He also built the 'Bulwark', a forework on the east front. He also undertook a few finishing touches and some limited remodelling in areas such as the Lyon Chalmer and the chapel. The palace then remained largely unaltered until when it was burnt out and left unroofed. The French chateaux were built around by Louis, duke of Orleans, and James I could have known of them from Louis' son, Charles, who shared his captivity in England from r, or from some of the 6, Scots, who went to fight for the French in He may even have seen them for himself while on campaign with the English army in — 1. Virtually the only English-looking feature of Linlithgow is the elevation '4 of the 'transe', the three-storied gallery or corridor with, square-headed, three- and four- light mullioned windows, added on to the courtyard side of the south quarter, probably balancing one on the north quarter.
Introduction: Seeing the Swarm
The country with the closest parallels to Linlithgow is Italy, in particular the palace designs of Filarete and the Palazzo Venezia. By the quadrilateral fortress-palace with square corner towers had become standard in north Italy, following the example of prototypes such as the Castello Visconteo at Pavia c.
The trappings of a castle unequivocally proclaiming to all the status of the occupants, by looking back to the age of chivalry, could be combined with the regularity of planning and application of all'antica detailing to apertures or surface treatment, which signalled to cognoscenti the patron's advanced Renaissance tastes. Shortly after his election in , Pope Paul II began building a vast new palace. The prin- cipal facade had a blind ground floor, a first floor with round-headed windows, large square- headed windows to the second floor, the piano nobile, and small square-headed windows to the third floor Figure 1.
Around the eaves run machicolations and crenellations, and from the south-east corner rises a quadrangular tower. Even incomplete, the Palazzo Venezia remains the most monumental quattrocento expression of the palatium ad modum castri in Italy, being described in , by Borso d'Este, duke of Ferrara, as 'this most superb pontifical palace, exceeding in construction, in site, in magnificence, many many other royal palaces'.
This cannot have been forced on them by the constraints of the existing building, since James Ill's tower in the south-west corner was part of an extension beyond James I's palace. James IV may have decided to make the new north-west tower match his father's for reasons of symmetry, but, at the front it would have been simple enough to add circular pavilions at the two corners, following French fashion, rather than raising towers from the parapet as at the Palazzo Venezia.
Their outward splays suggest enlargement, which may have occurred when all i the windows of the great hall were glazed and had new ironwork in 51 1 However, the accounts suggest that, although some work was done to them then, it was less than in 51 1 2. One feature at Linlithgow, the Renaissance character of which has hitherto been over- looked, is the great triple fireplace in the Lyon Chalmer with its lintel strongly reminiscent of a classical entablature, divided into architrave, frieze and cornice.
It is probably related to a small group of triple fireplaces in France, the earliest installed in the great hall of the Palais de Justice in Poitiers, for Jean, duke of Berry, between —6. The lintel of the Poitiers example can also be read as an entablature, raising the possibility that the Linlithgow fireplace formed part of James I's original scheme. What distinguishes it from French examples are its sobriety and substitution of right angles for curves at the corners, which make it re- semble more closely Italian fireplaces, such as those in the Salone del Trono in the ducal palace at Urbino, dating from the s and attributed to Francesco di Giorgio.
Even if the details of the Linlithgow fireplace are not as archaeologically correct as those at Urbino, they do stand comparison with the drawings in Francesco's Saluzziano Codex c. The most obvious way would be the importation of Italian craftsmen, and there was an Italian mason in royal service in icio— The works are unspecified, but, as the date coincides with the roofing of the Great Hall at Edinburgh Castle, it seems reasonable to link him with its unequivocally Italianate roof brackets. James III befriended Adornes on his first visitScotland in —9, and made him a to knight and a member of his council.
In —1, Adornes journeyed to Jerusalem with his son, Jean, who wrote two accounts of the journey, an official version, the Itinerarium, which was dedicated to James III and presented to him by Anselm in —2, and another, more personal in tone, written shortly before Jean's death in irio. The account shows a particular interest in fortifications, which sometimes spills over into civil and sacred architecture. Thus in Milan, the Castello Sforzesco is described, where Anselm met the duke and where Filarete's treatise was housed.
He also saw Filarete's 'sumptuosissimum' Ospedale Maggiore. The Castello Visconteo in Pavia is described as 'a very beautiful and large castle, square with a great tower at each side and a park behind'. No details are given of what they saw in Rome, but dur- ing their first stay, Anselm had several private audiences with Paul II, while on their second visit they spent eighteen days, 'seeing daily the wonderful buildings and the ruins of the city'.
While we can only conjecture that, given his evident interest in architecture, he may have seen the copy of Filarete's treatise in the Castello Sforzesco, we can be certain that he saw the Palazzo Venezia. Not only was it the largest construction project in Rome at the time, but it was also acting papal palace for Paul II. Even after Anselm's murder in , seemingly because of resentment at his familiarity with James III, cultural contact between Italy and the Scottish court remained strong. In late , Erasmus accompanied Alexander to Ferrara, Bologna and Florence en route to Siena, where the latter remained three months.
Alexander rejoined Erasmus in Rome at Easter, , and both then proceeded to Cumae, near Naples, before Alexander returned to Scotland. It is now clear that, by 3, Linlithgow was a highly eclectic work, incorporating features of planning and style from France, Flanders, and possibly, England, but, in both overall form and specific details, related most closely to comparable contemporary Italian signorial palaces.
When one remembers that external details were freshly painted in strong colours and gilded in preparation for James V's marriage, and that the presently-exposed external rubble walls were almost certainly harled and possibly tinted, the palace must have made a spectacular show, and the reported words of Mary of Guise no longer seem hyperbolic. This juxtaposition of spiral stairs in small round or square towers next to much larger rectangular pavilions has recently been recognised as an innovative compositional device, exploiting the differences in massing between the two elements.
Sebastiano Serlio's chateau at Ancy-le-Franc, begun in a hybrid Franco—Italian idiom, also shares several features with Linlithgow. That their elevations are very different from the latter is not problem, since it a was accepted practice in the sixteenth century to borrow only the plan, as at Hardwick and Wollaton Halls, where the plans are adapted from Palladio, Serlio and Du Cerceau. Besides contact at the level of patrons, such as James himself, and courtiers such as Ronsard who visited Linlithgow twice , there were also direct artistic contacts. The following year John Drummond, James' principal carpenter and artillery expert, spent several months in France.
Letters also sur- vive from the Duchess of Guise in , advising her daughter, Mary, that she had engaged Nicholas Roy to come to Scotland with some companions.! Clearly, the patrons and designers of Ecouen and Ancy- le-France would have had little difficulty in gaining information on Linlithgow. Another country where the influence of Linlithgow is evident is Denmark.
This involved incorpor- ating several separate buildings disposed around three sides of a quadrangle into continuous wings and building a new east wing to complete the enclosure of the courtyard by the late ir8os Figure 1. Arkitektens Verlag striking similarity to Linlithgow, and, again, it is difficult to find closer precedent. All four a corners have towers, turnpikes occupy two of the courtyard corners, and the facades were unusually faced with sandstone from Sweden rather than native Danish brick.
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The detailed treatment of the elevations look more to the Low Countries, reflecting the Flemish and Netherlandish origins of the principal named masons, but there is evidence of Scottish involvement. It approximates to a square with three four-storey and one single-storey wings, closer in proportion and symmetry to Linlithgow than Kronborg.
Another parallel with Lin- lithgow is the presence of a fountain, although here it stands in the forecourt to the palace. The first, begun in the s, is Schloss Neuhaus Figure 1. The plan is roughly rectangular with turnpikes to each corner ofthe three- storey courtyard. Two are hexagonal and identical, and two square of differing size, of which the larger probably dates from the iro,os.
As originally built there were non-projecting square towers at the corners, but in the i s, circular pavilions were added at the angles, giving it now a very French appearance, and disguising the original similarity to Linlithgow. The second example is the Schloss Johannisburg at Aschaffenburg, east of Mainz, 'the most considerable surviving secular work of the seventeenth century in Germany', built 16oj— 14, for Johann Schweickhardt von Kronberg, the archbishop-elector of Mainz, by the architect, Georg Ridinger.
The regularity of the design is only dis- turbed by the retained medieval keep on one side, but otherwise the resemblance of the plan to Linlithgow is strong, and closer than to other possible models, such as Ancy-le-Franc or the Danish palaces. Scots were plentiful in Germany in the early sixteenth century, but there is no evidence to link them even tenuouslv with Neuhaus.
Klapheck bishop, and official correspondence survives between the abbot of the third Schottenkloster, St James, Regensburg the head of the congregation and Johannes, while the Johannisburg was building. It thus became an object worthy of admiration for foreigners, with its plan imitated in France, Den- mark and Germany. That these buildings were copying Linlithgow rather than examples of convergent evolution is suggested by the fact that in five out of six cases, Scots, some with personal knowledge of Linlithgow, moved in the circles of their builders, immediately be- fore or during building.
Such a scenario has profound implications for understanding our of Renaissance architecture in Scotland. Rather than dismissing it late development, as a derived via France, we can now see Scotland precociously advanced and as exporter and an interpreter of Italianate architectural ideas to other north Europeans. Notes i See Robert. Lindsay of Pitscottie, The Chronicles of Scotland, ed. Smilja Marjanovi? Scott, C. Kosso eds. ISBN: This is a volume of essays on fear and its representations in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and the interdisciplinary nature of this volume motivates an analysis of fear from a multitude of perspectives and within a host of secular and religious literature, historical treatises, scholastic works, art, and political accounts.
Fear is a topic that appeals to a wide audience and is particularly of interest today. In the modern world, we fear war and terrorism, economic recession, and environmental degradation: these fears make up a great portion of the fabric of our daily lives. This is a volume of essays on fear and its representations in the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
In it, the authors raise and try to answer questions about the ways in which individuals, families, and nations five-hundred, one-thousand, or even fifteen-hundred years ago approached the idea of fear. The interdisciplinary nature of this volume and its editors an historian of late antiquity and professor of literature of the Middle Ages motivates an analysis of fear from a multitude of perspectives and within a host of secular and religious literature, historical treatises, scholastic works, art, and political accounts. Through its breadth, depth, and interdisciplinary focus, the present volume makes a full contribution to the study of fear in medieval and Renaissance culture for historians, art historians, students of language and philosophy and anyone interested in how people in the past have experienced fear.
Tricomi ed. ISBN: The essays in this volume challenge the notion that the production of paintings, dramatic texts or even conduct books can be read against a stable historical ground, yet they show that paintings, works of literature, and treatises not only participate in history but are exemplars of textual instability. The 28th Annual Conference of the Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, held on October at Binghamton University, featured 33 panel sessions and approximately presentations.
The ten essays in this volume consist of the five plenary speakers - leaders in their field - and five panel essays, each of which was reviewed for this volume. The volume comprises a body of work organised around a governing theme - modes of historicisation. Each of the essays demonstrates the practice of or a commentary upon a distinctive historicised criticism.
Late Period French Feminine Names
By 'historicised' as contrasted with 'historical' criticism, it is meant that these essays problematicise, stretch or reconceive traditional historical practices. Challenging the notion that the production of paintings, dramatic texts or even conduct books can be read against a stable historical ground, they show that paintings, works of literature, and treatises not only participate in history but are exemplars of textual instability. The very content of these texts can be shown, in various editions, to change over time - and yet each bears a single, determinate title. In such ways the contributions gathered here all show that they have been affected by 'the new history'.
Contributions include: Albert H. Tricomi, 'Introduction: trends in historicizing Early Modern literature, history, and the visual arts'. Howard, 'Writing the history of the present: contextualizing Early Modern literature'; Sarah Hanley, 'Mapping theory in history: conceptual cites and social cites in the French monarchic state'; David Quint, 'Dueling and civility in sixteenth-century Italy'; Margaret Mikesell, 'The place of Vives's Instruction of a Christen Woman in Early Modern English domestic book literature'.
Trivellone; L'heretique imagine. Heterodoxie et iconographie dans l? Occident medieval, de l? Inquisition, Turnhout, Brepols, Paperback, p. ISBN: L'heresie medievale est depuis quelques annees au c'ur d'un debat historiographique tres vif. Toutefois, le theme n'avait jamais ete aborde de maniere systematique a partir des images. Le livre d? Alessia Trivellone vient combler cette lacune, en etudiant l? Grace a la mise en place d? Au cours du premier tiers du XIIIe siecle, un autre changement se dessine : la reference a l?
Antiquite et le recours aux personnifications disparaissent de l? Ce livre propose donc une histoire de l? ISBN: Le present ouvrage est consacre au paysage rural du Moyen Age, qui constituait le cadre de vie de la plus grande partie de la population jusqu'au derniers siecles de cette periode. The grammatical papyri from graeco-roman Egypt.
Contributions to the study of the ars grammatica in antiquity. ISBN: Since the opening of the Inquisition's archives in Spain in the nineteenth century, historians and anthropologists alike have seized upon the institution and its remarkable archival legacy, and have scrutinized it from a multitude of political, socio-economic, and cultural angles. Perhaps one of the most contentious hypotheses to have recently emerged from the field has been Benzion Netanyahu's proposal that the inquisitors fabricated charges of Judaizing against the Spanish New Christians Christians of Jewish descent.
This book questions Netanyahu's hypothesis by turning to the extant trial records from Aragon's tribunal of Zaragoza, and employing them as a case study.
Contributions of Romance Languages to Current Linguistic Theory
This range of documents provides ample evidence of a true survival of Jewish ritual life and culture among the Aragonese conversos who were living and working in Zaragoza at the end of the fifteenth century. When the Inquisition was established in Zaragoza in , members of the converso communities across Aragon, although denominationally Christian, were secretly observing the rituals of Judaism. Whether a continuing observance of the Sabbath, Yom Kippur, or Passover, enduring Jewish dietary practices or a deeply rooted prayer life, the picture of converso daily life which emerges from the trial records is essentially a Jewish one.
Language : English, Spanish, Latin. Allirot; Filles de roy de France. Princesses royales, memoire de saint Louis et conscience dynastique de a la fin du XIVe siecle , Turnhout, Brepols, ISBN: Voici une histoire du sang royal au feminin. De a la fin du XIVe siecle, le statut des princesses royales en France est en cours de normalisation. Les filles du roi sont progressivement exclues du trone, des apanages et de la pairie. Mais la canonisation de Louis IX et la valorisation du lignage royal renforcent leur prestige.
Elles obtiennent, sinon un patrimoine, du moins un rang specifique et la reconnaissance d'une qualite. Elles ont aussi un role important dans la construction de la memoire de saint Louis et dans la diffusion de son culte. Au cours de cette periode, la conscience dynastique passe par une celebration des rois defunts, mais aussi de leurs parents, hommes et femmes. C'est un domaine dans lequel la presence feminine est acceptee aux cotes de celle des princes, du fait des liens etroits entre les parentes du roi et le sacre. Culture et societe medievales CSM Flambard Les lieux de pouvoir au moyen age en Normandie et sur ses marges.
Brepols - Harvey Miller, Flambard Hericher, J. ISBN: La question de la formation des bourgs et de leurs rapports avec le castrum interesse les historiens et les archeologues depuis de nombreuses decennies. Loin d? La relecture des textes, l? Cependant, la complexite des relations entre pouvoir, economie et peuplement amene a interroger plus avant les strategies mises en place par les puissants pour controler des communautes d?
Flambard Hericher; Potiers et poteries du Bessin. Installee d'abord dans la seigneurie du Molay, cette activite artisanale prospere a traverse le temps et perdure encore aujourd'hui autour de Noron-la-Poterie. Tantot grace a l'archeologie, tantot grace aux documents d'archives, il a ete possible de suivre, du XIe au XXe siecle, dans le temps et dans l'espace, la vie de la communaute des potiers, de connaitre le detail de leur production potiere, et d'avoir un apercu sur la fabrication des paves et plates-tombes.
Remarquable exemple de continuite, les potiers du Bessin montrent comment une communaute artisanale a su s'adapter, technologiquement et economiquement a des contextes nouveaux et a des modes nouvelles. Languages : French. Nederland en de Europese Cultuur in de 20ste eeuw, , Acta van het colloquium georganiseerd in samenwerking met de Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen 6 en 7 november Gebrocheerd, originele uitgeversomslag, 26x18cm.
Studia Europeae, centrum voor Europese cultuur, vol. Nederland in de Europese Unie. Het Nederlands voorzitterschap januari-juni Nederland als voorbeeld, model of gids? De rol van het Nederlands in Europa. De belangrijke, ook historische rol van Nederland in de vooruitgang van de exacte wetenschappen. De algemene beginselen van artikel , lid 2, EG: betaan ze echt? Bastiaensen, A. Hilhorst, C. Kneepkens eds. Bartelink a l'occasion de son soixante-cinquieme anniversaire, Turnhout, Brepols, Stoclet; Immunes ab omni teloneo : etude diplomatique, de philologie et d'histoire sur l'exemption de tonlieux au haut Moyen Age et specialement sur la Praeceptio de Turnhout, Brepols, Bijsterveld, H.
Teunis, A. Wareham eds. ISBN: This collection of essays examines the framework of shared social customs and values, that is distinctively medieval and European. She was only 11 at that time, but she was already a coveted heiress because of Brittany's strategic position. It is situated on the north side of the Milford Haven Waterway, an estuary forming a natural harbour that has been used as a port since the Middle Ages.
Founded in by Sir William Hamilton, designed to a grid pattern, it was originally intended to be a whaling centre, though by it was developing as a Royal Navy dockyard which it remained until the dockyard was transferred to Pembroke in It then became a commercial dock, with the focus moving in the s, after the construction of an oil refinery built by Esso, to logistics for fuel oil and liquid gas. By , the town's port had become the fourth largest in the United Kingdom in terms of tonnage, and continues its important role in the United Kingdom's energy sector with several oil refineries and one of the biggest LNG terminals in the world.
Milford Haven is the most populous settlement in the county, with a.
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The House of Rohan Breton: Roc'han is a Breton family of viscounts, later dukes and princes in the French nobility, coming from the locality of Rohan in Brittany. During the Middle-Ages, it was one of the most powerful families in the Duchy of Brittany. They developed ties with the French and English royal houses as well, and played an important role in French and European history.
The only surviving branch of the family is the branch of the Rohan-Rocheforts, Dukes of Montbazon, Dukes of Bouillon and Austrian Princes of Rohan, who migrated in the early 19th century to Austria. The cradle of the Harcourt family, the castle is one of the best preserved castles in the country and contains the oldest arboretum in France. Robert II d'Harcourt was a companion in the crusade of Richard Lionheart; the first stone castle was certainly built by him.
Harcourts appear later among the most important barons of Normandy. Completed Juste or Giusti is the name conventionally applied to a family of Italian sculptors. Giusto Betti, whose name was afterwards given to the whole family, and Andrea are the first two known to us. Neither seems to have gone out of Italy. But Andrea had three sons - Antonio or Antoine Juste , Andrew born about , and John or Jean Juste, the best known of the house - all of whom early emigrated to France and figured prominently during the Renaissance.
With Francesco Laurana they stand as the most brilliant representatives and the most active emissaries of Italian art beyond the Alps. Juste de Juste ca. Joan of Arc convinced the Dauphin Charles to go to be crowned at Reims. The march though the heart of territory controlled by the hostile Burgundians was successful and would give the throne of the French monarchy to Charles VII, who had been ousted therefrom by the Treaty of Troyes. Since the Treaty of Troyes in , the dauphin had been disinherited in favour of Henry V of England following the assassination of John the Fearless.
But Henry V died in and his son was not yet one year old; the regency was entrusted to John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford. The intervention of Joan of Arc with the Dauphin Charles would be seen as miraculous, even more so after the lifti. Biography Claude was born in Fontainebleau, but as she was believed to have been conceived at Chateau d'Anet, she was nicknamed as 'Mademoiselle d'Anet' at court, a nickname that displeased her mother.
The oldest monument in the town, it is located at the mouth of the river Penfeld at the heart of the roadstead of Brest, one of the largest roadsteads in the world. From the Roman castellum to Vauban's citadel, the site has over years of history, holding right up to the present day its original role as a military fortress and a strategic location of the highest importance. It is thus the oldest castle in the world still in use, and was classified as a monument historique on 21 March . The structure's heterogeneous architecture has been the result of continual adaptations to developments in siege warfare and armament on land and sea.
The Haven is a ria or drowned valley flooded at the end of the last Ice Age. As one of the deepest natural harbours in the world, it is a busy shipping channel, trafficked by ferries from Pembroke Dock to Ireland, oil tankers and pleasure craft.
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Admiral Horatio Nelson, visiting the harbour with the Hamiltons, described it as the next best natural harbour to Trincomalee in Sri Lanka then Ceylon and "the finest port in Christendom". During one visit in , the Viking Chieftain Hubba wintered in the Haven with 23 ships, eventually lending his name to the district of Hubberston. The seat of the bishops was at Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges, now no more than a village, in the modern department of Haute-Garonne in south-west France.
The territory of the old diocese now belongs to the archdiocese of Toulouse. The name of Comminges was incorporated into the titulature of the Archbishop of Toulouse on 19 January Tredion Castle is located in Tredion in the French department of Morbihan. History Built in , Tredion manor belonged to the Dukes of Brittany. The vast forests that surround it made it a favourite meeting place for hunters. Great names have owned the Tredion estate over the centuries.
A series of bourgeois and lesser nobility then owned the castle. Tredion castle was host to illustrious owners during this period, but even more illustrious guests were to follow. The Queen mother "Catherine de'Medici" regent of the Kingd. She was born in the castle of Thouars. At the age of three she had been engaged to Peter, the second son of John V, Duke of Brittany, for political reasons.
She married him at the age of fifteen, in She came to help the poor and the sick. She had also a strong feeling about justice. Her husband died of a disease in She then entered into a conflict with King Louis XI who wanted to ma. Bauny's knowledge of moral theology was profound, but he was in many points too lenient. His indulgence excited the indignation of the Jansenists, and it was to him that Blaise Pascal, Arnauld and others turned, when they accused the Society of Jesus of teaching lax morality.
He is criticised severely in Pascal's Provincial Letters. He was a man of extraordi. The courtesy title chevalier de Mailly is accorded in France to a younger brother of the marquis or the comte de Mailly in each generation. Though several have carried the designation, the celebrated Louis or Jean , chevalier de Mailly -? Departing from the formulas established by Mme d'Aulnoy, he introduced magic and marvels in his fairy tales to entertain his readers and bring his gallant lovers together.
His fairy tales have often been reprinted and collected. Life and works He appears to have become embroiled in a gay scandal in , in which an aristocratic underground circle practicing le vice italien was uncovered. A recurring theme in Francis' life would be his quest to maintain the quasi-independence of Brittany from France. The Laval were one of the most powerful families of Maine during the Middle Ages and also had a presence in Brittany, where their prestige was similar to the one of the Rohan. He was christened Nicolas, but upon inheriting the title, he took the required name of Guy, as his predecessors had done.
He spent much of his youth at the court of his kinsman, Francis II, Duke of Brittany, where he became close with the Duke's daughter, Anne. The queen became godmother to his daughter Anne. This included service as the Lieutenant General from , Governor from , and Admiral of Brittany, where many of his lands were.
Arms of the family: Or, a chevron Gules, accompanied by three eaglets azure beaked and membered gules. This family has been known since the middle of the 11th century, and since the 14th century its members have been conspicuous in French history as nobles, military leaders and crusaders, and influential as political leaders, diplomats, Huguenots and courtiers. Upon his return, he had the abbey of Reims rebuilt, and died after He was known as the prince de Lillebonne.
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