Gans, Eric. Stan- of ford: Stanford UP, Paris: PUF, Geninasca, Jacques. Paris: Grasset, Greene, Thomas. Hudson, Robert J. Illouz, Jean-Nicolas. Jasinski, Max. Juden, Brian. Lyons, John. Denis Hollier. Harvard: Harvard UP, Jeanine Moulin. Paris: Garnier, Pichois, Claude, and Jean Ziegler. Graham Robb. London: Hamish Hamilton, Pichois, Claude, and Michel Brix. Paris: Fayard, Rhodes, S. New York: Phil- osophical Library, Yannick Portebois and Nicholas Terpstra.
Ronsard, Pierre de. Hull: U Hull Publications, Paris: Librairie des auteurs modernes, Le livre devient, en son ensemble, un objet visuel. Ne Un Lettres choisies. Jean-Pierre Charpentier. Paul Vallette. Donald Struan Robert- ty son. Paris: Les Belles lettres, — Bailly, Anatole. Claude Pichois. Vers latins. Jules Mouquet. Paris: Mercure de France, Flaubert, Gustave. Paris: Seuil Points , Gourmont, Remy de. Le Latin mystique. Paris: Un Mercure de France, Anvers: Pandora, Huysmans, Joris-Karl.
Paris: Charpentier, Launay, Jean-Jacques. Hachette, — Melot, Michel. Henri-Jean Martin et Roger Chartier. Paris: Promodis, ADM [att. Montandon, Alain. Alain Montandon. Clermont- Ferrand et Gap: Centre de recherches en communication et didactique et Ophrys, Giorgio res Colli et Mazzino Montinari. Paris: Gallimard, — Odry, Jacques. Louvain: Peeters, Paris: Edinger, bra by Ne ty ———. Paris: Billaine, Paris: P. Jannet, Taine, Hippolyte. Paris: Hachette, Un — Marcel Bouix. Paris: Julien, Lanier et Cie, — Uzanne, Octave. Paris: Champion, Isabelle Krzyw- kowski et Sylvie Thorel-Cailleteau.
His thoughts begin to wander through time and space only when he mindlessly picks up his astrolabe—a medieval navigational de- vice, acquired secondhand in a Paris bric-a-brac shop and previously serv- rsi ing little purpose other than to anchor a stack of books and papers. His retrospective view from above affords him the distance in both space and time to posit a critical reading of the urban memory text he walks. That the fille de brasserie can potentially inscribe these young men the sk into a plot of her authoring, however, also poses a threat to authorial mastery that is persistently suppressed or displaced by the novels that contain her.
By adopting alternative modes of writing, I will argue, the serveuse erodes the bra by imminent narrative control exercised through the authorial gaze and troubles her own inscription, calling into question the roles of writer, protagonist, and reader. He has not been appropriated by the city; he is able to regard it from a space of critical distance, which allows him to read, learn, and master its social codes. The mas- sive overhaul undergone by the city, along with the dizzying circulation characteristic of modernity, lead to the sense that Paris is no longer a ready- aP made map but rather a city-in-the-making.
They must learn not only to read Ne ty the city passively; they must do so while mastering it by leaving their mark. His imagination and pride will fi ll in the blanks with the requisite romanesque details. In the end, his goal is nei- s ther strictly visual nor sexual; it is a literary drive to extend his heroic mo- res ment and thus postpone the collapse of his meaningful fictional self.
Alphonsine is forever running from landlords and bill collectors, moving from apartment to apartment as the increasingly visible signs of her disease leave her unable to generate sufficient income to feed her voracious appetites for food and fashion. For all her expertise in strategies of ruse and deferral in the aP brasserie, those strategies fall flat when she attempts to deploy them to delay the economic transactions that would forestall her eviction.
As her syphilis the sk advances, Alphonsine loses not only her homes sites of her sexual practice but also her home away from home, the brasserie site of her textual practice. I would like to suggest now that Alphonsine resists and subverts this circum- aP scription by slipping into other modes of writing: with her body, her mobil- ity, and finally, her voice. The text, unsurprisingly, fights back. The verseuse, then, is aP not only a woman who pours bocks, but a woman who writes with the tricks she turns and diverts the narrative The question is moot. The novel accords her an illusion of choice only long enough to drive the plot forward, ive and then wrests it away.
Similarly, when she resorts to street prostitution, it becomes clear that she is playing a role in a story that is not her own. The morning after her confrontation with Adrienne, Alphonsine goes to a public toilet in the Tour-Saint-Jacques and begins to read. She is not now flipping through another roman-feuilleton, however. That she notes the lack of textual support is itself notable, as her pro- jection of her own medical future is similarly incomplete: the sk Alphonsine se figurait anxieusement [.
She resists treat- ment of her glaringly serious syphilis because she does not want to submit to the medical gaze of the carabins—an apprehension complicit with a textual Nineteenth-Century French Studies 41, Nos. The only blood that flows from Alphon- sine is notably black, the color of death and of ink. The process of her dying is a process of writing the very novel we are reading, whose lines are traced bra by out in the black ink of her syphilis.
It does not invert the gendered paradigm by giving her a voice, but rather multiplies it and disperses it into Ne ty manifold sites of bodily signification. Alphonsine knows all too well these syphilitic strategies of deferral and play, for they are the same tricks that fu- eled her trade in the brasserie. She has been doubly duped, by her disease and by her narrative, into believing she has a future. As she endures the agonizing pain of the late stages of syphilis and the reader endures grue- some descriptions of her body that even her family finds intolerable , she decides to take her own life with a vial of atropine rather than continue to s suffer.
As the poison ravages her body, Alphonsine stages her last act. The erstwhile verseuse refuses to let the narrative close the book on her, so to speak; the words she emits carry Ne ty on where her body cannot. Pamphlets, monographs, and novels from the time reveal a broad spectrum of more-or-less unflattering terms used to designate the female brasserie server: serveuse, verseuse, fille de brasserie, grenouille, etc.
Rame dans la rame
Brasserie prostitu- tion usually took place offsite; the deferred promise of sex was used as a catalyst for consumption, driving clients to purchase food and alcohol. See Bernheimer As Prendergast has shown, Balzac himself persistently problematizes this read- ing 92— Works Cited aP Adler, Laure. Les maisons closes: — Paris: Plon-Nourrit, Le quartier latin : ces messieurs, ces dames.
Paris: C. Dalou, Beizer, Janet. Illuminations: Essays and Reflections. Harry Zohn. New York: Schocken, Durham: Duke UP, Brooks, Peter. Reading for the Plot: Design and Intention in Narrative. Cambridge: Harvard UP, Paris: Monnier, Clayson, Hollis. Corbin, Alain. Paris: Flammarion, Culler, Jonathan D. Aug- mented ed. Joan U. Geneva: Droz, Paris: E. Flammarion, Daniel Grojnowski.
- list of books with ISBNs.
Jean-Marie Seillan. Martineau, Louis. La Prostitution clandestine. Mulder, Caroline de. Prendergast, Christopher. Schor, Naomi. New the York: Columbia UP, Sexing the Citizen: Morality and Masculinity in France, — In Un Joli Monde: Romans de la prostitution. Daniel Grojnowski and Mireille Dottin-orsini.
- La France а travers les вges.!
- Table of contents.
Paris: Robert Laffont, Ne ty Tuan, Yi-Fu. Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. Minneapolis: U of Min- nesota P, Correspondance: — Bard H. Bakker and Colette Becker. He affirms that free exer- bra cise of the imagination is a democratic right for all. The thesis of our being, our presence, generates the antithesis of our possible absence. The text incorporates such absence into a synthesis that makes us simultaneously absent from the landscape of action and present as remembrance in the landscape of thought.
The froth churned up by the waves suggests the trace of their passage. Such self-canceling self-contemplation reflects hypercreativity in depth, as insight, unlike the digressions that reflect hypercreativity in breadth, as abundance. It would be mistaken, however, to consider res it his only last word.
The allotelic side of his self-concept, the ethical inflec- Ne ty tion of his emerging class-consciousness, will develop to counterbalance the autotelic or aesthetic side, while preserving a mythic bond with the latter. Lewis — provides a careful, erudite overview. Compagnon, mas- ive ter of the demeaning adjective, led the attack. A fellow-traveler with the anarchists, he none- theless opposed violence in politics.
He admired Zola, but felt uncomfortable around Jews 40— In other words, s their sense of selfhood seemed intrusive to him. In the first, before , he was traumatized by his exile from Paris to the provinces, frustrated by teach- Ne ty ing jobs in provincial towns. He then depicts himself as the poet of a steril- ity that he has absorbed from his environment. Five of his seven prose poems published in reflect the private experience of isolation. Conversing with a child contortionist at the circus, the orphan envies him for having parents, not realizing how the entire circus family suffers from exploitation and dire abuse.
At the same time, they contrast it to the officially celebratory mood, and dramatize the Symbolist and Modernist motif of the self-conscious poet as another type of social out- cast, displaying his wares to an indifferent public. The proletariat, to be sure, is suspicious of aesthetic productions, which seem to fulfi ll no useful function but which, neverthe- ive less, are valued far above the results of manual labor. The bourgeoisie, in contrast, acts in bad faith, pre- Un suming to understand and judge something that it cannot produce or repro- duce.
Th is event coincided with the inauguration of the Third French Republic in , after the Commune fell. Once he was installed in the capital, his enhanced status and higher salary literally made him more bourgeois. Once there, he was exhilarated by the presence of creative kindred spirits in an artistic milieu.
In , he planned with Catulle Mendes to found an international association of poets. But the international association did not eventu- bra ate. Poets still dreamed of achieving an impossible harmony with the People. In the summer of , he achieved a modest version of the ultimate proof aP of success in the metropolis—a regular rental of a country retreat outside of it, at Valvins, on the Seine near Fontainebleau. There his poetic creativity the sk could nurture itself in tranquility.
Nor does he discuss artistic creations and performances and eval- uate them. He advises socialites s on what they should purchase and how they should live to achieve elegance. As the sensuous faun, loosed in the city, he embraces and celebrates the material luxury that surrounds him in the elegant Paris boutiques and on the beautiful ladies rsi who display themselves in their carriages. The circus troupe and the audience feared that the animal would bite him, and someone quickly distracted it by throwing a piece of raw meat out from the wings. Thus the bear itself briefly becomes superior to the incurious human spectators, who are content with the super- ficial thrill of an apparent opposition between nature and culture, one that rsi confirms their specious superiority to the animal.
This anecdote, related by the detached, superior poet, reflects how his self-confidence grew concur- ive rently with his reputation. The four prose poems that followed from — continue to express a superior attitude. He claims in his defense that the aP approbations of the multiple hearers confirm and corroborate the praise, so that she herself can experience it more keenly. The last, however, relates a Ne ty public event, one that both reaffirms and betrays Art. These reflect the flickering coexistence of aesthetics and a social consciousness that sometimes excludes the fans, reserved for le monde and sometimes includes the workingman the post- rsi man.
The quatrains on fans engage the poem in social interchange. They form part of a self-sufficient, elitist social discourse: the quatrains may represent prosopopoeias by the fans, apostrophes by the poet to the fans, or addresses by the poet to the recipient of his dedication, be he present or absent when the quatrains are read. Yet they also involve the postman, a worker who can partake of the hermeneutic plea- sures of the transaction, which lighten the monotony of his daily task.
He shares with the work- ers the combined biological imperatives of mating, procreation, and finding food, and their cultural sanctions of marriage and gainful employment. Both the poet and the worker are pro- ductive in their separate ways, whereas the archetypical bourgeois, an entre- preneur living off the surplus labor value of others, hoards and invests with- out himself producing anything. His newfound leisure freed him to become more keenly aware of the working class and its affinities with his own destiny as a servant to the bourgeoisie.
It simultaneously refers to the class-consciousness that divides workers from authors, and to con- the sk science, that provokes guilt in the latter. What is our responsibility toward the disadvantaged? A drama of awakening social consciousness, it crystal- lizes his emerging social stance. They have separate domains; the poet is trespassing, but silently, and only through his curious gaze.
Their opposition ends unre- solved, with an irreducible mutual alienation. This time, they too are idle, taking a meal after res work. Their noisy conversations and drunken shouting disturb him. The poet provokes the hostility of one of them by a gesture of deliberate exclusion: he locks the garden gate at the back of the house, preventing the workers from aP taking a shortcut to their canteen on the ground floor. On Sundays, they need to get drunk and shout to unwind.
These com- rsi placent bourgeois, he realizes, with their ignorant pretensions to culture, are the true Philistines, the mutual enemy of both the poet and the workers. As ive the latter collapse drunkenly on the lawn to sleep, the poet experiences an inward reconciliation with them. The sunset bathes the sky in blood, like an altar of sacrifice; on the earthly plane, the workers are the victims, and Un the observer the officiant who transforms their sufferings into poetry.
This careerist essor provokes the antithesis of proletarian res antagonism, specifically, the hostility of manual workers toward a poet who seems just another bourgeois because he does not work with his hands. Neither teachers nor manual workers own the means of production; the worker, albeit unawares the sk and involuntarily, is physically closer to nature than is the bourgeois, as the poet is closer to nature intellectually and symbolically. The workers, scattered sleeping on the turf in a constellation of bodies, reconfirm the transcendent event by mimicking it Ne ty on a microcosmic scale.
The bourgeois readers form the audience to be en- lightened. A constellation is a specious ordering of objects unimaginably remote from each other, a pattern that exists only in the perceptions of an observer situated at one arbitrary point. Cohn, — The High Modernists such as Rilke further reject the false hope of a pre- sumptive higher knowledge, which we nurture as we aspire to transcend the limitations of our material existence. We can know only those limitations. Marchal II Henceforth OC. Pies offers a rich, revealing analysis of this text and of several major related issues.
Pursuing an aesthetic ra- ive ther than an ethical argument, she speculates that this addition destabilizes the col- lection. In relation to the original twelve pieces, corresponding to the syllables of an alexandrine, the hours on a clock dial, or the months of the year, the thirteenth Un would symbolize the Eternal Return. See 10n6 and OC Chicago: U. Austin, Lloyd James. Paris: Corti, Ne ty Berger, Anne. Amsterdam: Rodopi, Catani, Damian. Cohn, Robert Greer. Compagnon, Antoine. Paris: Hermann, Davies, Gardner.
Derrida, Jacques. Barbara Johnson. Chicago: U of Chicago P, Ellen W. Goellner and Jacqueline Shea Murphy. Gould, Evlyn. Greaney, Patrick. Houston, John Porter. Lexington KY: French Forum, Kristeva, Julia. Paris: Seuil, ,— Langan, Janine D. Bertrand Marchal.
Paris: Galli- mard, Henri Mondor and G. Ne ty Meillassoux, Quentin. Olds, Marshall C. Pies, Stacy. Paris : Hachette, Richard, Jean-Pierre. Paris : Seuil, Un Stadler, Eva Maria. Sugano, Marian Zwerdling. Paul Imbs. Paris: CNRS, Zachmann, Gayle. Grossman et al. Anxious to preserve her reputation, he returns to Paris to construct an alibi. Not unnaturally, they have him followed. In some such sheet [. Striding quickly across the most historic of Paris bridges, he threaded the narrow, tortuous thoroughfares dear to every lover of rsi old Paris, till he reached the Place St Sulpice.
Even the huge leather-bound books in the windows seemed to be the same as in the days when the future Un American diplomatist had been [. But it is precisely because the topic is so vast that individual case histories such as the one I shall present here are useful in that they allow us to go beyond vague generalizations about the growth of literacy. Louvain, as I am reminded by my Britannica, had an illus- trious past, making up in intellectual prestige what over the years it had lost the sk in the textile trade.
Founded in , noteworthy in particular for its theo- logical studies, the University library had over manuscripts and 70, books, many of them old and very rare. In short, on the eve of WW1, it had bra by everything going for it, except. On the most direct route from Germany to Paris, it was inevitably in the line of fire: in , after a pro- longed siege, everything went up in flames. Ne ty In , with the courage and resilience that the people of the Low Coun- tries, far too often, have been called upon to demonstrate, the University au- thorities set about repairing their loss.
While combing Germany for material com- mensurate with their distinguished past, the librarians were also on the look- out for basic stock. German reparation funds, to the tune of , francs, changed hands: a tidy sum in , but for approximately , volumes, something of a Un bargain. In , alas, a new generation of Germans went on the rampage; and while there was no battle of Louvain to compare with the appalling one in , enough shells were in the air to set fire to the library, and once again virtually everything burned. Given the longevity of this particular cabinet and its pre-eminence on rsi the Parisian cultural landscape, perhaps it is time to set the record straight.
The F18 series in the Archives nationales has over dossiers of requests to ive operate a cabinet de lecture, including both those of Mme Cardinal and her grand-daughter and successor, Mme Duval. Given the French penchant for bureaucracy, the dossiers are full of information, much of it predictable, so I Un shall limit myself here to the essential facts.
Both were minors she was 17, he was 22 and to marry they required and got letters of permission from their mothers: their respective fathers may well have been on military Nineteenth-Century French Studies 41, Nos. Her request to open a subscription library at her residence, 18 rue des Canettes in the faubourg St Germain is dated 18 December , and was ac- companied by the following documents: A letter from her husband, authorizing her to operate a business in her own i. Ne ty The above documents were enclosed with a recommendation that the license be granted, which it was, on February Unfortunately the rel- evant years are missing from the archive.
The archives have an in-house newsletter, with the usual information about ship- ping arrivals and departures, capital projects in the major ports, import and aP export figures and so on. The summer of seems to have been especially controversial. Baron Portal was old enough to remember when France was the sk a major political power; the French navy, after all—he came from a wealthy shipping family—had been directly involved in the American War of In- dependence. Like most ministers, then and now, he was deeply concerned bra by about his budget.
Towards the end of his tenure, he made some progress on the question of capital expenditure; but in September of , he faced a bud- get cut of 20, francs in his office administration costs. Less than three Ne ty months later—coincidentally? More impor- tant than the statistics, which at best can only be approximations, since not all of the cabinet owners sent their catalogues to the Royal or Imperial librar- ies, is that not a single official in the more than a thousand demandes de bre- vet that I have scanned could be accused of gender prejudice; not one—and Nineteenth-Century French Studies 41, Nos.
Mme Duval duly picked up her by license on December 27, The confidence in her abilities both personal and official was not misplaced. The rebuilding of Paris, which had ive begun on the right bank, reached across the river; between and , the rue de Rennes, a broad boulevard—like street extending down from the Montparnasse railway station towards the Seine—it never quite made it all Un the way—was opened up; from , we find Mme Duval at 51 rue de Rennes, now a highly desirable address in a prosperous neighborhood. If the own- ers, needing more space, more than once felt the need to move, it was within the same quartier: for over a century, all four addresses 18 rue des Canettes, 51 rue de Rennes, 55 rue de Rennes, 1 Place St Sulpice were all within easy walking distance of each other, so regular local customers would not have been inconvenienced.
However, in , in the interests of free enterprise and freedom of speech, aP the government passed a law abolishing the brevet requirement for book- sellers, so the F18 archive—such a matchless source of information for book the historians—simply dries up. They were, on the other hand, supposed to write a by letter to the Chamber of Commerce, informing the authorities of the change of ownership. There is substantial body of correspondence received by that Ne ty body. For , the most likely date of the sale, there are several thick files of letters, with no index. What is certain is that his plans for expansion, especially in the sciences, were ambitious and his pockets deep: between the time of his purchase and the eventual sale to the University of Louvain, the holdings almost doubled.
There seem to have been two further changes of ownership and continued growth; a supplement for —96 in the fonds Q28 lists new acquisitions, in- Nineteenth-Century French Studies 41, Nos. The catalogue is an astonishing document, like something straight out of Borges; even to begin to analyze its contents would require a paper in itself. In the first place, beyond a doubt, it is a success story, reflecting an optimism inherited from the Enlightenment, the bibliographical equivalent of the series of Expo- sitions universelles that punctuated the second half of the nineteenth century.
It should also encourage us to lay to rest certain myths that dogged the rental libraries ever since their inven- aP tion in the latter third of the 18th century. Leafing through the thousands of titles in every field known to late 19th-century scholarship, from Latin and the sk Greek texts in the original or in facing-page translations to the latest research into mental illness and the workings of the brain by people like Charcot and his student Alfred Binet, we are worlds apart from the cheap thrills expe- bra by rienced by Emma Rouault in her convent school8 or later, as the archetypal bored housewife, who gets glimpses of a more glamorous life style by taking out a subscription to a cabinet in Rouen, a decision in which her mother-in- Ne ty law—as things turned out, quite rightly—saw the inherent dangers.
The reasons for the supposed decline were twofold: the introduction of the ro- rsi man feuilleton in , so that the latest novel by Sue or Dumas could be read in your daily newspaper; and the spectacular fall in book prices. Some libraires had tariff differen- tials for newspapers—cheaper in the evening, confined to the library for sev- eral days, and so on. Moreover, old habits, arguably more ingrained in the provinces than in Paris, die hard. Well into the 20th century, certain- ly within the lifetime of the present writer, there was a clear distinction be- tween books that one bought and books one borrowed.
A maiden aunt in Paris in the s might well buy the Fables of La Fontaine for her nieces and nephews as Martyn Lyons, in several publications,12 has convincingly shown s that they did ; but she would continue to rent the novels of the prolific Au- res guste Lafontaine, perhaps the most commonly met author after Walter Scott and Fennimore Cooper in the July Monarchy catalogues.
Parent-Lardeur makes excellent use of statistics, and I am sure that when aP she claims that there were more cabinets in Paris in than in , she is right. But in the spirit of completing her research rather than contesting its the sk validity: without her labours, the field would probably still be virgin territo- ry , let me add one of my own. In recent years, I have undertaken an in-depth analysis of the contents of provincial cabinets roughly a third of the sur- bra by viving catalogues.
Set up by a certain G. But if de Gras Montpellier, could afford to subscribe to and shelve! My observation has confirmed me in the belief Ne that there is in the mental development of every person who later at- ty tains to literary culture a limited period when he craves novel-reading [. The earliest catalogue preserved in the fonds Q28 cabinets de lecture of the BNF dates from , the latest from Among other splendid stories, he sets the record straight on the fate of the fa- mous library in Alexandria.
Fustier in , a series of articles by M. Tirol —27 , F. Translations are my own. There is a copy of this Bulletin in the British Library, although not of the Cata- logue itself. A quoi donc? Published in and based on a sample of 80 Parisian cabinets, all that were available in the late s. More than catalogues survive, and have been avai- bra by lable on microfi lm for at least twenty years BnF, Q A revised edition appeared in , with a valuable discovery of a list of customers in Avallon.
I know of only three other such lists. But the thesis itself, with its limitations in scale, in time — Ne ty 30 and place Paris , remains unchanged. It was indeed spectacular. Notably in Le triomphe du livre. Falconer, 27—40 See S. Vachon, in Falconer, — On the connexion between circulating libraries and, more generally, libra- ries as such and personal self-improvement, there is an abundant and ever-growing literature. See especially works by Jonathan Rose and more recently, Belinda Jack.
See Cassan-touil, in Falconer, 9— Quoted in Battles, — Works Cited Battles, Matthew. Libraries: An Unquiet History. London: Heinemann, Coppens, Christiaan. Louvain: Ex officina, Falconer, Graham ed. Madame Bovary. Paris: Garnier-Flammarion, Fustier, Gustave. Jack, Belinda. The Woman Reader. New Haven: Yale University, Print Larousse, Pierre.
Grand Dictionnaire universel, vol. Ne ty Lyons, Martyn. Lowndes-Belloc, Marie. The Uttermost Farthing. Pigoreau, Alexandre. Paris: Pigoreau et Marc, — Paris: Dentu, Prinet, Gaston. New Haven: Yale University Press, Tirol, Maurice. Four articles on the Cabinets de lecture. Promenades dans by Rome combines itineraries for the tourist, anecdote, history, art history, ekphrasis, personal reflection and meditation on what it means to travel.
They insist on the originality of the collection, mentioning that only one other recent book by Wende- ive lin Ann Guentner has been fully dedicated to Promenades. She implies that Stendhal owed, in spite of himself, a debt to neoclassical esthetic thought, and seeks to blur the boundaries between Neoclassicism and Romanticism. Ansel argues that Stendhal prizes above all ancient Rome and that he envisioned the following epochs as movements of decline and decadence. Spengler examines the link between po- s litical thought and anecdote in Promenades; Labia explores connections with the po- res lemical Rome, Naples et Florence.
The essayists make a solid case for the importance of this somewhat neglected work, demonstrating how it sheds light on the broader concerns and intellectual history of the early nineteenth bra by century. Surveiller est donc le premier temps du processus narratif. Ce sera chose faite. New York: Peter Lang, Sarah E.
A general survey of instructors serves as the starting point for each Ne ty volume in the series. In addition, the collection of essays will be equally ben- eficial to scholars and graduate students whose research focuses on the French and Ne ty Haitian Revolutions, the French colonial empire, the African Diaspora, Black Stud- ies or the slave trade. ISBN: Voix, Image, Texte. This collection of thirty-nine essays edited by Wright and Harkness examines, on the one hand, the dynamic rapport between Sand, her precursors and her contemporaries across her extensive writings, and, on the other hand, exchang- es among discursive voices or between the arts.
The editors explain in their joint- ly written introduction to the first volume that intertextuality and polyphony have special relevance for Sand. She rejects the Bloomian or vertical model of influence s and rivalry to espouse a horizontal model of exchange, af fi liation and dialogue res with writers of diverse backgrounds, genders and reputations. Together the contributions to the second volume manifest the importance of dialogue in the narrative structure, as well as in the plurality of discursive voices and ive points of view in the novels.
Exchange transcends generic boundaries to con- nect with music and the visual arts in the final four contributions of volume 2. Instead, her writing allows for a plurality of voices to be heard and to contest one another, as long as the reader is open to dialogue. These essays provide the Sand scholar as well as the generalist a useful lesson in how to read a polyphonic text.
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As such, it is extremely valuable. Based on sound prelim- rsi inary research, it comes up with all the explanatory notes that the general reader might need, without ever being heavy or pedantic. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, coll. Sur la barricade Saint- Merry, 5—6 juin The fasci- nating volume under review poses the question of how our understanding might be reshaped were we suddenly to unearth an authentic first-person account penned by aP the real-life individual on whom Hugo loosely based his characterization of the rebel leader, Enjolras.
It relates how the repressive ac- tions of the forces of order—responding, Jeanne was convinced, to the actions of agents provocateurs—caused a relatively peaceful demonstration to escalate into an rsi armed conflict. It details the steps involved in constructing, in what seemed the twin- kling of an eye, a formidable redoubt consisting of three interconnected barricades ive that made strategic use of adjacent buildings. It highlights how quickly and complete- ly bonds of solidarity were forged among combatants committed to shared princi- ples and resigned to their common fate.
It describes the reckless, last- minute charge, once their ammunition was depleted and canon had reduced their Nineteenth-Century French Studies 41, Nos. But we also learn that Jeanne, though a decorated hero of the July Days and a committed activist, hardly represented the views of the radical fringe of the s republican movement.
On the contrary, he displayed a moderation most eloquently res expressed in a brief, impromptu speech in which he criticized those of his men who had raised a red flag atop the barricade in the rue Saint-Martin. In retelling such incidents, the sk Jeanne places in relief the range of motives and outlooks within the insurgent camp.
The fictional barricade in the rue de la Chanvrerie owes a considerable bra by debt to the actual ones that Jeanne oversaw. Consider the principal protagonists. He tells us that more than a dozen one of them his own cousin rejected his repeated pleas that they withdraw to safety and instead volunteered for the dangerous mission rsi of conducting reconnaissance of enemy positions. Jeanne, in fact, tells how he managed to unmask the lies of just such a traitor and had him confined in a nearby cellar awaiting a lull in the fighting that might give the insurgents the opportunity to judge him.
But since res Hugo, despite claiming a broad familiarity with the official documents of the period, made no specific allusion to the judicial records, a more likely source was the ac- count of the October trial of twenty-two insurgents put out by the publisher Rouanet aP late in in which Jeanne was the dominant figure. An alternative source might have been coverage of the trial by the Moniteur universel as well as the commentary, the sk poems and other tributes that appeared in the left ist and working-class press.
But it seems unlikely that Hugo was then closely following the events, as he was still a monarchist and remained a supporter of Louis-Philippe who had elevated him to bra by a peerage even in , as he began work on what would become his masterpiece. We know that in the s Hugo read a number of these earlier sources, includ- ing the much shorter, earlier letter by Jeanne published anonymously in December Ne ty as an appendix to a novelistic treatment of the June insurrection by Marius Rey-Dussueil, an editor at La Tribune.
The quote from which Bouchet has drawn the title of his book provides a case in point. The history of insurrectionary episodes, most of which fail, is generally written by ive the victors or sometimes based upon the court records of subsequent trials at which the rebels have the strongest of incentives to deny or distort their true role. Jeanne, who consistently—even proudly—acknowledged his cen- tral role in the events in question, has provided us with the perspective of an in- sider who directed much of the action. Of course, his text cannot be taken at face value but must be examined, as with any other historical source, in light of his mo- tives and intentions.
For example, though addressed to his sister, his letter has a Nineteenth-Century French Studies 41, Nos. It also provides a concrete sense of the sights and sounds in which those insurgents were immersed aP and the concrete activities in which they took part. The second examines how the in- surrectionary experience came to be translated into the historical and literary sourc- the sk es to which we owe our knowledge of such events, including the contributions of both Jeanne and Hugo to that tradition. Oxford: Legenda, In his recent study, Bradley Stephens convincing- ly shows that the similarities between these two writers and their notions of liberty are much more complex and have been neglected for too long.
For both writers, Stephens argues, the question of freedom is at the heart of being. For Hugo, the indeterminism of liberty engendered creativity whereas for Sartre, liberty is a burden. Rather than try to reconcile their contradictions, Stephens argues, critics should accept paradox and indeterminism as the keystone of each philosophy. And romanticism, which prob- the sk lematizes the link between imagination and reason, thus shares a similar outlook with existentialism.
Both writers respond to this paradox with a certain idealism. With their similar lengths, as- sortments of characters, and significant historical backdrops, Stephens argues, these two novels are most suitable for comparison. Yet Stephens also addresses their dis- similarities, most of which are related to the narrative technique and choice of histori- cal setting. In the brief conclusion, Stephens aP contends that contemporary thinking benefits from a romantic conception of self as dynamic and freedom as burden, although it may not always be recognized.
Ne ty Manzini, Francesco. Frenetic Catholicism in Crisis, Delirium and Revolution. Balzac, Grandville, and the Rise of Book Illustration. Surrey UK: Ashgate, ISBN: bra by Daniel Sipe, University of Missouri As its name suggests, Balzac, Grandville, and the Rise of Book Illustration takes aim Ne ty at the episodic but decades-long collaboration between novelist and illustrator— its rivalries, its forms of symbolic resistance, its artistic and economic stakes. In short, their work circulated along the increasingly blurred boundaries Un that had previously defined various forms of media, from the satirical press to the roman-feuilleton, and from collaborative editions to the illustrated book, where the notion of authorship was suddenly as apt to be associated with the illustrator as it was with the writer.
Observing the Number of Children with EU-SILC: A Quantification of Biases
In this, Balzac, Grandville, and the Rise of Book Illustration of- fers a persuasive story about how these artists found themselves at loggerheads as they undertook the task of staking out new symbolic territory. Broadening her scope, Yousif also asks how these men navigated be- tween artistic legitimacy and commercial success, a line of theoretical inquiry that is deeply indebted to the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Richard Terdiman and others. In later works, where the artist gets top billing, the tables are turned. There are aspects of the book that will undoubtedly raise questions and stimulate debate.
Whatever the outcome of such discussions, they are made possible by thought-provoking books like this one. Goddard, Linda. Bern: Peter Lang AG, Mitchell demonstrated in his text Iconology of ; nevertheless, scholarly examination of rivalry has been a bit of a difficult issue, as its study is sometimes er- aP roneously construed as promotion of hegemony. Laid out chronologically, the author endeavors to demonstrate the variety and breadth of re- lationships between artists of diverse textual and visual media through topical case Ne ty studies of specific ideological competition, which was often evidenced through ar- tistic products.
The history of competition amongst the arts is difficult to study because the mo- tives and circumstances that prompt competitive responses between specific artists or factions of the art world are often the result of nuanced environments. The text tends to be light on pres primary sources that impact the debate over the hierarchy of the arts at the end of the nineteenth century, as well as secondary sources from scholars who study the paragone in the nineteenth century, including Peter Cooke, George s Mras and Alexandra Wettlaufer, to name a few.
Additionally, Goddard does mention a few luminaries of the debate, such as Leonardo and Got- aP thold Ephraim Lessing, and it is worth observing that the long history of inter-arts rivalry makes it virtually impossible to summarize, especially given the current lim- the itations in humanities publishing 9.
The scholar of artis- by tic rivalry typically focuses upon such issues as how hierarchies of, and supposed limits for, the arts are developed, expounded, enforced and rejected, as well as how Ne ty such hierarchies have been tied to those of the senses. Demonstration of her grasp of the issues most seminal rsi to studying artistic competition is also pervasive throughout the text, which is best seen in her repeated acknowledgement of how neoplatonic theory still permeated ive late nineteenth-century discourse regarding the hierarchy of the senses Addi- tionally, the author is successful in confirming that inter-arts contentiousness was ubiquitous in the culture of both visual and literary fields at this time.
Un Goddard capably demonstrates the diversity and breadth of rivalry at the end of the nineteenth and turn of the twentieth centuries through exceptionally detailed study of appropriately-selected, primary-source material. It is well- researched, introduces new perspectives into French history of the nineteenth cen- tury, and the writing is fluid and clear.
In the introduction, she lays out the ground- work for her enquiry: rsi My concerns in this book are both historical and theoretical, and stem from two sets of questions that are too often isolated from each other. On the one hand, ive I seek to explain the policy choices that led France back on the colonial stage between and On the other hand, I aim to understand how contem- Un porary culture shaped the culture of military conquest and settler colonization that made Algeria French.
Though she does not approach the paintings, cartoons and prints with the same concerns as an art historian, her interpretations of their imagery are nuanced and add much to an understanding of the ways colonial history was mediated through images in France during this era. Following this path, her work builds on the examples of Maurice Samuels and John MacKenzie, who have embraced a wider frame of cultural prac- tices and products in order to account for historical change in France.
She explains: s res In the tensions between popular and official representations of the conquest, we can see the extent to which the postrevolutionary politics of empire were a mat- ter not only of French power over Algerians, but also of power, citizenship and aP sovereignty within France itself. The argument is subtle here, with the concurrent development of free compul- bra by sory public education mixed with new technological developments in image repro- duction that allowed for a more rapid transfer of colonial news.
This music is so forcefully compelling and lustful that I get the urge to turn up the volume and really loose myself in it. I am impressed! Very beautiful, but also exciting! This is a genuinely serious matter. Be sure, though, Mr. Normandeau further explains that the sound material he used is typical of the three monotheist religions : the shofar of Judaism, the church bells of Christianity and the prayer calls of Islam. The beginning is mighty, with an electronic mimicry of Tibetan monks chanting high up among the mountains of the Himalayas.
It feels like Robert Normandeau brings something from deep within into the sonic open in this work, that he taps into a common resource of mankind, a common inheritance, far beyond the evil differences of day-to-day life on the surface of the plane ; from within a reality that is far more real than this blinding show-off of material objects that occupy our bodily existences and cause us to take up arms against each other.
I seldom feel this kind of significance in a piece of music, but here I really do. Staggering implications! The title is a play on words, of course : the name StrinDberg and strinG. The instruments used for the source sounds are the cello and the hurdy-gurdy! From this material Normandeau builds a flickering, swaggering wall of Northern Lights ; Aurora Borealis shining its wondrous veils over snowy expanses of a midwinter Lapland with no sun but lots of other stars that shine through the blistering cold. And there are wolves in this music, a circle of wolves around the listener, at the periphery of light around his campfire : glowing eyes….
The last piece, on track 11, is Hamlet-Machine with Actors. What a title! Un voyage unique. This duality is immediately evident when one compares the first two tracks on this release : Puzzle , a rhythmic exercise scored for door sounds and vocal onomatopoeia, is lively, almost funny, yet pretty flat as far as psychic impact goes.
The following Eden , on the other hand, is a detailed architecture of brilliant loops and almost Steve Reichian pulses, where female voices and contrasting illuminations pave the way for an emphatic tonal affirmation that remains forward looking while managing to avoid the obvious. StrinGDberg , for multilayered hurdy-gurdy and cello, is dramatically minimalist, but its instrumental peculiarities are so incredibly deformed that I could have sworn a vocal source was present. The majestic crescendo of its mechanical subdivision is gospel for lovers of high-density powerful consonance. Closing the DVD, Hamlet-Machine with Actors is, according to the composer, a tentative description of the oppression that society exerts on man, the representation of taboos and the end of art.
Avec cette version multiphonique 5. Qui va se surpasser en fin de concert avec Hamlet-Machine with Actors. Pas le moins du monde. Plusieurs artistes electrocd. Puzzle , Chorus , StrinGDberg , 02, 03 , Hamlet-Machine with Actors , Accord ouvert. Sophie Delafontaine. Grains of Voices.
Alistair MacDonald. The Tincture of Physical Things. Modisti , 15 mai Dionisio Capuano, Blow Up , n o 89, 1 octobre
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