In , Speyer celebrates its th anniversary. Since the mayor was a Lord Mayor. Stern, clinical social worker and aut. Their authorship is unknown, though Wilhelm von Giesebrecht suggested that Arno of Salzburg was the author of an early section of the Annaes Laurissenses majores surviving in the copy at Lorsch Abbey ; the Annals are believed to have been composed in successive sections by different authors, compiled. The depth of knowledge regarding court affairs suggests that the annals were written by persons close to the king, their initial reluctance to comment on Frankish defeats betrays an official design for use as Carolingian propaganda.
Though the information contained within is influenced by authorial intent in favor of the Franks, the annals remain a crucial source on the political and military history of the reign of Charlemagne. Copies of the annals can be categorized into five classes, based on additions and revisions to the text; the chronicles were continued and incorporated in the West Frankish Annales Bertiniani and in the East Frankish Annales Fuldenses and Annales Xantenses.
The annals give a brief individual description of events for each year, with a focus on the actions of the Carolingian monarchy, beginning with the account of Pepin the Short's ascension through the dethronement of the Merovingian king Childeric III. The annalists pay particular attention to the military campaigns of the Carolingian kings, justifying their actions in terms of a grand narrative of Carolingian peacekeeping and conquest in the name of expanding the Christian faith; the overthrow of the Merovingians is portrayed in such a way as to legitimize the transfer of royal power between dynasties, emphasizing Carolingian adherence to Frankish traditions and the approval of Pope Zacharias in the matter.
Reichstag (Institution) (Groß-Deutschland) | Alternative History | FANDOM powered by Wikia
Of the three kings—Pepin and Louis—Charlemagne's military chronicles are the most detailed, covering his victories against the Saxons and other peoples; the account of Charlemagne's campaign against the Saxons is notable as one of the few extant references to the Irminsul , an important if enigmatic part of the Germanic paganism practiced by the Saxons at the time. The conspiracy of Pepin the Hunchback against Charlemagne is omitted, along with any reference to potential misconduct on Charlemagne's part; the revised text, incorporates these events while maintaining a positive tone towards the emperor, presented as a peerless leader in battle.
Charlemagne's son, Louis the Pious , is shown engaging in battle by the annalists, but rather directs others to do so, or negotiates for peace; the contrast between Louis and his father and grandfather is clear. Miracles aid Charlemagne and his men, the grace of God leads him to victory.
- The Awkward Spaces of Fathering.
- Shop by category.
- Les contes aussi finissent mal (Andersen, Perrault, Poe...) (French Edition).
- Navigation menu?
Such references to striking natural phenomena, strange happenings, miracles become common in the annal entries for the 9th century. In addition to astronomical oddities, such as eclipses, the supernatural begins to enter the account, set against ritualistic yearly notices of the regular passages of Christmas and Easter. Nearly two-dozen villages are reported to have been destroyed by heavenly fire in , while at the same time an unnamed girl is said to have begun a three-year fast.
Scholz regards this preoccupation as a reflection of a belief in a divine will and control of history. Many of the worse omens parallel growing dissatisfaction with Louis the Pious, which after the end of the annals spilled into civil war between him and his sons. Divine intervention through the relics of saints play an important role as well, with mention of Hilduin's translation of the relics of St.
Sebastian to the Abbey of St. Medard , Einhard's transport of the relics of SS. Marcellinus and Peter into Francia. A more detailed account of Einhard's procurement of the relics exists in his Translation and Miracles of Marcellinus and Peter. Additionally, the annals provide the only attestation to the existence of Charlemagne's personal elephant Abul-Abbas , aside from a mention by Einhard drawn from the annals; the gift of the elephant to Charlemagne , amongst other treasures, by Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid is evidence of the attempts to form an Abbasid-Carolingian alliance at the time, which the annals document loosely.
The annals survive in multiple versions distributed across the Frankish empire, though none of these are original copies; each version is marked with distinguishing features, based on these features, Friedrich Kurze formulated five classes for the categorization of these texts. This system still remains in use; the five classes of texts are lettered A through D, with an additional E.
He united much of central Europe during the Early Middle Ages , he was the first recognised emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. Charlemagne was the eldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon , born before their canonical marriage, he became king in following his father's death as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I.
Carloman's sudden death in December under unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the sole ruler of the Frankish Kingdom , he continued his father's policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain. He campaigned against the Saxons to his east, Christianizing them upon penalty of death and leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden.
Peter's Basilica. Charlemagne has been called the "Father of Europe", as he united most of Western Europe for the first time since the classical era of the Roman Empire and united parts of Europe that had never been under Frankish or Roman rule, his rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance , a period of energetic cultural and intellectual activity within the Western Church.
All Holy Roman Emperors considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagne's empire, as did the French and German monarchies. However, the Eastern Orthodox Church views Charlemagne more controversially, labelling as heterodox his support of the filioque and the Pope's recognition of him as legitimate Roman Emperor rather than Irene of Athens of the Byzantine Empire ; these and other machinations led to the eventual split of Rome and Constantinople in the Great Schism of Charlemagne died in , having ruled as emperor for 14 years and as king for 46 years.
He was laid to rest in his imperial capital city of Aachen.
Reichstag (Institution) (Groß-Deutschland)
He married at least four times and had three legitimate sons, but only his son Louis the Pious survived to succeed him. By the 6th century, the western Germanic tribe of the Franks had been Christianised , due in considerable measure to the Catholic conversion of Clovis I. Francia, ruled by the Merovingians , was the most powerful of the kingdoms that succeeded the Western Roman Empire.
All government powers were exercised by their chief officer, the mayor of the palace. In , Pepin of Herstal , mayor of the palace of Austrasia, ended the strife between various kings and their mayors with his victory at Tertry , he became the sole governor of the entire Frankish kingdom. Pepin of Herstal was succeeded by his son Charles known as Charles Martel.
After , Charles declined to call himself king. Charles was succeeded in by his sons Pepin the Short, the father of Charlemagne. In , the brothers placed Childeric III on the throne to curb separatism in the periphery, he was the last Merovingian king. Carloman resigned office in Pepin brought the question of the kingship before Pope Zachary , asking whether it was logical for a king to have no royal power; the pope handed down his decision in , decreeing that it was better for Pepin to be called king, as he had the powers of high office as Mayor, so as not to confuse the hierarchy.
He, ordered him to become the true king. In , Pepin was elected by an assembly of the Franks , anointed by the archbishop, raised to the office of king; the Pope ordered him into a monastery. The Merovingian dynasty was thereby replaced by the Carolingian dynasty, named after Charles Martel.
He was supported in this appeal by Charles' brother. In return, the pope could provide only legitimacy, he did this by again anointing and confirming Pepin, this time adding his young sons Carolus and Carloman to the royal patrimony. They thereby became heirs to the realm that covered most of western Europe.
In , Pepin accepted the Pope's invitation to visit Italy on behalf of St. Peter's rights, dealing with the Lombards. Under the Carolingians, the Frankish kingdom spread to encompass an area including most of Western Europe. Orman portrays the Treaty of Verdun between the warring grandsons of Charlemagne as the foundation event of an independent France under its first king Charles the Bald ; the middle kingdom had broken up by and absorbed into the Western kingdom and the Eastern kingdom and the rest developing into smaller "buffer" nations that exist between Fr.
Kingdom of Bohemia The Kingdom of Bohemia , sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom , was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe , the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic. Numerous kings of Bohemia were elected Holy Roman Emperors and the capital Prague was the imperial seat in the late 14th century, at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th centuries.
Bohemia retained its name and formal status as a separate Kingdom of Bohemia until , known as a crown land within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, its capital Prague was one of the empire's leading cities. The Czech language was the main language of the Diet and the nobility until German was formally made equal with Czech and prevailed as the language of the Diet until the Czech National Revival in the 19th century. German was widely used as the language of administration in many towns after Germans immigrated and populated some areas of the country in the 13th century; the royal court used the Czech and German languages, depending on the ruler and period.
Bohemia became the core part of the newly formed Czechoslovak Republic. Under these terms, the Czech king was to be exempt from all future obligations to the Holy Roman Empire except for participation in the imperial councils; the imperial prerogative to ratify each Bohemian ruler and to appoint the bishop of Prague was revoked. The king's successor was his son, from his second marriage. Wenceslaus I's sister Agnes canonized, was an extraordinarily courageous and energetic woman for her time.
Corresponding with the Pope, she established the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star in , the first military order in the Kingdom of Bohemia. Four other military orders were present in Bohemia: the Order of St. John of Jerusalem from c. At the same time, the Mongol invasions absorbed the attention of Bohemia's eastern neighbors and Poland. He conquered the rest of Styria, most of Carinthia , parts of Carniola, he was called "the king of iron and gold".
In , Ottokar defeated Hungary in the Battle of Kressenbrunn , where more than , men clashed, he ruled an area from Austria to the Adriatic Sea. From , Habsburg king Rudolf began to reassert imperial authority, checking Ottokar's power, he had problems with rebellious nobility in Bohemia. All of Ottokar's German possessions were lost in , in he was abandoned by part of the Czech nobility and died in the Battle on the Marchfeld against Rudolf.
The Germans populated towns and mining districts on the Bohemian periphery and in some cases formed German colonies in the interior of the Czech lands. Marriages between Czech nobles.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. German History in Documents and Images. In religious and all other affairs in which the estates cannot be considered as one body, and when the Catholic estates and those of the Augsburg Confession are divided into two parties, the dispute is to be decided by amicable agreement alone, and neither side is to be bound by a majority vote. In Coy, Marschke, and Sabean eds. The Holy Roman Empire, Reconsidered. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter Articles containing Latin-language text Articles containing German-language text Commons category link is on Wikidata.
Revision History. Related Images. YouTube Videos.
You are here
Double-headed eagle with coats of arms of individual states, the symbol of the Holy Roman Empire painting from An illustration from Schedelsche Weltchronik depicting the structure of the Reich: The Holy Roman Emperor is sitting; on his right are three ecclesiastics; on his left are four secular electors. The crown of the Holy Roman Empire 2nd half of the 10th century , now held in the Schatzkammer Vienna. In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Cross of Mathilde , a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen — , who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen , the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree , enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gem s.
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna Italy , bodyguards, and courtiers. Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria. Coats of arms of prince electors surround the imperial coat of arms ; from a armorial. Roman bronze statuette representing a praying Germanic man with his hair in a Suebian knot. The gilded side of the Trundholm sun chariot. The Dejbjerg wagon, National Museum of Denmark. Roman limes blue and modern central European boundaries dark. The political divisions of Gaul at the inception of Clovis 's career Note that only the Burgundian kingdom and the province of Septimania remained unconquered at his death The division of Francia on Clovis 's death The kingdoms were not geographic unities because they were formed in an attempt to create equal-sized fiscs.
The discrepancy in size reveals the concentration of Roman fiscal lands. The division of Gaul on Chlothar I 's death Though more geographically unified realms were created out of the second fourfold division of Francia, the complex division of Provence created many problems for the rulers of Burgundy and Austrasia. The Frankish king Charlemagne was a devout Catholic and maintained a close relationship with the papacy throughout his life. Shown here, the pope asks Charlemagne for help at a meeting near Rome.
Charlemagne left and Pepin the Hunchback 10th-century copy of 9th-century original. Charlemagne instructing his son Louis the Pious. Louis the Pious giving penance at Attigny in An illustration of Einhard, to whom the revised text is often ascribed. The name of the city derives from the river Pader and "born", an old German term for the source of a river.
- Sarah,The Lost Princess!
- Oliver Stewart and the mist of forgetfulness!
- The Punishment of X4!
- A NEW ERA - van Cuyck Family history.
Paderborn Cathedral. University of Paderborn. Fritzlar is a small German town in the Schwalm-Eder district in northern Hesse, km north of Frankfurt, with a storied history. Saint Peter's Church , with statue of St. Boniface, who was a Christian missionary from England, in foreground. Constitution of the Year XII. Detail from Hammurabi 's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.
The Cossack Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk , The gold en seal that earned the decree its name. Imperial Diet in Metz during which the Golden Bull of was issued. Martin Luther, was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther by Lucas Cranach the Elder. Former monks' dormitory, St Augustine's Monastery , Erfurt. Luther at the diet of Worms, by von Werner , The text on the left was on the reverse side.
Luther in Worms, colourized woodcut, Speyer is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, with approximately 50, inhabitants. Main street in Speyer with the Speyer Cathedral in the background. View of the river Rhine from the top of the Speyer Cathedral. View of Speyer from its cathedral.
The Memorial Church consecrated in which commemorates the Protestation at Speyer. Ich kann nicht anders. I can not otherwise. Amen" , words of Martin Luther now inscribed in the Memorial Church. Defendants in the dock at the Nuremberg trials. Documentation centre at the former Nazi party rally grounds. The Electorate of Mainz, previously known in English as Mentz and by its French name Mayence, was one of the most prestigious and influential states of the Holy Roman Empire. The archdioceses of Central Europe, After the Peace of Westphalia , the archdiocese of Mainz still remained the largest of Germany, covering 10 suffragant dioceses.
Image: Schloss Johannisburg Aschaffenburg. Cologne Cathedral. The Electorate of Cologne red and neighboring states in the midth century. The Kingdom of Italy was a state which existed from —when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until —when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic. Italian unification process between and Giuseppe Garibaldi , major military leader during the Italian unification. The oldest depiction of coat of arms of Bohemia, castle Gozzoburg in Krems.
Wenceslaus II as depicted in the Codex Manesse. Prague Castle , the ancient seat of Bohemian dukes and kings, Roman kings and emperors, and after the office of the Czechoslovak and Czech presidents. A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. The Congress of the Republic of Peru , the country's national legislature, meets in the Legislative Palace in The German Bundestag , its theoretical lower house.
The Australian Senate , its upper house. Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne ; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste , c. Castle — a traditional symbol of a feudal society Orava Castle in Slovakia.
Depiction of socage on the royal demesne in feudal England, c. Legend of the German crown offered to Henry, Hermann Vogel — Choosing the king. At the top: the three ecclesiastical princes choosing the king, pointing at him. At the centre: the Count Palatine of the Rhine hands over a golden bowl, acting as a servant. Behind him, the Duke of Saxony with his marshall's staff and the Margrave of Brandenburg bringing a bowl of warm water, as a valet. Below, the new king in front of the great men of the empire Heidelberg Sachsenspiegel, around Coats of arms representing the seven original electors with the figure of Germania.
A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty. He had decided to walk his horse through the river instead of crossing the bridge that had been too crowded with troops. The current was too strong for the horse to handle, and the suit armour was too heavy for the emperor to swim in: both were swept away and drowned. Efforts to conserve his body in vinegar eventually failed.
Hence, his flesh was interred in the church of Saint-Peter in Antioch , his bones in the cathedral of Tyre, and his heart and inner organs in Tarsus. Frederik's death plunged his army into chaos. Leaderless, panicking, and attacked on all sides by Turks, many Germans deserted, were killed, or committed suicide.
Only 5, soldiers, a small fraction of the original force, arrived in Acre. Many returned home, among them Hendrik van Cuyck, though it is not clear whether he did this before or after the conquest of Acre 12 July His great uncle Frederik of Namur held the office from to He was a most remarkable person. We find him in Utrecht, where he was provost of the collegiate church of Saint-John in Utrecht from to The chapter numbered fifty-nine clerics from all the important families of the region.
The ecclesiastical domain of the bishop was much larger than the princedom he controlled as a vassal of the king of Germany. In the 10th century, the bishops had received secular power and become sovereign princes. This virtual independence was owed largely to the ability of its bishops, who on several occasions played an important part in international politics, being strategically positioned between France and Germany.
He relied heavily on the ecclesiastical princes of his realm, and they responded to his needs. The election in of the young bishop Albert of Louvain, brother of Henry I of Brabant, was not approved by the emperor — he appointed Lotharius of Hochstaden — and caused a long and bitter conflict, which ended with the assassination of bishop Albert on 24 November he was slaughtered in Reims and buried in the cathedral.
It is likely that the emperor ordered the murder. The emperor was forced to do penance. The situation eventually led to the great princely uprising against the crown. After the murder of Albert of Louvain and the excommunication of Lotharius of Hochstaden, the episcopal sea was vacant once again. And again it would be hard to find someone who would be accepted by the Church, the people, the emperor and the princes. But the electors all were connected to the important families and dynasts in the region, which made it difficult to reach a consensus. The boy was only 16 years old and thus too young for the position.
Moreover Duke Henry I of Brabant withstood this candidacy because he feared the increase of Limburg power. Nevertheless Simon was elected and shortly after he did homage to the emperor 13 November But he was not accepted. While Simon was trying to get his election confirmed by the pope, the opposite party attempted the contrary. Baldwin of Hainault came to Namur to pay homage to the new bishop and promised to protect him against his enemies. The next year Simon and Albert both travelled to Rome, where the pope confirmed the election of Albert and Simon received the title of Cardinal as a consolation prize; Simon died in Rome on 1 August Both Albert and Otto appeared before the emperor in Worms and asked for the investiture.
The document — now lost, but copied in a confirmation charter of — contained 26 articles and is considered to be the first step in the process of democratization in the Middle Ages. He also set maximum prices for bread, grain and beer. Historians doubt whether this charters indeed existed. They think Albert orally confirmed existing privileges. The original church was entirely destroyed by a violent fire in Part of the cathedral had been restored by , when the archbishop of Cologne visited to reconsecrate the church.
Albert van Cuyck continued the restoration and in , the relics of Saint Lambert, which had been in safe storage since the fire, were reinstalled in the new building. The seal of Albert of Cuyck was oval 75 x 64 mm and shows the seated and mitered bishop, holding a cross in his right hand and a book in his left hand. The denier silver shows the bishop with miter and staff of office on one side, and a representation of the town of Huy with the collegiate church and the fortress on the other side.
Albert van Cuyck died on 2 February and was buried in the cathedral. His tomb was discovered during excavations on the Place Saint-Lambert, the spot where the gothic church used to stand. His remains were transferred to the crypte of the actual cathedral of Saint-Paul. A fragment of the memorial plate, his ring and part of his cross are exhibited in the museum. His oldest son Godfried V.
Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire)
Albert van Cuyck sold his comitia Trajectensis, his title of count of Utrecht, to the bishop of Utrecht, although he kept the fealty attached to the title. It is generally accepted that the Cuycks became less important and their power and influence diminished in a significant way, but a closer look at the documents shows a much more nuanced picture. The Cuycks indeed disappeared from the fore, but in the shadow they remained important players who developed an impressive network. Hendrik — sometimes together with his son Albert — represented duke Henry I on different occasions, such as treaties with Baldwin V of Hainault and Flanders , with the count of Gelre In the violent conflict between Brabant on the one hand and Holland and Gelre on the other hand , the Cuycks fought on the side of Henry I.
It took months before peace was established and Hendrik and Albert were released against a ransom of 2, silver Marks. An example of this can be found in The occasion was the marriage of his brother Robert I of Artois to Mathilde, daughter of the duke of Brabant, the year before. Le Seigneur de Kuelz is mentioned among the knights from Brabant. Cimier: 2 cornes de vair. After the murder on Floris the Black in the relationship with the King was virtually nonexistent, but this changed again during the reign of Konrad III. Herman and Godfried van Cuyck were present at the Reichstag in Bamberg in , at the Landtag in Utrecht in and at the Hoftag in They joined the king when he stayed in Aachen for Christmas and again in The close relationship continued with Hendrik II van Cuyck.
Related Der Hoftag 1188 in Mainz (German Edition)
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved