ribs and tiercerons are rotated around the vertical axis that passes through the springer Transferring this angular measure to the saltarregla, he can improve the control of the dressing process by the squaring method.
When using plantas al justo, that is, full templates, the problem involves the rotation of the entire template, a method known in nineteenth century Descriptive Geometry treatises as rabattement. When the intrados joint is orthogonal to the face arch, the mason can solve the problem easily, transferring the distance between two consecutive intrados joints, taken from the elevation, to the template By contrast, when the intrados joint is oblique, the problem is not so simple.
As for flexible templates for spherical or torus surfaces, they are completely lacking in the early sixteenth century stonecutting tracings in Murcia cathedral [FIG. They are. In any case, along the sixteenth century this subject is under the command of stonemasons and architects, or more precisely, a peculiar group between both professions. This practice does not exclude the interest of architects in this matter; Alonso de Vandelvira lent a copy of his manuscript to Juan de Valencia; after the death of the latter, he supposed it was in the hands of Juan de Herrera, Francisco de Mora or Juan de Vega The borderline position of this group of professionals did not make their life easy.
In , Pedro de Velasco tried to exclude Rojas from the decisions about fortification arguing that he was just a stonemason; however, in , Rojas reversed the argument showing with pride his building experience, which granted him authority to give his opinion in constructive matters Otherwise the architect would be at the orders of the workmen, which would be tantamount to placing the cart before the horses That is, a new form of knowledge is appearing, using classical science in order to solve practical problems, in contrast with Antique and Mediaeval science, that usually do not seek their application to practical problems This program, favoured by the Spanish crown in the last decades of the sixteenth century, will be developed slowly; the cycle will be closed not in Spain, but rather in FIG.
Continental Europe. Other texts, such as Ms.
However, the lack of didactic intentions in Guardia or Ms. Although it is not a specialised stonecutting manual, but a general architectural treatise, it includes two full books, about pages, to stonecutting; this allows a comprehensive and detailed approach to our subject, in contrast with Rojas This silence was broken in , when Girard Desargues, a bourgeois from Lyons, amateur architect and precursor of Projective Geometry, published a leaflet offering a general method for the resolution of all stonecutting problems [FIG.
The masons of Paris responded violently against this interference from a stranger to the craft; Jacques Curabelle, the best stonecutter of the period, published pamphlets with such Baroque titles as Foiblesse pitoyable du sr G. The confrontation brought about a remarkable contest: two teams of stonemasons, directed by Desargues and Curabelle, were to build arches according to the methods of their leaders.
The winners were to receive a substantial prize of one hundred pistoles At the end the competition did not take place, since the contestants did not agree in the rules or the jury. Desargues argued with scorn that geometricians should not be judged by masons; quite to the contrary, the geometricians are the masters and the masons the disciples.
However, this failed duel indicates a change of paradigm: for Desargues the criterion of the validity of stonecutting methods does not lie in the apparent perfection of the final built piece, but rather in the mathematical correction of the methods used in its execution. The consequences of this paradigm shift were felt slowly, although gradually. The confrontation led to the appearance of three stonecutting treatises in a few years. Templates, voussoirs and interior space in an arch opened in a curved wall. Arches opened in curved walls. Only in the second and third volumes he explains actual stonecutting problems, placed under the heading of tomotechnie.
In this way, the discipline is put under the rule of geometry, including demonstrations for each particular problem, in contrast with previous treatises. He accepts that this procedure has some advantages, since it shows clearly the connections. His procedure was not restricted to stonecutting, not even to construction. Rather, he presented it FIG.
Projection planes, ground line and projections of a straight line. Only when adding a second projection, we can determine unambiguously this point; the passage suggests implicitly that the striking auxiliary projections used by stonecutters are unnecessary While double projection, as used up to this period, allows to determine the position of a point in relation to other objects, the ground line furnishes a method for computing the absolute position of a point. At the same time, it fixes in space the position of both projection planes; this allows the draughtsman to represent any plane through its intersections with the projection planes The use of planes is not really very useful in stonecutting tracings; up to this moment, nobody has built a plane or a straight line, but rather finite elements.
In this way Monge implies a subtle inversion of the concepts used in our subject up to this moment; the introvert drawing of stonemasons, timely transferred to scientific language, comes second, while pride of place is taken by the transmission of the orders from the engineer to the executors.
Anyhow, we shall deal with the reasons of this evolution, in particular with the exclusion of perspectives, both lineal and cavalier, from the education of engineers, in the next section. As shown by Alonso et al. That is, writers consider that orthogonal projections and its auxiliary methods — rotations, developments, and the like — are quite useful for the determination of the true shapes of voussoir faces or the angles between their edges, but they do not show intuitively the volume of construction members or their parts.
This mission is entrusted to cavalier or linear perspectives. Probably Monge and his aides understood that orthogonal projections were sufficient to show the volumetric structure of these members, or maybe they were trying to put pressure on students so they could read easily plans and elevations showing complex forms Anyway, some details hint that Monge was not the first one to tread that path.
At first sight, the interest of engineers in shadows, while. At this point, we should ask ourselves about the reason of the interest of engineers in stonecutting. However, these explanations [FIG. Treatises also deal with sloping arches; in particular Martinez de Aranda presents six variants: escarpment or counterscarp, and their combinations with straight plan, or two kinds of obliquity.
Such arches seem to deny the military function of the wall, which does not foster the presence of openings. However, the small size of the arch suggests that it is easier to place in the voussoirs of a round arch in the wall and give them the slant required by the slope of the wall and the skew shape of the arch by means of a simple retouching, rather than addressing the complexities of the template construction methods proposed by the treatises. Admittedly, treatises also include vaults and stairs; however, in Early Modern military constructions the former are executed on many occasions in brick or concrete, while the stairs are usually relatively members, such as the straight newel helical stair, known in Spain as Caracol de husillo, or at most a member with a helical newel, known as Caracol de Mallorca.
All this suggests that the teaching of Stonecutting Theory in military schools focused not so much in the training of engineers for stone construction, but on the education of their spatial vision As Sakarovitch said, the stonemason works on mass, starting from a three-dimensional object, by contrast with the carpenter or the coppersmith, who work on lines or developable surfaces.
This leads to a parallel between the material activity of the stonemason and the abstract position of the geometrician, shown by rich repertoire of developable and warped that can be materialised by the stonemason and their complex intersection On its turn, this geometrical wealth is reflected in the wide variety of graphic techniques used in stonecutting tracings: projections, developments, rabattements, rotations, changes of projection plane.
Even the noFIG. Side view. And finally, the economy and elegance of stonecutting tracings had to be enticing to the military by force All this is what explains, beyond its practical application, the interest of engineers in stonecutting. Alfonso XIII, II, pp. II, p. RUIZ, c. The construction of parallels in paper, using sliding triangles, is quite easy; by contrast, tracing parallels on floors or walls is quite difficult; see for example a construction mentioned by ROJAS, , f.
ROJAS, , f. The drawing in the upper part of the sheet may suggest at first sight a peculiar arch with diminishing faces; on closer inspection, it represents a skew arch in which only the edges between faces and intrados are depicted, while the ones between face an extrados are left out. As we shall see, in the Escorial the head stonemasons prepare templates and hand them to contractors almost everyday; only in special cases they ask the actual builders to consult full-size tracing.
As the exception that confirms the rule, a preparatory drawing for a tracing, drawn in paper and rather clumsy is analysed in ALONSO, , pp. The word is quite unusual in English, due to the cold reception of French Descriptive Geometry, associated with Napoleonic institutions, in England.
See a more detailed survey of treatises and writers in Calvo, , and an explanation of the evolution of the intellectual status of the discipline in CALVO, Prior to Barnes recent edition, this anonymous draughtsman was identified by Hahnloser as Magister II. GILA, , pp. ROJAS, , ff. Pistole was a popular name for a Spanish coin worth two escudos, which was in use as a virtual currency unit in France in the period of Louis XVI marriage with Maria Theresa of Austria, daughter of Philip IV of Spain, with a value of ten tournois pounds.
Thus, the prize amounted to 1, pounds. CAPEL et al. MONGE, , pp. MONGE, , p. ROJAS, , 97 v. CALVO, In Descriptive Geometry, a developpable surface can be materialised through deformation excluding extension, folding or cutting of a flat sheet of paper, cardboard or metal. Examples are cones or cylinders with any directrix. In three-dimensional space, all developpable surfaces are also ruled; that is, through every point of the surface there is a straight line that lies in its entirety on the surface. Other surfaces, known as warped surfaces, cannot be materialised through deformation of a sheet, although they can be dressed in stone or modelled in clay.
Warped surfaces may be ruled surfaces, such as some kinds of skew arches, or double curvature surfaces, such as the sphere, where no straight line lies in the surface. Caja de Ahorros, pp. Desargues, pour pratiquer la perspective par petit-. Madrid, Alpuerto. Ediciones, pp. Guerra, Estado y ciencia en los tratados militares del Renacimiento, de. Notes on copies of B. Libro secondo, Venezia, and B.
Guarino Guarini chierico regolare opera postuma dedicata a. LONG, P. Paris, Baudouin. Madrid, Luis. A cross-. Ciencias, que tratan de la cantidad Valencia, Antonio Bordazar-Vicente Cabrera. The drawings selected for the study were chosen on the grounds of their dual role as survey records of existing circumstances and designs for possible improvement.
The definition of drawing proposed here is based primarily on the relationship between the two-dimensional lines and hues set down on paper and what we perceive as threedimensional reality. Construction here is construed as a precise attitude in which drawing may analogise reality by reflecting the order and dimension of things, while the adjective deferred highlights two essential distinctions between drawing and material reality: namely, nature and timing.
The aim is to show that drawing and reality are not the same thing and that in their time-bound inter-relationships, the former may either reflect what already exists or anticipate what is to be. This premise delimits an area encompassing both engineering and architectural delineation within the wide world of drawing. In its analysis, certain basic tenets should be borne in mind to sift through a number of commonplaces that may lead to confusion. The first has to do with the routine and at times blunt division between artistic and technical drawing.
In connection with the former, automatically qualifying architectural drawing as artistic and engineering drawing as technical is much too coarse a criterion. To simplify the conceit, whereas the artistic option entails ease or agility, the technical pathway would be more patterned or structured. While this approximate distinction is just one of many2, this approach to interpreting the development of drawing may be closer to objective reality, in which the proportional weight of the two aspects are acknowledged in each case.
On these grounds, architectural and engineering drafting would initially be nearly the same thing, with the weight of the two procedures, agility or pattern, contingent upon the situation and the personal skills or capacities of the author in question. These considerations introduce the second aspect, namely the acknowledgement of a balance between general progress in graphic technique and the case of each specific individual studied. Against that backdrop, drawing has traditionally been recognised to consist in what is usually regarded as an innate talent.
In all ages, while some people have a gift for drawing others develop their skills along structured, more or less strict guidelines closely related to the level of understanding and training characteristic their specific historic era. The intention of this digression is to note that the possible existence of a degree of general knowledge in a given time does not mean that it would be accessible to any individual who happened to live at that time.
The corollary is that specific authors might well attain a degree of skill or understanding based on their specific aptitudes far in excess of the graphic expertise characteristic of their age. Within the above conceptual framework, this study, which in no way aspires to be exhaustive3, aims to establish the parallel pathways visible in drawings that contributed to.
Be it said here that engineering and architecture had been traditionally related in the two preceding centuries, during Habsburg rule4, although by the end of the sixteen hundreds the two appeared to be going their separate ways. The seventeenth century witnessed a debate around the skills to be required of master builders. Two antagonistic positions called either for a background in construction or qualifications based on a more generally artistic component5. In synthesis, further to the division between the two types of drawing referred to above, the dispute revolved around line drawing as construction and line drawing as invention.
Upon his death in , he was succeeded by Teodoro Ardemans, initially trained as a painter, who held the position until his death in From then on, the disappearance of the Works and Woodlands Council and the onset of foreign intervention with the appointment of Juan Bautista Sachetti gave royal works architecture a new twist.
Coming back to the turn of the century and the origin of the new dynasty, renovation in engineering looked to France for its basic inspiration, as well as to the Corps of Military Engineers created in under the leadership of Flemish engineer George Prosper Verboom6. While its origin and purpose were clearly military, the corps began to engage in strictly civilian interests and strategies as early as The focus here is on this latter realm, tracking the development of drawing over time and its relationship to places, scales and authors, adopting as neutral an approach as possible and eluding the schematic premises mentioned above.
Note, however, that in this engraving, drawing tools, as well as the classical orders, are attributed to architects only, in keeping with artistic tradition. This schematic assignment of roles was actually more complex and integrated in the real world. The first known drawing by the engineer born in Rome around is particularly significant: it depicts the people of Madrid cheering their new king in November It features an elevation view of the Habsburg Castle, a gouache-tinted line drawing that serves as the background for the crowd, rendered as correctly and attractively structured figures in different planes.
The narrative intention of the drawing is unequivocally con-. Madrid, History Museum, IN Madrid, History Museum, IN and Between the two dates, Pallota had drawn a considerable number of geographic and military illustrations for the work Svccession del rey D. He was initially commissioned to survey the grounds and prepare the respective drawings for the palatial complex with a view to the transformations designed by his master Robert de Cotte. The general drawing for the layout of the compound and grounds, which attests to the solvency of his work and graphic acumen, reflects the immediate urban surrounds [FIG.
On another scale, the plan view of the palatial core [FIG. It was initially supplemented by soil and elevation contours, the originals of which are kept at the French National Library. The respective works, conducted between and , were in all likelihood supervised by Carlier.
The next stage in his career found him participating in the earliest stages of the Royal Site at La Granja. No original drawings for the initial phase between and having been preserved, [FIG. Planta del Palacio del Buen Retiro, estado actual hacia French National Library, Cabinet des. Another member of this particular historic cast, French military engineer Etienne Marchand, apparently also assisted in the works.
In Marchand, at the time assistant engineer or draughtsman, was promoted to the category of second lieutenant13, participating from the outset in the works on the grounds at La Granja. Madrid, General Palace Archives, Nos and Dated in , it served as a basis for a second design drawing to restructure and expand the complex [FIG. Landscaping and Marchand are the guideposts to the next stage in this series, the royal site established centuries earlier at Aranjuez, where the River Jarama flows into the Tagus.
The campaign to refurbish the compound had begun in under the leadership of the master builder appointed to Aranjuez in , Pedro Caro Idrogo, whose wideranging profile included architectural and military engineering skills. The commission entailed finishing the building planned by Philip II to replace the former Order of Santiago monastery, still standing in the early eighteenth century, along with less than one-half of the building originally envisaged.
As construction was resumed on the palace, a landscaped area was designed to flank the east wing of the building: a third parterre following on the ones at Buen Retiro and La Granja A drawing signed by Master Idrogo for a tiered circular dam in the riverbed close to the northern wing of the palace is still intact Like others of his fairly imprecise designs, the most outstanding of which may be a new set of stairs for the central part of the palace, featuring two symmetrical semi-circular staircases, this sole graphic testimony for the dam denotes little more than elementary drafting skills.
Different shades of red differentiate the older and recently built areas, while the new stairs are shown in yellow. The graphic and architectural quality of these drawings would seem to indicate that they were not authored by the local master, but rather by Marchand, who was assigned to the works at Aranjuez in late Far from competing, however, the two apparently worked together harmoniously in a cooperative spirit that more than likely permeated the design and construction of the eastern parterre, the draw-.
Floor plan and cross-section of Aranjuez Palace in Like Carlier and Pallota before them, Idrogo and Marchand died within less than a year of one another: the former in December and the latter in November Design for eastern parterre, Aranjuez Palace, July Madrid, General Palace Archives, No.
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General grounds, La Granja de San Ildefonso ca By that time the palace had already been enlarged to the guidelines of painter and architectural theorist Andrea Procaccini along with one of his assistants, architect and painter Sempronio Subisati From to the young Spanish engineer drafted a superb cartography of the place that attested to the status of the palatial compound and its grounds and contained as well the earliest indications of the birth of the adjacent town [FIG.
Note the squares between it and the gate into the royal site, skirted by exedra and twin buildings with a certain institutional air. The first such territorial scale document, authored by engineer Sebastian de Rodolphe in , depicts two dimensions: present status and design for future intervention [FIG. Broadly speaking, local master builders attained a certain proficiency in architectural drawing, while their territorial renditions exhibited significant shortcomings.
It is attributed to Gian Battista Novello, who supposedly received some architectural training prior to his residence in Spain from to Map of Batuecas Woodlands with plan view and cross-section of Batuecas Palace in Nangle, who earned his associate engineering diploma in , was promoted to lieutenant in and to full engineer status in After an initial post at Catalonia and a presumed assignment in Cuba, he appears in connection with the building of the Guadarrama Road in The sculptures were authored by Gian Domenico Olivieri and the iron work by master Francisco Moradillo.
This gate was but the climax of the design for a new circular enclosure around El Pardo, designed and budgeted by the engineer himself shortly before his death in , and built during the rest of the decade. Although they constitute a digression from the core theme of this chapter, the attractive drawings showing the military manoeuvres normally conducted north and east of Madrid are certainly relevant to the city and its immediate surrounds.
In a way, these drawings can be viewed as a preview of and supplement to the huge map of Madrid dedicated to the Count of Aranda published in Authored by engraver Antonio Espinoso de los Monteros, the ideologue and director for that endeavour. The scale used was in keeping with the standard sponsored by the military and signed by the Count of Aranda on 31 January Tracking down the elusive Hermosilla and backpedalling 10 years sets this narrative against the backdrop of El Escorial. New plan and elevation views and cross-sections for the monastery were signed at Madrid on 12 March by engineers Baltasar Ricaud and Bernardo Fillera.
Four of the elevation drawings and three of the cross-sections have been located relatively recently24 [FIG. Although no explicit evidence is in place, there is every indication that these drawings were the result of an undertaking supervised by Hermosilla to document the grandiose building as the beginning of a new approach to. Work began in by Hermosillo himself with the assistance and cooperation of two young architects, Juan Pedro Arnal and Juan de Villanueva Baltasar Ricaud de Tirgalle26 was in all likelihood born between and ; he was appointed draughtsman in and full engineer in The record shows that after concluding his task in and with the disappearance of the Madrid school, he devoted considerable effort to drawing the western Biscay and central Mediterranean coasts and participated in the Algiers campaign headed by Silvestre Abarca in That the latest known of this series of drawings dates from stands as proof of his long life.
Less is known about Bernardo Fillera: the only proven fact is that on 22 October he was appointed draughtsman and posted at Catalonia The inference is that he would be from 10 to 15 years younger than Ricaud. Little more is known about the subsequent activity of the Catalonian engineer, except for an intriguing fact that leads, again, to where the River Jarama runs into the Tagus. On 14 December Bernardo Fillera received orders to remove to the royal site at Aranjuez to undertake a new graphic campaign, probably as a result of his work at El Escorial Despite this promising start, perhaps due to the change of reign or other unknown reasons, this initiative was apparently very short-lived.
Fifteen years later, however,. Topography of the Royal Site at Aranjuez, overall plan view. Aranjuez Madrid , One year later he finished his graphic and literary narrative of the properties owned by the San Juan Priory at Consuegra, likewise in the province of Toledo.
His purportedly globalising image of the royal site was clearly a propagandistic portrayal of its new status, in which traditional recreational and leisure-time activities were combined with palace enlargement and consolidation of the adjacent town, and with the agricultural and husbandry experiments encouraged by Charles III. After finishing his mission at Aranjuez, Aguirre was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the Infantry in At around the same time, he appears to have decided to create a graphic narrative for certain elements in the city of Madrid, whether as part of an official task or a personal initiative is unclear.
Two external views of the city depicting two of its gates appeared two years later, in Madrid A curious and appealing view, unsigned and undated but attributable to Domingo de Aguirre30, has recently appeared. This oil on canvas overview of the eastern front of the city taken from Retiro Park measures an unusual x mm, in contrast to the conventional size and proportions of the aforementioned drawings [FIG. The final years of the life of this last royal site engineer and draughtsman were fairly peculiar. By his grandson Charles III was near death and the dynasty would continue in the person of his son, who embarked on the turn of the century abruptly and with no clear loadstar.
The spatial interim serves to complete this tour over time aimed to identify what has changed and what has remained the same in the built environment. One of the immense virtues of drawing is that, thanks to its testimonial value, it enables the viewer to participate in this engaging process. More than planned, it appears to be the sum of a series of personal skills which, in their interaction with traditional local building agents, induced a sort of positive fermentation.
This sectoral review obviously fits into a more general dynamic in the context of progress in the age of enlightenment. State centralisation and new civil and military structures, in this case the Academy of the Three Noble Arts of Drawing and the military academies, acted in parallel both educationally and strategically speaking to control the physical medium at the territorial, urban and architectural scales. Academe delimited and structured the artistic professions painting, sculpture and architecture , whilst the military academies, in addition to attending to their specific martial interests, imposed control and interven-.
Between these two realms, the overlap in architectural action and land use design, in what was to come to be known as the problem of professional attributions, set the stage for the well-known future conflict between engineers and architects that raged with considerable intensity throughout the nineteenth century That would diminish the impact of personal authorship. It is as if a huge hand stemming from their esprit de corps guided the ideas and pen strokes originating in the minds and hands of its individual members. From to , Marchand shared posts and missions with Pallota.
AGP Maps of El Pardo and El Escorial, respectively. CAPEL, , pp. AGS M. CAPEL, , p. Caylus Gallery. SILVA ed. El Ochocientos. De los lenguajes al patrimonio. The conceptual guidelines of this study deal with the achievement of the institutional will of the Bourbon Spanish monarchy, since its inception after War of the Spanish Succession, in order to establish a standardized organizational procedures and methods of spatial representation by military professionals, basically engineers and draftsmen, in terms of mapping processes used throughout this technical-artistic discipline.
The contribution, based mainly on documentary sources, focuses its analysis on the institutional and regulatory mechanisms of the process during the first half of the eighteenth Century in Spain, which actually is a first approach to a larger research on mapping initiatives and activity of military engineers around the representation of space in different ways.
This work shows the difficulties that existed to organize a universal frame of reference prior to a further corporate consolidation2. Once the War of the Spanish Succession came to the Iberian Peninsula in , with the parallel structuring of the Bourbon Army, those responsible for this faction realised the advantage of channelling the organisation of specialist corps in terms of fortification and theories of attack and defence thereof.
Given this provisional situation and certain lack of factual control when distributing professional responsibilities — reinforced by the extraordinary military conflict between the French Bourbons and Austrian Hapsburgs — the drawing up of ordinances to establish these functions and the specific nature of work to be undertaken with members of the Corps of Engineers was essential.
The first such Ordenanza, from , established the terms applicable to the tasks to be carried out from an institutional, administrative and technical point of view, which would be respected in the subsequent reviews published in and , with the corresponding adaptations to the new times and technological advances. The Ordinance on the Teaching of Mathematics in also concerned itself with cartographic questions, an important aspect in the study plan put forward by the Royal Academies of Mathematics Barcelona, Oran and Ceuta , with its training programmes for the recruitment of skilled map- and plan-making staff.
Real Ordenanza, e Instruccion de 4 de Julio de para los Ingenieros, y otras personas, dividida en dos partes Analysis of the text allows us to establish a structure of the various parameters and concepts considered to be essential to the organisation of the professional duties of the Spanish Army Corps of Engineers. Good planning means significant savings by eliminating unnecessary expenses, although the unification of criteria ensures the universality of procedures and the homogeneity of mechanisms of intervention on the ground, despite the enormous variability of material conditions geological, edaphological, climatic etc.
The use of a standardised language should impede varying interpretations which depend on the different. Los montes que se demuestran son de tierra lo bastante Elevados y Cubiertos de Arboles. No place specified [in situ], MPD, 59, The underlying intention in the cartographic instruction given to engineers was primarily linked to the representation of territory and the elements integrated therein, both natural and artificial.
The Army Corps of Engineers had very few among their number who could undertake such a task, to which we should add their short existence. They basically depended on the work carried out on the ground in. No place specified [in situ], no date specified . On the advice of his ministers, King Philip V, himself of French origin, chose to adapt the Gallic-Bourbon system to suit Spanish conditions — more specifically those experienced in Castile — with a model that reflected a new concept of a centralised State, still somewhat influenced by the Italian influence in the court, a circumstance that was also related to the presence of the Spanish monarchy in Italian lands The arguments in favour of such standardisation were set out in Point 26, indicating that by using.
MPD, 25, Plano de la Ysla Yris en la Costa de Africa. No place specified [Malaga], no date specified [c. The criteria behind the reflections set out in the Ordinance covered both civil and military matters The reflections expressed in the regulations clearly delimited the principle objectives behind the Ordinance [TABLE 1].
Finally, instruction shall be given in all matters pertaining to the notion of the role of Military Buildings required in a fortified enclosure. Students shall be taught the way to prepare specific Plans and Maps of Provinces: the way to distinguish and represent on paper cultivated and uncultivated land, Forests, Ravines, Roads, Mountains, Outcrops, Coastlines, Rivers, Marshes, Houses, Gardens and Smallholdings.
Also instruction in Trenches, Batteries, investment and circumvallation lines in fortified enclosures, providing them with detailed designs of all manner of instruments for Sappers, Ricks, and Fences, Defensive Shields and Bolsters: how to make and use them, with all other operations that employ them, the defence of fortifications, Encampments, Army battle plans, with all the corresponding colours, the enlargement and reduction of Plans, scale reduction, the way to take and delineate a view of a fortified enclosure or terrain, in order to represent these on paper in a natural manner and generally the form of pro-.
Citadelle No place specified [Barcelona], no date specified . MPD, 08, Puerta Principal de La Ciudadella de Barcelona. No place specified [Barcelona], no date specified [c. The relationships between these should be accompanied by the reasoning behind them and the advantages that follow on from execution. The Director of Drawing shall teach and explain all required Design, on the approval of the Inspector and the Director General of the Academy, ensuring that they copy said instruction, with the assistance of the spoken voice.
The Ordenanza offers no particular details of how maps and plans should be prepared, as such specifications would be taught during the drawing course. The text also stresses the importance that the War Secretary gave to graphic training of those aspiring to become engineers or those engineers who wished to perfect their drawing skills. In order to prevent complications in carrying out orders and facilitating the teaching dynamic, those responsible in the military hierarchy and at the Treasury the Captain General, Overseers, etc.
In corporate terms, the implication of engineers was of fundamental importance in stimulating the processes of development and improvement of map-making methods and techniques. These actions were channelled in practice by the competent authorities — either by institutions overseeing engineers both general and provincial , or by the Royal Board of Fortifications in Madrid15 —, the War Secretary and the military leaders at the various general headquarters Here we should highlight Royal initiatives to create map- and model-making collections at various points during the eighteenth century.
Toward the end of the following decade, in , the same engineer from Marseille took charge of compilFIG. Plano del Castillo y Villa de ing an ambitious collection of maps Cardona con sus contornos. Barcelona, 15 January Under the governCH, Atlas These ventures, comparable to others led by the French monarchy from the seventeenth century onward, did not achieve their desired aims Surrounding these matters, a major controversy arose among the various authorities who went to some lengths to point out the shortcomings of the members of the Corps, or those aspiring to join it, in reaching the required standard of cartographic excellence, in all but a few cases.
Both from the point of view of the cartographic design and the academic context that should ensure the excellence of the engineers, the problems were nevertheless constant in the quest to establish standardised control over professional mechanisms and the particular circumstances of each individual.
Essentially this is because, with the exception of the Barcelona Academy and its counterparts in Oran and Ceuta, the integrated training of engineers, both theoretical and practical, including the ambivalent attitude toward drawing, with the difficulties experienced in each province proved to be extremely problematic. Fortress with points of attack. No place specified [Madrid], no date specified . MPD, 31, It is important to bear in mind that the training of engineers in fortification and theories of attack and defence was firmly based on knowledge of such techniques through the study of detailed illustrations, a factor that would become clear some years later with the institutionalisation of the exams to join the Corps of Engineers and the Inspection of the Artillery [FIGS.
As far as the importance of drawing to professional activities of the engineers, there were numerous questions raised, both within and outside the Academy of Mathematics. This lack of independence among those aspiring to be draughtsmen meant that the search for capable hands was a long one.
The spector. The engineer Bernardo Fernando Lasala consolidated his position at the Academy of Mathematics, years later taking charge of further duties concerning wooden models used to complement other teaching material in certain subjects. There was no let-up in the attempts to recruit engineers to teach drawing and other subjects at the Academy of Mathematics. Lleida, October A matter of special importance regarding the content of the material linked to the drawing class and the pedagogical methods used by the first director of the Barcelona Academy of Mathematics ensured that tension was maintained for over a decade between him and a number of military engineers, including Verboom.
Mateo Calabro appealed directly to the War Secretary to take steps to raise the level of the students in terms of the academic skills, thus training a new generation of engineers who were adept in the art of drawing and cartography. This art can never be attained by an engineer or soldier who is unaware of the area of Mathematic expressed above. The art of colouring has no greater mystery than the fantasy of any man, because this art which is only a counsel to Engineers and in some cases merely accidental , is no more than applying colour to Edifice, Machine and Encampment as plotted by the engineer in order to reveal of what materials they are made.
For those with intelligence this requires little time, although some may need much longer to prepare themselves in the fine taste of applying colours, while others may never achieve it with respect to those who have thus been described as accidental , as I have seen in my Students, to whom I have taught colouring having procured to educate them in the spirit of the areas of Mathematics that a good draughtsman requires. Drawing is an onerous task, while colouring is most enjoyable, something that I should remind Your Excellency, at the service of His Majesty, is useful for Academy Students.
After the failure of the siege to expel the English from Gibraltar, the Chief of Engineers was called to Madrid to discuss matters relating to the Corps, where he remained until before finally returning to Barcelona. During this period, the Flemish engineer received orders to suggest reforms to the Engineers Ordinance, as it seemed to be increasingly causing greater problems to its members, both in questions of discipline and in matters of professional training. Carrillo highlighted the need to create a specific body to oversee the production of graphic material relating to military projects throughout the Kingdom, the Royal Board of Fortifications.
Faced with this new challenge of a strictly graphic nature yet nonetheless of great importance , the instructions sought to be clear and specific. The total height of the paper shall be two feet and five inches. With this technical-administrative initiative — parallel to the establishment of close centralised control over the ordinary intake of engineers through a series of standardised exams which were, in the main, sat at the Academy of Mathematics before members of the Board of Fortifications — the door was opened to greater institutional strictness and control by the War Secretary in the setting up of the Corp.
In the first major reform of the Ordinances was instigated under the command of the King-. The creation in of the Board of Fortifications in Madrid and the replacement of Calabro as director of the Barcelona Academy with the Asturian Pedro Lucuze in — both of which were signs of the new air that Montemar was blowing through the ministry — were the two determining factors in ensuring the reorientation of the Army Corps of Engineers educational disciplinary panorama, as well as the activities related to construction and cartographic work [FIG.
Cartagena, 3 October MPD, 20, The abbreviations used when quoting source material from the archives are as follows: GMAM. WS Simancas General Archive. War Secretariat. Given the particular characteristics of this work, which was envisaged as a piece of research based almost solely on archival documentary material, there are not too many bibliographical references, as they would only serve to reiterate the material which is largely cited from other publications.
For this reason we will be mentioning such works — which are of unquestionable scientific value — in general terms, where appropriate. David Agrawal, De, Utpal Kumar, Traub, Cutler, Edward L. Gerald A. Fabio Padovano, Ruttan, Vernon W. Senauer, Benjamin, Clement A.
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