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His first words were as unconventional as they were unexpected. But there is a distinct danger in trying to be ever so unconventional and all that. Only one thing was unchanged, and that was the frank, unconventional manner.


These hydrocarbons are forms of crude oil that are extremely dense and viscous, with a consistency ranging from that of molasses for some extra-heavy oil to as solid as peanut butter for some bitumen at room temperature, making extraction difficult. These heavy crude oils have a density specific gravity approaching or even exceeding that of water.

As a result of their high viscosity, they cannot be produced by conventional methods, transported without heating or dilution with lighter hydrocarbons, or refined by older oil refineries without major modifications. Such heavy crude oils often contain high concentrations of sulfur and heavy metals, particularly nickel and vanadium, which interfere with refining processes, although lighter crude oils can also suffer from sulfur and heavy metal contamination.

These properties present significant environmental challenges to the growth of heavy oil production and use. Canada's Athabasca oil sands and Venezuela's Orinoco heavy oil belt are the best known example of this kind of unconventional reserve. In the estimated reserves were 1. Heavy oil sands and bituminous sands occur worldwide. The hydrocarbon content of these deposits is either crude bitumen or extra- heavy crude oil , the former of which is often upgraded to synthetic crude syncrude and the latter of which the Venezuelan fuel Orimulsion is based.

In , Alberta's total proven oil reserves were It is estimated by oil companies that the Athabasca and Orinoco sites both of similar size have as much as two-thirds of total global oil deposits. They have only recently been considered [ by whom? This is because oil prices have risen since and costs to extract oil from these mines have fallen. In , crude oil from the Canadian oil sands was expensive oil to produce, although new US tight oil production was similarly expensive.

Extracting a significant percentage of world oil production from these deposits will be difficult since the extraction process takes a great deal of capital, human power and land. Another constraint is energy for project heat and electricity generation , currently coming from natural gas , which in recent years has seen a surge in production and a corresponding drop in price in North America.

With the new supply of shale gas in North America, the need for alternatives to natural gas has been greatly diminished. Tight oil, including light tight oil sometimes confusingly the term 'shale oil' is used instead of 'light tight oil' is crude oil contained in petroleum-bearing formations of low permeability , often shale or tight sandstone. It should not be confused with oil shale , which is shale rich in kerogen , or shale oil , which is synthetic oil produced from oil shales. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing significant amounts of kerogen a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds from which technology can extract liquid hydrocarbons shale oil and combustible oil shale gas.

The kerogen in oil shale can be converted to shale oil through the chemical processes of pyrolysis , hydrogenation , or thermal dissolution. The ratio of shale gas to shale oil depends on the retorting temperature and as a rule increases with the rise of temperature. Depending on the exact properties of oil shale and the exact processing technology, the retorting process may be water and energy extensives. Oil shale has also been burnt directly as a low-grade fuel. A estimate by the World Energy Council set total world shale oil resources at 6. These deposits have given rise to expectations of yielding at least 40 litres 0.

Several additional countries started assessing their reserves or had built experimental production plants. Thermal depolymerization TDP has the potential to recover energy from existing sources of waste such as petroleum coke as well as pre-existing waste deposits. This process, which imitates those that occur in nature, uses heat and pressure to break down organic and inorganic compounds through a method known as hydrous pyrolysis. Because energy output varies greatly based on feedstock, it is difficult to estimate potential energy production.

According to Changing World Technologies, Inc. In its day - prior to the drilling of oilwells to tap reservoirs of crude oil- the pyrolysis of mined solid organic-rich deposits was the conventional method of producing mineral oils. Historically, petroleum was already being produced on an industrial scale in the United Kingdom and the United States by dry distillation of cannel coal or oil shale in the first half of the 19th Century. Yields of oil from simple pyrolysis, however, are limited by the composition of the material being pyrolysed, and modern 'oil-from-coal' processes aim for a much higher yield of organic liquids, brought about by chemical reaction with the solid feedstuff.

The four primary conversion technologies used for the production of unconventional oil and refined products from coal and gas are the indirect conversion processes of the Fischer-Tropsch process and the Mobil Process also known as Methanol to Gasoline , and the direct conversion processes of the Bergius process and the Karrick process.

The story is a YA and is full of teenage angst, silliness, and self-doubts. May 18, Book Riot Community added it. I spent many happy hours binge reading this British YA novel set in the world of fan conventions.

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Dec 06, Charlie rated it it was amazing. A love letter to the geeky, magical, out of this world, unforgettable realm of fandoms and all who dwell in them. This book is a celebration of loving things deeply, right down to their dodgy carpets, pineapple personalities and nervous ticks. Full to the brim with winks and nods to the many idiosyncrasies of convention communities.

On a personal level this book brought me back to my teenage SciFi nerd convention days, and all the ways that life led to my dream job. If Maggie could have written A love letter to the geeky, magical, out of this world, unforgettable realm of fandoms and all who dwell in them. If Maggie could have written a book meant just for me With a swoonworthy romance that connects through the artifice to find the uncensored and unconventional person of passion within, you'll fall head over cosplay heels for Aidan and Lexi just as I did.

You can definitely count me in as a fan! View 1 comment. Feb 28, Cody added it. Mar 23, Priss rated it it was amazing Shelves: better-than-expected , contemporary , romance. I didn't know I needed this book. It was so good!! Jul 09, Patricia Crowther rated it liked it. It was a strong start and the insight into conventions was really interesting but I just didn't feel the chemistry between the MC's so didn't really care for the romance. A teeny tiny bit predictable and not really much in the way of angst or drama.

If you liked When Dimple Met Rishi, you'd probably like this too. Sweet but not much substance! Oct 27, Dana Kenedy Dana and the Books rated it liked it Shelves: read-in , young-adult , release. Overall really cute. But the first half was definitely much better than the second half. I felt it may have worked better as novella rather than a full length novel.

I am filled with love for this book. Review to come. Feb 05, Maddie rated it liked it. Things I thought were just OK: the romance that felt like Lexi and Aiden were Romeo and Juliet, both in the falling-in-love sense and the barely-knowing-anything-about-each-other-beyond-the-facade sense, the cliched I-don't-like-my-Stepmum subplot.

How jealous Lexi got when she found out that Aidan had had friends who were girls before her, and crushes before too.

Understanding Unconventional Oil - Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

A solid 3 star rating. I do understand where people are coming from with the Rainbow Rowell comparisons, but Unconventional definitely hasn't replaced Fangirl as one of my favourite books. Jan 17, Vanessa rated it really liked it Shelves: After a slow start, I really did enjoy Unconventional a whole lot proof: easily reading 50 pages per sitting when I usually do Over all a great read, would recommend!

Feb 11, WaterstonesBirmingham rated it really liked it Shelves: young-adult. An unconventional convention story about a boy, a girl, an author, their book and a romance for the ages. Loaded with humour, awkward moments and lots of hiding under tables, Unconventional is a liberating story perfect for any reader. Jun 12, Ania rated it liked it Shelves: contemporary , ya-na , first-read Unconventional started off really strongly, with an interesting array of characters and showing us the backstage life of a convention.

However, as it progressed, the story started to feel a little bit tired - Lexi was on an emotional rollercoaster and her mood swings between "he knows me" and "he doesn't know me" started to irritate. I didn't particularly feel the chemistry between her and Aidan and maybe it was the chosen format that worked against the book - the pair only ever meets at convent Unconventional started off really strongly, with an interesting array of characters and showing us the backstage life of a convention.

I didn't particularly feel the chemistry between her and Aidan and maybe it was the chosen format that worked against the book - the pair only ever meets at conventions and we largely miss out on their communication in between the events. Especially given that it's written in first person, this approach does not really allowed me to connect with Lexi. Also Aidan feels a bit too mature and boyish at the same time to make much of an impact on me.

It was a good read but I much preferred Geekerella. Jan 02, Fiona M rated it really liked it. It was just what I needed to get me out of my horrid reading slump. Something that was easy to read and quick too! I was a bit worried going as it was over pages I loved that is was set at conventions and I'm sure we can all relate to that time we met our favourite authors and how we felt. I love the little references to the YA community and it's authors.

It made me laugh and smile and I stayed up till 1am to finish it. Lexi was a great character, you could really see her growing and fighting within herself as to what she was going to do with her future. A book for YA loving fangirls for sure Jan 20, Natalie rated it it was amazing Shelves: favourite-books , audiobooks.

Living an Unconventional Life - Alan Watts and Charles Bukowski

This was such an adorable book! This was my first audiobook on Audible and although I had some technical issues with it, I managed to read this so quick and it was such a unique reading experience. This book is, in my opinion, a little like Fangirl but British. Our protagonist is Lexi Angelo, the daughter of a guy who runs conventions like Comic-Con and other fandom-related events. She helps out with her friends as well as studies, and loves to be organised with her clipboard.

And speaking of c This was such an adorable book! And just to inform you, as I listened to this, my spelling for names and other things may be wrong so my apologies. You can see where this cute as eff book goes with their relationship but honestly, it's mostly a book about family and friendship. There were many convention adventures, mishaps and shenanegans involving her friends, dad and crush Aiden Green, and it just so damn delightful that I just couldn't stop listening to it all. The romance was cute, it was very slow-burning and there was a point where I wondered if it was going to actually happen but of course it's a happy ending.

It was quite realistic in some ways, with her divorced parents acting as they did, it wasn't over the top or silly, it was quite real coming from someone who's parents divorced the same age as the protag anyway. I was impressed that the adults weren't all just ridiculous, sometimes in these kind of books they're all either complete failures or just horrible people, but they were all likable in their own way.

The idea for this story is just wonderful, and I'm so pleased I found this book. I will be reading Maggie Harcourt again in the future! A nice start to with a fluffy, amusing and compelling book. I recommend this book highly, especially if you've attended a convention. Also, a shout out to the narrator who was just awesome , especially with accents. I was very impressed with the variety she managed to do and make it all so believable. Everyone's voice was unique and I really enjoyed her storytelling. And that's Seriously, it was so realistic and well-written.

I loved reading about all the behind-the-scenes stuff. He was so dorky and sweet and adorable and a really swoony love interest albeit in a geeky way.

Unconventional Oil

Especially her best friend Sam. I may not have "You're you, Lexi Angelo. I may not have really liked her character but her journey, development and discovery of herself as a person and what she really wants is great. Who's French. It just wasn't intense enough to really root for. Sometimes she came across as bossy, snappy and a little condescending. The way I saw it, there was absolutely no need to throw in the whole I-don't-like-my-stepmom part.


Bea's relationship with Lexi's dad was nothing but positive! Sometimes it seemed like whatever was going on wasn't actually essential to progress of the story and was just there for the sake of filler. Lexi only really fangirled about Aidan's book, Piecekeepers, and I thought that was relatable and really great, but she never once mentioned any other authors or guests at any of the six conventions that happened in the book.

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I just thought that since the catchphrase of this book is "Everyone's a fan of someone", I'd see more of Lexi's fangirl side. But she never talked about any favorite books, movies, shows, people. She didn't really seem like a true fangirl so it was hard to connect with her. Overall: My actual rating for this book is 3. Nevertheless, it's definitely solid and well-written, although nothing extraordinary.

Maximum Pop! This book was just perfect for me. I loved the setting at conventions and how it reminded me of the times I was involved in conventions. I loved how the characters were real, how I could identify friends immediately and how I could relate to the narrator on certain levels. I loved how the characters were introduced and described, not too much attention paid to looks and superficial things but rather what you really notice about them. I loved the love story, yes I did. It wasn't unbelievable and not This book was just perfect for me.

It wasn't unbelievable and not too artificial obstacles but just overcoming your own fears more than anything else. Admitting how scary it is to fall in love. I loved how the pacing was just right. You mainly see snippets of a couple of months and skip a lot of the inbetweens that are not important to the story. I loved the writing, how the things were said just flowed and some sentences were just beautiful and resonated so much with me. This is a book for fans, for people who know what it is like to feel at home at a certain place that may be fictional or only real for a couple of days in a year, sort of an alternate reality where you can hide from the scary outside.

Nov 06, Katie Hurse rated it liked it.

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