Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition)


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No exclusive reliance in determining the precise chronology can be placed on the merely mechanical tests afforded by tables of metrical statistics. The chronological order can only be deduced with any confidence from a consideration of all the internal characteristics as well as the known external history of each play. The premisses are often vague and conflicting, and no chronology hitherto suggested receives at all points universal assent.

There is no external evidence that any piece in which he had a hand was produced before the spring of No play by him was published before , and none bore his name on the title-page till But his first essays have been with confidence allotted to Internal evidence alone indicates the date of composition, and proves that it was an early effort, but the subject-matter suggests that its author had already enjoyed extended opportunities of surveying London life and manners, such as were hardly open to him in the very first years of his settlement. Its slender plot stands almost alone among Shakespeare's plots in that it is not known to have been borrowed.

The names of the chief characters are drawn from those of the leaders in the civil war in France, which was in progress between and , and was anxiously watched by the English public. October ; Transactions of the New Shakspere Society , pt. The play was revised in , probably for a performance at court. Fleay , Life , pp. The scene act iii. It is possible that Shakespeare had direct recourse to Plautus as well as to the old play; no English translation of Plautus was published before Shakespeare made little change in the plot, but he impregnated it with poetic fervour, and relieved the tragic intensity by developing the humour of Mercutio, and by grafting on the story the new comic character of the Nurse cf.

Originals and Analogues , pt. Daniel, New Shakspere Society. The fineness of insight which Shakespeare here brought to the portrayal of youthful emotion is as noticeable as the lyric beauty and exuberance of the language. It was first anonymously and surreptitiously printed by John Danter in from an imperfect acting copy. A second quarto of by T. Creede for Cuthbert Burbie was printed from an authentic version which had undergone much revision cf. Three other pieces of the period, of the first production of which we have direct information, reveal Shakespeare undisguisedly as an adapter of plays by other hands.

The applause attending this effort drew from one rival dramatist a rancorous protest. Robert Greene, who died on 3 Sept. The tirade was probably inspired by an author's resentment of the energy of the actor—the theatre's factotum—in revising professional dramatic work. But Shakespeare's amiability of character and versatile ability had already won him admirers.

Shakespeare's demeanour no lesse civill than he [is] exelent in the qualitie he professes, besides divers of worship have reported his uprightnes of dealing, which argues his honesty, and his facetious grace in writing that aprooves his art. Criticism has proved beyond doubt that in these plays Shakespeare did no more than add, revise, and correct other men's work.

In pt. After he had hastily revised them, perhaps with another's aid, they were doubtless put on the stage in , the first two parts by his own company Lord Strange's men , and the third, under some exceptional arrangement, by Lord Pembroke's men. But Shakespeare was not content to leave them thus. Within a brief interval, possibly for a revival, he undertook a more thorough revision, still in conjunction with another writer.

New Shakspere Soc. But Marlowe alone of Shakespeare's contemporaries can be credited with exerting on him any Marlowe's influence. The subject was already familiar to dramatists, but Shakespeare sought his materials in Holinshed. A Latin piece, by Dr. It is, says Mr. Shakespeare drew the facts from Holinshed, but his embellishments are numerous and include the magnificently eloquent eulogy of England which is set in the mouth of John of Gaunt. Prose is avoided throughout the play, a certain sign of early work. The piece was probably composed very early in Dead Shepherd! Between February and the end of the year the London theatres were closed, owing to the prevalence of the plague.

But Shakespeare was busily employed, and before the close of gave marvellous proofs of his rapid powers of production. The tragedy contains powerful lines and situations, but is far too repulsive in plot and treatment, and too ostentatious in classical allusions to connect it with Shakespeare's acknowledged work. Cohn , Shakespeare in Germany , pp. It was acted by the Earl of Sussex's men on 23 Jan. Langbaine claims to have seen an edition of this date, but none earlier than that of is now known.

Doubtless the popular interest aroused by the trial in February and the execution in June of the queen's Jewish physician, Roderigo Lopez [q. February ; Dr. Into the adaptation Shakespeare flung all his energy, and the theme grew under his hand into genuine tragedy. The three chief characters—the king, Constance, and Faulconbridge—are in all essentials of his own invention, and are portrayed with a sureness of touch that leaves no doubt of his developing strength.

The piece was played on the evening of Innocents' day 28 Dec. Shakespeare was not present; he was acting on the same night before the queen at Greenwich. There was some disturbance during the evening on the part of guests from the Inner Temple, who, dissatisfied with the accommodation afforded them, retired in dudgeon. Shakespeare's hand has been traced in both, mainly on the ground that their dramatic energy is of superior quality to that found in the extant efforts of any contemporary. There is no external evidence in favour of Shakespeare's Early plays doubtfully assigned to Shakespeare.

Many speeches scattered through the drama, and one whole scene—that in which the Countess of Salisbury repulses the advances of Edward III—show the hand of a master act ii. But there is even in the style of these contributions much to dissociate them from Shakespeare's accredited productions, and justify their ascription to some less efficient disciple of Marlowe cf. Swinburne , Study of Shakspere , pp. A line in act ii. It was contrary to his practice to literally plagiarise himself. During these busy years —4 Shakespeare came before the public in yet another literary capacity.

A year later, in , Shakespeare published another poem in like style, but in seven-line Chaucer's rhyme royal, a b a b b c c instead of six-line stanzas. Paul's Churchyard. Both the poems were widely read and appreciated. They drew upon Shakespeare a far larger share of public notice than his early dramatic productions. No less than Enthusiastic reception of the poems. There is a likelihood, too, that Spenser was drawn by the poems into the ranks of Shakespeare's admirers. There is little doubt that Spenser referred to Shakespeare and Spenser.

Meanwhile Shakespeare was gaining personal esteem outside the circles of actors and men of letters. His summons to act at court with the most famous actors of the day at the Christmas of was possibly due in part to Patrons of the court. Elizabeth quickly showed him special favour. Until the end of her reign his plays were repeatedly acted in her presence. Under Elizabeth's successor he greatly strengthened his hold on royal favour, but Ben Jonson claimed that the queen's appreciation equalled that of James I.

Jonson wrote of. Shakespeare applied himself to sonneteering when the fashion was at its height. But the two concluding sonnets cliii. Elsewhere many conceits are adapted from contemporary sonnets. While Shakespeare's poems bear traces of personal emotion and are coloured by personal experience, they seem to have been to a large extent undertaken as literary exercises.

His ever-present dramatic instinct may be held to account for most of the illusion of personal confession which they call up in many minds. Their style suggests that they came from a youthful pen—from a man not more than thirty. Probably a few dated from , and the bulk of them were composed within a brief period of the publication of his two narrative poems in The rhythm and metre display in the best examples—for the inequalities are conspicuous—a more mellowed sweetness than is found in those works.

The thought is usually more condensed, and obscure conceits are more numerous. But these results may be assigned in part to the conditions imposed by the sonnet-form and in part to the sonnets' complex theme. External evidence confirms the theory of their early date. Shakespeare's early proficiency as a sonneteer and his enthusiasm for the sonnet-form are both attested by his introduction of two Their early date.

A line from a fully accredited sonnet xciv. That all the sonnets were in existence before Meres wrote is rendered probable by the fact that William Jaggard piratically inserted in two of the most mature of the series Nos. But when the two poems fell into Jaggard's predatory hands in , the poet was only thirty-five. Hence there is no ground for the assumption that the many references to his growing years demand a literal interpretation and prove a far later date of composition cf.

If, as is possible, it be by Shakespeare, it must have been written in very early days. Their form. Seeking greater metrical simplicity, they consist of three decasyllabic quatrains with a concluding couplet, and the quatrains rhyme alternately. It is rarely that a single sonnet forms an independent poem. As in the sonnets of Spenser, Sidney, and Drayton, the same train of thought is pursued continuously through two or more.

The collection, numbering sonnets in all, thus presents the appearance of a series of poems, each in a varying number of fourteen-line stanzas. It seems doubtful if the order in which the sequences are printed preserves that in which they were penned. It is rarely that a single sonnet or a short sequence of sonnets betrays much logical connection with those that precede or follow cf.

No clear nor connected story is deducible from the poems, which divide themselves into two main groups. In the first i. The subject-matter. In the opening sequence, the right of which to priority seems questionable, the youth is urged to marry that his beauty may survive in children i. Elsewhere the poet insists, in language originally borrowed from classical literature but habitual to sonneteers of the day, that his verse will perpetuate for ever his friend's memory xviii.

In four sequences xxvii. At times the youth is rebuked for sensuality xxxii. At times melancholy overwhelms the writer; he despairs of the corruptions of the age, and longs for death lxvi. In one sequence the writer's equanimity is disturbed by the favour bestowed by a young patron on a rival poet lxxviii. The first group concludes with a series of sequences in which the poet declares his constancy in friendship. In the second group, most of which are addressed to a woman cxxvi.

In one group of six sonnets xl. The story of intrigue developed in these six sonnets is not easily paralleled. It may owe its origin to a genuine experience of the poet himself. Many attempts have been made to identify among Shakespeare's contemporaries the anonymous persons to whom the poet seems to refer, but no result hitherto reached rests on sure foundations. Identification of the persons noticed.

Southampton, Shakespeare's junior by nine years, was a patron of literature and of the drama. On 11 Oct. John Florio [q. Minto , Characteristics , p. Furnivall, lxv. Other theories of identification rest on wholly erroneous premisses. Shakespeare undoubtedly plays more than once on his own Christian name, Baseless theories. Will cxxxv. No more importance can be attached to the fantastic suggestion that the line describing the youth as.

There is no other pretence of argument for the conclusion that the friend's name was William Hughes. No known contemporary of the name answers either in age or position in life the requirements of the problem Notes and Queries , 5th ser. Thomas Thorpe's position. A third theory has received wide acceptance. He belonged to a class of men well known at the time in the book trade who neither printed books nor sold them, but procured manuscripts how they could, and, in the absence of any copyright law, the means they employed were not keenly scanned.

Some title-pages give Wright's name as the seller, others give Aspley's. No single person begot the sonnets in the sense of inspiring them; at least two persons, the youth and the dark lady, were in an equal degree sources of the poet's inspiration. It is therefore probable that the object of the dedication was some friend of Thorpe through whose good offices the manuscript of the poems had reached his hands. Boaden , On the Sonnets of Shakespeare , He was a patron of letters; to him and his brother the first collected edition of Shakespeare's works was dedicated seven years after his death in language that suggests that he had shown appreciation of them in the poet's lifetime.

But there is no evidence that he was in his youth acquainted with the poet, or at any time closely associated with him. Sonnets , ed. Tyler, , passim. In Lord Herbert succeeded his father as Earl of Pembroke; by he was knight of the Garter and holder of many court offices. Thorpe dedicated several books to him by name, and always gave him the full benefit of his titles. He approached him like all his noble patrons, in terms of subservience. The adventure, in that case, caused no lasting wound. Willobie engages in dialogue with W.

Although it is hazardous to hang a theory on the identity of initials, Shakespeare's recent experiences may have prompted Willobie's references to W. Grosart, Meanwhile, despite distraction, Shakespeare's dramatic work steadily advanced. It may well have been written to celebrate a marriage—perhaps the marriage of Lucy Harington to Edward Russell, third earl of Bedford, on 12 Dec. The whole is in the airiest and most graceful vein of comedy. Another original creation, Bertram's mother, Countess of Rousillon, is a charming portrait of old age.

The pathetic element predominates. It is a revision of an old play on lines somewhat differing from those which Shakespeare had followed previously. Shakespeare Soc. He first infused into them the genuine spirit of comedy, and introduced into the induction reminiscences of Stratford which may be due to his renewal in of personal relations with the town.

Wincot is Wilmcote, his mother's native place. In Shakespeare turned once more to English history. They form one continuous whole, but are known respectively as parts i. With him are contrasted in part i. Shakespeare, in both parts, originally named the chief of the prince's riotous companions after Sir John Oldcastle, a character in the old play. But Henry Brooke, eighth lord Cobham, who succeeded to the title early in , and claimed descent from the historical Sir John Oldcastle [q.

The latter designation was doubtless a hazy reminiscence of Sir John Fastolf [q. Halliwell-Phillips , ii. A trustworthy edition of the second part also appeared with Oldcastle's name substituted for that of Falstaff in There the epilogue emphatically denied that Falstaff had any characteristic in common with the martyr Oldcastle. Meanwhile humbler dramatists Munday, Wilson, Drayton, and Hathaway , seeking to profit by the attention drawn by Shakespeare to the historical Oldcastle, produced a poor dramatic version of the latter's genuine history; and of two editions published in , one printed for [Thomas] P[avier] was impudently described on the title-page as by Shakespeare.

Shakespeare's purely comic power culminated in Falstaff, who may be claimed as the most humorous figure in literature. The Elizabethan public recognised the triumphant success of the effort, and many of Falstaff's telling phrases, with the names of his associates, Justice Shallow and Silence, at once took root in popular speech. An imperfect draft of the play was printed by Thomas Creede in cf.

Shakespeare Society's reprint, , ed. Halliwell ; the folio of first supplied a complete version. The plot was probably suggested by an Italian novel. Shakespeare's Library , ed. Hazlitt, I. The buoyant country life was the unaided outcome of Shakespeare's own experience. The play was performed early in , probably in the newly built Globe Theatre. Again Thomas Creede printed, in , an imperfect draft, which was thrice reissued before a complete version was supplied in the first folio of The piece presents a series of episodes in which the hero's manliness is advantageously displayed as soldier, ruler, and lover.

The topic appealed to patriotic sentiment. In the prologue to act v. He had set out on that disastrous mission on 27 March The fact that Southampton went with him probably accounted for Shakespeare's avowal of sympathy. But Essex's effort failed, and when he sought in , again with the support of Southampton, to recover his position by stirring up rebellion in London, the friends of the rebel leaders sought the dramatist's countenance.

They paid 40 s. The queen, in a conversation with William Lambarde [q. Phillips gave evidence against Essex and his friends, and Southampton was imprisoned until the queen's death. But no proceedings were taken against the players. For several years Shakespeare's genius as dramatist and poet had been acknowledged by critics and playgoers alike, and his social and professional position had become considerable.

Shakespeare's popularity and influence. Inside the theatre his influence was supreme. He took a part when the piece was performed. Jonson, despite his difficult and jealous temper, which may have led to an occasional coolness, cherished esteem and affection for his benefactor till death cf. Shakespear, with the English man of war, lesser in bulk, but lighter in sailing, could turn with all tides, tack about, and take advantage of all winds by the quickness of his wit and invention.

Of the many testimonies paid to Shakespeare's literary reputation at this period of his career, the most striking was that of Francis Meres's eulogy, Meres [q. His name was thenceforth of value to unprincipled publishers. None of these six plays have any internal claim to Shakespeare's authorship, but all were included in the third folio of his collected works With even smaller justification, the worthless old play on the subject of King John was attributed to Shakespeare in the re-issues of and But poems as well as plays in which Shakespeare had no hand were deceptively placed to his credit.

Halliwell-Phillips , i.

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This obscure allegory may be from Shakespeare's pen; happily he wrote nothing else of like character. Shakespeare, in middle life, brought to practical affairs a singularly sane and sober temperament. As soon as his position in his profession was assured, he devoted his energies to re-establishing the fallen fortunes of his family in his native place, and to acquiring for himself and his successors the status of gentlefolk.

His father's pecuniary embarrassments had steadily His father's difficulties. Creditors harassed him unceasingly. In one Nicholas Lane pursued him for a debt for which he had become liable as surety for his brother Henry. But in a creditor, Adrian Quiney, obtained a writ of distraint against him, and although in he attested inventories taken on the death of two neighbours, Ralph Shaw and Henry Field, father of the printer, he was on 25 Dec.

In January —7 he conveyed a slip of land attached to his dwelling in Henley Street to one George Badger. There is a likelihood that the poet's wife fared, in the poet's absence, no better. The only contemporary mention made of her between her marriage in and her husband's death in is as the borrower at an His wife's debt.

The money was unpaid when Whittington died in , and he directed his executor to recover the sum from the poet and distribute it among the poor of Stratford Halliwell-Phillipps , ii. It was probably in that Shakespeare returned, after nearly eleven years' absence, to his native town, and worked a revolution in the affairs of his family. The prosecutions of his father in the local court then ceased. Thenceforth the poet's relations with Stratford were uninterrupted.

Two months later the bankrupt father, took a step, by way of regaining his prestige which must be assigned to his son's intervention. On 20 Oct. Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica , 2nd ser. A new grant was drafted by the college of arms three years later, when it was alleged that a coat-of-arms had been assigned to John while he was bailiff of Stratford. In the draft of greater emphasis was laid on the gentle descent of Shakespeare's mother, the arms of whose family her children were authorised to quarter with their own.

But this draft, like the first, remained unconfirmed. Two copies of the draft of and one of that of are at the college of arms. Although no evidence survives to show that the poet used the arms personally, they are prominently displayed on his tomb; they appear on the seal and tomb of his elder daughter Susanna, impaled with those of her husband; and they were quartered by Thomas Nash, the first husband of the poet's granddaughter, Elizabeth Hall French , Genealogica Shakespeareana , p. In the poet took in his own person a more effective step in the way of rehabilitating himself and his family in the eyes of his fellow Purchase of New Place.

On 4 May he purchased the largest house in the town, known as New Place. It had been built by Sir Hugh Clopton [q. But Shakespeare paid for it, with two barns and two gardens, the then substantial sum of 60l. Owing to the sudden death of the vendor, William Underhill, on 7 July , the original transfer of the property was left at the time incomplete. Underhill's son Fulk died a felon, and he was succeeded in the family estates by his brother Hercules, who on coming of age, May , completed in a new deed the transfer of New Place to Shakespeare Notes and Queries , 8th ser.

On 4 Feb. The inventory was made owing to the presence of famine in the town, and very few inhabitants were credited with a larger holding. He is traditionally said to have interested himself in the garden, and to have planted after with his own hands a mulberry tree, which was long a prominent feature of it. When this was cut down, in , numerous relics were made from it, and were treated with an almost superstitious veneration Halliwell-Phillips , i.

Shakespeare does not appear to have permanently settled at New Place till His grandmother seems to have been a Shakespeare. He often acted as the poet's legal adviser. It was doubtless under Shakespeare's guidance that his father and mother set on foot in November —six months after the acquisition of New Place—a lawsuit against John Lambert for the recovery of the mortgaged estate of Asbies in Wilmcote. The litigation dragged on for some years without result. Three letters written during by leading men at Stratford are still extant among the corporation's archives, and leave no doubt of the reputation for wealth and influence with which the purchase of New Place invested the poet in his fellow-townsmen's eyes.

It seemeth by him that our countryman, Mr. Shakspere, is willing to disburse some money upon some odd yardland or other at Shottery, or near about us: he thinketh it a very fit pattern to move him to deal in the matter of our tithes. By the instructions you can give him thereof, and by the friends he can make therefor, we think it a fair mark for him to shoot at, and would do us much good.

Abraham Sturley pointed out to him in a letter dated 4 Nov. The financial prosperity, to which this correspondence and the transactions immediately preceding it point, has been treated as one of the chief mysteries of Shakespeare's Financial position before It was not until , when the Globe Theatre was built, that he acquired any share in the profits of a playhouse. But his revenues as a successful dramatist and actor were by no means contemptible at an earlier date. His gains in the capacity of dramatist were certainly small.

The highest price known to have been paid to an author for a play by an acting company was 10 l. In order to compare the sums mentioned here with the present currency, they should be multiplied by ten. The publication of a play produced no profit for the author. The nineteen plays which may be set to Shakespeare's credit between and cannot consequently have brought him more than l. But as an actor his income was far larger. An efficient actor received in as large a regular salary as l. The lowest known valuation set an actor's wages at 3 s. Shakespeare's emoluments as an actor in are not likely to have fallen below l.

Shakespeare's friendly relations, too, with the printer Field, secured him, despite the absence of any copyright law, some part of the profits in the large and continuous sale of his poems. Thus over l. Such a sum would be regarded as a substantial income in a country town. Whether his income or savings wholly justified his fellow-townsmen's opinion of his wealth in , or sufficed between and to meet his expenses, in rebuilding the house, stocking the barns with grain, and in various legal proceedings, may be questioned. After his sources of income from the theatre greatly increased.

In the heirs of the actor Richard Burbage were engaged in litigation respecting their proprietary Financial position after The documents relating to this litigation supply authentic, although not very detailed, information of Shakespeare's interest in theatrical property. Richard Burbage, with his brother Cuthbert, erected at their sole cost the Globe Theatre in the winter of —9, and the Blackfriars, which their father was building at the time of his death in , was also their property.

The shares, which numbered sixteen in all, carried with them the obligation of providing for the expenses of the playhouse, and were doubtless in the first instance freely bestowed. Hamlet claims, in the play scene iii. How many shares originally fell to Shakespeare there is no means of determining.

Records of later subdivisions suggest that they did not exceed two. But the Globe was an exceptionally popular playhouse, and its receipts were large. According to the documents of , an actor-sharer at the Globe received above l. Thus Shakespeare drew from the Globe Theatre, at the lowest estimate, more than l.

His interest in the Blackfriars Theatre was comparatively unimportant, and is less easy to estimate. The often quoted documents on which Collier depended to prove him a substantial shareholder in that playhouse have been long proved to be forgeries. The profits were far smaller than at the Globe, and if Shakespeare held one share certainty on the point is impossible , it added not more than l.

His remuneration as dramatist for the seventeen plays completed between and may be estimated, in consideration of their exceptional Later income. With an annual professional income reaching near l. These properties, it must be remembered, represented investments, and he drew rent from most of them. He traded, too, in agricultural produce. Shakespeare realised his theatrical shares several years before his death in , when he left, according to his will, l. His friends and fellow-actors, Heming and Condell, amassed equally large, if not larger, fortunes, while a contemporary theatrical proprietor, Edward Alleyn, purchased the manor of Dulwich for 10, l.

Gifts from patrons may have continued to occasionally augment Shakespeare's resources, but his wealth can be satisfactorily assigned to better attested agencies. There is no ground for treating it as of mysterious origin cf. Halliwell-Phillipps , i. Between and , while London remained Shakespeare's chief home, he built up his estate at Stratford. In his father died, being buried on 8 Sept. Shakespeare permitted his mother to reside in one of the Henley Street houses till her death she was buried 9 Sept.

On 1 May he purchased of the rich landowners William and John Combe of Formation of the estate at Stratford, — Stratford, for l. A third purchase quickly followed. On 28 Sept. They were held practically in fee-simple at the annual rental of 2 s. It appears from the roll that Shakespeare did not attend the manorial court then held at Rowington, and it was stipulated that the estate should remain in the hands of the lady of the manor until he completed the purchase in person.

At a later period he was admitted to the copyhold, and he settled the remainder on his two daughters in fee. In April he purchased from the Combes 20 acres of pasture land, to add to the of arable land that he had acquired of the same owners in As early as Abraham Sturley had suggested that Shakespeare should purchase the tithes of Stratford.

Seven years later he became their part owner, and thus The Stratford tithes. On 24 July he bought for l. The moiety was subject to a rent of 17 l. The investment brought Shakespeare, under the most favourable circumstances, a net income of 38 l. After he joined with two interested persons, Richard Lane of Awston and Thomas Greene, the town clerk of Stratford, in a suit in chancery to determine the exact responsibilities of all the tithe-owners, and in they presented a bill of complaint to Lord-chancellor Ellesmere, with what result is unknown.

Shakespeare inherited his father's love of litigation, and stood rigorously by his rights. In March he recovered in London a debt of 7 l. In Recovery of small debts. July , in the local court at Stratford, he sued one Philip Rogers, to whom he had supplied since the preceding March malt to the value of 1 l. Rogers paid back 6 s. During and he was at law with another fellow-townsman, John Addenbroke.

On 15 Feb. Shakespeare avenged himself by proceeding against one Thomas Horneby, who had acted as the absconding debtor's bail Halliwell-Phillipps , ii. With an inconsistency that is more apparent than real, the astute business transactions of these years — synchronise with the production of Shakespeare's Literary work in It was produced at Middle Temple Hall on 2 Feb. The ludicrous gravity of Malvolio proved exceptionally popular on the stage. In Shakespeare made a new departure.

The general topic was already familiar on the stage cf. Hamlet , act iii. A play of the same title was known as early as , and was acted in by Shakespeare's company. Shakespeare's piece, which is a penetrating study of political life, is exceptionally well planned and balanced. The characters of Brutus, Antony, and Cassius are exhibited with faultless art. Meanwhile, Shakespeare's friend Ben Jonson was engaged in bitter warfare with his fellow-dramatists, Marston and Dekker, and in Ben Jonson's quarrels.

Feis , Shakespeare and Montaigne , Episodically he expresses approval of the work of another character, Virgil, in terms so closely resembling those which he is known to have applied to Shakespeare that they may be regarded as intended to apply to him act v. Jonson points out that Virgil, by his penetrating intuition, achieved the great effects which others laboriously sought to reach through rules of art.

Shakespeare's attitude to Jonson's quarrel has given rise to various conjectures. John's College, Cambridge. He brought up Horace, giving the poets a pill; but our fellow Shakespeare hath given him a purge that made him bewray his credit. But such a conclusion is otherwise uncorroborated. The general references subsequently made by Shakespeare Hamlet , act ii. At any rate in Shakespeare finally left Jonson and all friends and foes lagging far behind. But the second quarto was itself printed from a copy which had been curtailed for acting purposes.

A third version long the textus receptus figured in the folio of Here some passages, not to be found in the quartos, appear for the first time, but a few others that appear in the quartos are omitted. The folio text probably followed an acting copy which had been curtailed in a different fashion from that adopted in the second quarto cf. Hamlet —parallel texts of the first and second quarto, and first folio—ed. George Macdonald, , a study with the text of the folio.

Humorous relief is supplied to the tragic theme by Polonius and the gravediggers, and if the topical references to contemporary theatrical history ii. The action develops slowly; at times there is no movement at all. Yet the interest excited by the character of the hero carries all before it, and amply accounts for the position of the play in popular esteem.

On 7 Feb. Shakespeare's company Arber , iii. The metrical characteristics—the regularity of the blank verse—powerfully confirm the date of composition which Roberts's license suggests. Six years later, however, on 28 Jan. This statement was probably a commercial trick, rendered safe from immediate detection by the fact that the play had not been produced for six years. Perhaps, too, it was speciously justified by recent revisions which their edition embodied.

At the time of publication a revival was in contemplation.

Troilus and Cressida

Helen and Cressida are presented as heartless coquettes. In style the work is unequal, but in the speeches of Ulysses Shakespeare concentrates a mass of pithily expressed worldly wisdom, much of which has obtained proverbial currency.

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Despite the association of Shakespeare's company with the rebellion of , it retained its hold on court favour till the close of Elizabeth's reign, and as late as 2 Feb. Her death on 24 March drew from Shakespeare's early eulogist, Queen Elizabeth's death, 24 March Chettle, a vain appeal to him, under the fanciful name of Melicert, to. England's Mourning Garment , , sign. But the withdrawal of one royal patron only supplied Shakespeare and his friends with another, who proved even more liberal and appreciative.

Ten actors are named. Lawrence Fletcher stands James I's patronage. Shakespeare comes second and Burbage third; the rest were doubtless all members of the lord chamberlain's company. In December the company performed at Wilton while the king was on a visit to William Herbert, third earl of Pembroke. At the time the prevalence of the plague had led to the closing of the theatres in London, and James sent the king's players a gift of 30 l. On 15 March the company walked from the Tower of London to Westminster in the procession which accompanied the king on his formal entry into London, and in August they were all summoned to attend at Somerset House on the occasion of the arrival there of the new Spanish ambassador, Juan de Taxis, Conde de Villa Mediana.

Under the incentive of such exalted patronage, Shakespeare's activity redoubled. To the composition of two of his greatest plays can be confidently assigned. It was produced at Whitehall on 1 Nov. Neither was printed in Shakespeare's lifetime. The tragedy displays to magnificent advantage the dramatist's fully matured powers. An unfaltering equilibrium is maintained in the treatment of both plot and characters.

The romance had been twice rendered into English by George Whetstone [q. The duke's reference to his dislike of mobs, despite his love of his people, was perhaps penned in deference to James I, whose horror of crowds was notorious act i. The allusion by the porter act ii. Simon Forman [q. The characters of Macbeth and his wife are depicted with the utmost subtlety and concentrated insight. Nowhere, moreover, has Shakespeare introduced comic relief into a tragedy with bolder effect than in the porter's speech after the murder of Duncan act ii. The theory that this and a few other passages were from another hand does not merit acceptance cf.

Macbeth , ed. Clark and Wright, Clarendon Press Ser. The faithful fool who attends the king jests sadly, and serves to intensify the pathos. But the character of Timon himself and all the scenes which he dominates are from Shakespeare's pen. Timon is cast in the mould of Lear. The presence of a third hand, of even inferior merit to Wilkins, has been suspected, and to this collaborator perhaps William Rowley may be best assigned the three scenes of purposeless coarseness which take place in or before a brothel iv. From so distributed a responsibility the piece naturally suffers.

It lacks homogeneity, and the story is helped out by dumb shows and prologues. But a matured felicity of expression characterises Shakespeare's own contributions, which charmingly narrate the romantic quest of Pericles for his daughter Marina, who was born and abandoned in a shipwreck. At many points he here anticipated his latest dramatic effects. The shipwreck is depicted act iv. The play was issued as by William Shakespeare in a mangled form in , and again in , , , and It was not included in Shakespeare's collected works till In May Edward Blount [q. It was first printed in the folio of But he breathed into the characters even more than his wonted fire, and invested the whole theme with a dramatic grandeur which lifts even Cleopatra's moral worthlessness into sublimity.

He adhered to the text of Plutarch with the utmost literalness. In its austere temper it contrasts at all points with its predecessor. The courageous self-reliance of Coriolanus's mother, Volumnia, is severely contrasted with the submissive gentleness of Virgilia, Coriolanus's wife. The hero falls a victim to unchecked pride of caste, but for the rabble, who procure Coriolanus's overthrow, Shakespeare shows ironical contempt. The placidity of tone conspicuous in these three plays has been often contrasted with the storm and stress of the great tragedies that preceded them.

But the commonly accepted theory that traces in this change of tone a corresponding development in the author's own emotions ignores the objectivity of Shakespeare's dramatic work. Every phase of feeling lay within the scope of his intuition, and the successive order in which he approached them bore no explicable relation to the course of his private life or experience. Day 2. The Ginevra of the Italian novel corresponds to Shakespeare's Imogen.

On Imogen Shakespeare lavished all the fascination of his genius. The poor verse of the vision of Posthumus act v. Forman at the Globe on 15 May But Shakespeare created the thievish pedlar Autolycus and the high-spirited Paulina, and invented the reconciliation of Leontes with Hermione. In Perdita, Florizel, and the boy Mamilius, he depicted youth in its most attractive guise. The freshness of the pastoral incident, too, surpasses that of all his presentations of country life.

The crew, escaping in two boats of cedar to Virginia, reached England in English actors were performing at Nuremberg, where Ayrer lived, in and , and may have brought reports of the piece to Shakespeare. Or perhaps both English and German plays had a common origin in some novel that has not yet been traced. Gonzalo's description of an ideal commonwealth is derived from Florio's translation of Montaigne's essays This marriage took place on 14 Feb.

The plot, which revolves about the forcible expulsion of a ruler from his dominions, and his daughter's wooing by the son of the usurper's chief ally, is hardly one that a shrewd playwright would have chosen as the setting of an official epithalamium in honour of the daughter of a monarch so sensitive about his title to the crown as James I cf.

Universal Review , April , by Dr. Many of the characters seem the outcome of speculation respecting the least soluble problems of human existence. Ariel appears to suggest the capabilities of human intellect when detached from physical attributes. Caliban seems to typify human nature before the evolution of moral sentiment cf. In Prospero, the guiding providence of the romance, who resigns his magic power in the closing scene, traces have been sought without much reason of the lineaments of the dramatist himself, who in this play probably bade farewell to the enchanted work of his life.

But if in Shakespeare finally abandoned dramatic composition, there seems little doubt that he left with the manager of his Unfinished plays. His place at the head of the active dramatists was at once filled by John Fletcher — [q. On 9 Sept. Moseley, whose description may have been fraudulent, failed to publish the piece, and nothing is otherwise known of it. John Fletcher and Mr. William Shakespeare, gentlemen. The last included it in his edition of Shakespeare. Coleridge detected Shakespeare's hand in act i. Act iv. The residue is disfigured by indecency and triviality, and is of no literary value.

Some recent critics assign much of the alleged Shakespearean work to Massinger, and they narrow Shakespeare's contribution to the first scene with the opening song and act v. Certainty is impossible, but frequent signs of Shakespeare's workmanship are unmistakable.

Court and Times of James I. The three chief characters—the king, Queen Katharine of Arragon, and Cardinal Wolsey—bear clear marks of Shakespeare's best workmanship; but only act i. Katharine's trial , act iii. The remaining thirteen scenes are from the pen of Fletcher, perhaps with occasional aid from Massinger. Wolsey's familiar farewell to Cromwell act iii. James Spedding's theory that Fletcher hastily completed Shakespeare's unfinished draft for the special purpose of enabling the company to celebrate the marriage of Princess Elizabeth and Elector Palatine, which took place on 14 Feb.

A ; cf. Spedding in Gent. The concluding years of Shakespeare's life — were mainly passed at Stratford, and probably in he disposed of his shares in the Globe and Blackfriars theatres. He owned none at the date of his death. But until he paid frequent visits to London, where friends in sympathy with his work were alone to be found.

His plays continued to form the staple of court performances. Shakespeare's former colleague, produced at Whitehall no less than seven of his plays, viz. Of his actor-friends, one of the chief, Augustine Actor-friends. Burbage and he were credited with having engaged together in many sportive adventures. Such gossip deserves little more acceptance than the later story, in the same key, which credits Shakespeare with the paternity of Sir William D'Avenant [q.

The story was long current in Oxford, and was at times complacently accepted by the reputed son. But it is safer to adopt the less compromising version which makes Shakespeare the boy's godfather. He was a welcome guest at John D'Avenant's house, and another son, Robert, reported the kindly notice which the poet took of him as a child cf. Aubrey , Lives ; Halliwell-Phillipps , ii. D'Avenant, Sir William. Ben Jonson and Drayton—the latter a Warwickshire man—seem to have been Shakespeare's chief literary friends in his latest years.

At Stratford Shakespeare in his declining days took a full share of social and civic responsibilities. On 16 Oct. On 11 Sept. Meanwhile, domestic affairs engaged some of his attention. Of his two surviving children—both daughters—the eldest, Susanna, had married, on 5 June , John Hall — [q. On 15 July Mrs. Hall preferred, with her father's assistance, a charge of slander against one Lane in the ecclesiastical court at Worcester; the defendant, who had apparently charged the lady with illicit relations with one Ralph Smith, did not appear, and was excommunicated.

In the same year , when on a short visit to London, he invested a small sum of money in a new property—his last Purchase of a house in Blackfriars. He purchased a house, the ground-floor of which was a haberdasher's shop, with a yard attached. It was situated within six hundred feet of the Blackfriars Theatre—on the west side of St. The former owner, Henry Walker, a musician, had bought the property for l. Shakespeare in agreed to pay him l.

The deeds of conveyance bear the date of 10 March in that year. The indenture prepared for the purchaser is in the Halliwell-Phillipps collection, which was sold to Mr. Marsden J. Perry of Providence, Rhode Island, U.


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That held by the vendor is in the Guildhall Library. Next day, on 11 March, Shakespeare executed another deed now in the British Museum which stipulated that 60 l. He at once leased the property to John Robinson, already a resident in the neighbourhood. In the spring of a preacher at Stratford, doubtless of puritan proclivities, was entertained at New Place after delivering a sermon. Shakespeare's son-in-law Hall was probably responsible for the civility.

In July John Combe, a rich inhabitant of Stratford, died and left 5 l. The legend that Shakespeare alienated him by composing some doggerel on his practice of lending money at ten per cent. Combe's death involved Shakespeare more conspicuously than before in civic affairs. Stratford, about his estate at Welcombe.

The corporation resolved to offer the scheme a stout resistance. Shakespeare had a twofold interest in the matter by virtue of his owning acres at Welcombe and Old Stratford, and as joint owner—now with Thomas Greene, the town clerk—of the tithes of Old Stratford, Welcombe, and Bishopton. His interest in his freeholds could not have been prejudicially affected, but his interest in the tithes might be depreciated by the proposed enclosure. Shakespeare consequently joined with his fellow-owner Greene in obtaining from Combe's agent Replingham in October a deed indemnifying both against any injury they might suffer from the enclosure.

But having secured himself against loss, Shakespeare threw his influence into Combe's scale. In November he was on a last visit to London, and Greene, whose official position as town clerk compelled him to support the corporation, visited him there to discuss the position of affairs. On 23 Dec. Happily Combe's efforts failed, and the common lands remained unenclosed Shakespeare and the Enclosure of Common Fields at Welcombe , a facsimile of Greene's diary, now at Stratford, with a transcript by Mr.

Scott, edited by Dr. Ingleby, At the beginning of Shakespeare's health was failing. He directed Francis Collins, a solicitor of Warwick, to draft his will, but, though it was prepared for signature on 25 Jan. On 10 Feb. The ceremony took place before a license was procured, and the irregularity led to the summons of the bride and bridegroom before the ecclesiastical court at Worcester and the imposition of a fine.

June , credited Shakespeare with engaging at an earlier date in a prolonged and violent drinking bout at Bidford, a neighbouring village cf. Malone , Shakespeare , , ii. The cause of his death is undetermined, but probably a recurrence of illness led him in March to sign the will that had been drafted in the previous January. On Tuesday, 23 April, he died at the age of fifty-two. The date is in the old style, and is equivalent to 3 May in the new; Cervantes, whose death is often described as simultaneous, died at Madrid ten days earlier—on 13 April in the old style, i.

On Thursday, Burial. Hard by was the charnel-house, where bones dug up from the churchyard were deposited.

Author: Green, Henry

Over the poet's grave were inscribed the lines:. Shakespeare's will, the first draft of which was drawn up before 25 Jan. Hall, in London on 22 June following. The religious exordium is in conventional phraseology, and gives no clue to Shakespeare's personal religious opinions. What those opinions were, we have neither the means nor the warrant for discussing.

No other bequest was made her. Her right to a widow's Bequest to his wife. The precision with which the will accounts for and disposes of every known item of his property refutes, too, the conjecture that he had provided for his wife under a previous settlement or jointure. But however plausible the theory that his relations with her, especially in early life, were wanting in sympathy, it is improbable that the slender mention of her in the will was a deliberate mark of his indifference or dislike.

Local tradition subsequently credited her with a wish to be buried in his grave; and her epitaph proves that she inspired her daughters with genuine affection. Probably her ignorance of affairs and the infirmities of age she was past sixty combined to unfit her in the poet's eyes for the control of property, and he committed her to the care of his elder daughter, who inherited, according to such information as is accessible, some of his own shrewdness, and had a capable adviser in her husband.

This elder daughter, Susannah Hall, was, according to the will, to become mistress of New Place, and practically of all the poet's estate. She received with remainder to her issue in strict entail New Place, all the land, barns, and gardens at and near Stratford except the tenement in Chapel Lane , and the house in Blackfriars, London, while she and her husband were appointed executors and residuary legatees, with full rights over nearly all the poet's household furniture and personal belongings.

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Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition) Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition)
Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition) Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition)
Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition) Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition)
Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition) Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition)
Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition) Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition)
Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition) Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition)
Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition) Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition)
Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition) Troïlus et Cressida (augmenté, annoté et illustré) (Shakespeare t. 23) (French Edition)

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