Finally, an optical technique which offers optimum performance with the high temperature tensile testing of ceramic composites is recommended. Thermal shock behavior of rare earth modified alumina ceramic composites. Alumina matrix ceramic composites toughened by AlTiC master alloys, diopside and rare earths were fabricated by hot-pressing and their thermal shock behavior was investigated and compared with that of monolithic alumina.
However, it decreased to C for alumina incorporating only AlTiC master alloys, and increased with further addition of diopside and rare earths. Improvement of thermal shock resistance was obtained for alumina ceramic composites containing 9. Composite of ceramic -coated magnetic alloy particles.
A composite structure and method for manufacturing same, the composite structure being comprised of metal particles and an inorganic bonding media. The method comprises the steps of coating particles of a metal powder with a thin layer of an inorganic bonding media selected from the group of powders consisting of a ceramic , glass, and glass- ceramic.
The particles are assembled in a cavity and heat, with or without the addition of pressure, is thereafter applied to the particles until the layer of inorganic bonding media forms a strong bond with the particles and with the layer of inorganic bonding media on adjacent particles.
The resulting composite structure is strong and remains cohesive at high temperatures. Method for producing ceramic composition having low friction coefficient at high operating temperatures. A method for producing a stable ceramic composition having a surface with a low friction coefficient and high wear resistance at high operating temperatures.
A first deposition of a thin film of a metal ion is made upon the surface of the ceramic composition and then a first ion implantation of at least a portion of the metal ion is made into the near surface region of the composition. The implantation mixes the metal ion and the ceramic composition to form a near surface composite. The near surface composite is then oxidized sufficiently at high oxidizing temperatures to form an oxide gradient layer in the surface of the ceramic composition. A reference carbon composite reinforced with carbon fibre CC composite is obtained in first place from a carbon fibre roving impregnated with a solution of phenol-formaldehyde resin in isopropyl alcohol.
Depending on the temperature of this process, the resulting ceramics can be silicon carbide SiC or silicon oxycarbide SiCO. The value of the Young's modulus remains constant in fatigue tests done in flexion mode for the three new composites during a high number of cycles until sudden degradation begins. This is an unusual and advantageous characteristic for this type of materials and results in the absence of delamination during the measurements.
In contrast, the CC reference composite shows a progressive degradation of the Young's modulus accompanied by delamination. SEM micrographs revealed that the formation of filaments of submicrometer diameter during the heat treatment can be responsible for the improved behaviour of these composites. Development of ceramic composites from mixture of alumina and ceramic precursor polymer poly silsesquioxane. Processing of ceramics materials, by polymer precursors pyrolysis, has been intensively researched over the past decades, due to advantages that this path provides, such as: lower temperature process compared to conventional techniques; structure control at molecular level; synthesis possibility of a wide range of ceramic compounds; obtaining parts with dimensions of the final product etc.
The active filler controlled polymer pyrolysis AFCOP process, enables the synthesis of ceramic composites , by reaction between added filler oxides, metals, intermetallic etc. These samples were pyrolyzed at degree C and thermal treated at temperatures of , and degree C. The samples were characterized for bulk density, porosity and hardness, after each stage of thermal treatment.
Structural transformations were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Samples treated until degree C resulted in composites of alumina and silicon oxycarbide, while those treated at degree C, formed composites of mullite and alumina. Potential assisted fabrication of metal- ceramic composite coatings.
A possibility to produce uniform metal- ceramic composite coatings with a high content of ceramic particles up to 60 vol. This method includes a combination of electrophoretic deposition and electrolytic deposition by several steps. A yttria-stabilized zirconia coating Tosoh TZ-8Y was first electrophoretically deposited on a ferritic steel plate and then sintered by C to an open porous layer.
In the next step nickel was electrodeposited into the pores of the layer. By a final annealing step it was possible to improve the bonding of the composit coating on the substrate by diffusion of the metal components. Abstract Copyright , Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Silicon carbide SiC ceramics and SiC fiber reinforcedSiC ceramic matrix composites SiCSiC CMCs offer high payoff as replacements for metals in turbine engine applications due to their lighter weight, higher temperature capability, and lower cooling requirements.
Additive manufacturing approaches can offer game changing technologies for the quick and low cost fabrication of parts with much greater design freedom and geometric complexity. Four approaches for developing these materials are presented. The first two utilize low cost 3D printers. The first uses pre- ceramic pastes developed as feed materials which are converted to SiC after firing.
The second uses wood containing filament to print a carbonaceous preform which is infiltrated with a pre- ceramic polymer and converted to SiC. Processing optimization was pursued through SiC powder blending, infiltration with and without SiC nano powder loading, and integration of nanofibers into the powder bed. The second approach was laminated object manufacturing LOM in which fiber prepregs and laminates are cut to shape by a laser and stacked to form the desired part.
Scanning electron microscopy was conducted on materials from all approaches with select approaches also characterized with XRD, TGA, and bend testing.
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Thermal conductivity analysis of SiC ceramics and fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel composites. Several factors that influence thermal conductivity, specifically the content of sintering additives for SiC ceramics and the volume fraction of TRISO particles and the matrix thermal conductivity of FCM pellets, were investigated. The thermal conductivity values of samples were analyzed on the basis of their microstructure and the arrangement of TRISO particles.
The thermal conductivity of FCM pellets in various sintering conditions was in close agreement to that predicted by the Maxwell-Eucken equation with the fitted thermal conductivity value of TRISO particles. Ceramic matrix composites using polymer pyrolysis and liquid densification processing. The polymer precursor approach for manufacture of ceramic matrix composites CMCs is both flexible and tailorable to shape and engineering requirements. The tailorability includes a wide range of reinforcements, polymer matrix precursors and fillers.
Laser-induced reaction alumina coating on ceramic composite. Silicon carbide ceramics are susceptible to corrosion by certain industrial furnace environments. Because oxide ceramics corrode substantially less in the same environments, a laser-induced reaction alumina coating technique has been developed for improving corrosion resistance of the SiCsb P Alsb2Osb3 composite. There was no significant weight change difference experienced during exposure times between 50 and hours. The oxidation layer formed on the as-received composite surface consisted of Si and Alsb2Osb3 after washing with a HF solution.
The oxidation layer grew outward and inward from the original surface of the composite. The growth rate in the outward direction was faster than in the inward direction. The coated samples experienced very little mass increase. Ceramic compositional analysis in archaeological perspective. The primary significance of compositional analysis in archaeology lies on the spatial dimension, in distinguishing products made by locally or regionally-based groups.
If compositional analysis is to be carried beyond the descriptive recording of similarities and differences, the resource procurement zone and its geographical relationship to inferred places of manufacture is a basic operational concept Rands and Bishop A zonal concept is clearly indicated in the case of pottery, which frequently is derived from raw materials, clay and temper, that do not necessarily coincide in their place of procurement. Moreover, depending on geomorphological and geochemical variables, these materials may show considerable homogeneity over a fairly extended area.
On the other hand, unless there is strong, selective patterning in the exploitation of resources, great heterogeneity within a restricted region may result in fragmented procurement zones that are difficult to equate with the products of specific manufacturing centers. Under favorable circumstances, however, it appears that methods of compositional analysis are approaching the point at which microzones of limited geographical extent can be recognized and assigned heuristically useful boundaries.
Fast densification processes for carbon and ceramic composites. A general introduction of the different vapour infiltration processes developed to prepare carbon-carbon composites is presented. Then a novel method with a liquid precursor, called film boiling or calefaction technique is described and compared with the usual ones. It is shown how this technique is very attractive to prepare carbon and ceramic composites within a short processing time together with a higher carbon yield. Finally the pertinent parameters of this process to evaluate its advantages and drawbacks for a further industrial development are analysed.
Not only can one obtain accurate depth gauging of flaws such as delaminations and layered porosity in complex-shaped components such as airfoils and other aeronautical components, but also excellent reproducibility of image data is obtainable using the STTOF Synthetic Thermal Time-of-Flight methodology. The imaging of large complex shapes is fast and reliable. Neural network applied to elemental archaeological Marajoara ceramic compositions. In the last decades several analytical techniques have been used in archaeological ceramics studies.
However, instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, employing gamma-ray spectrometry seems to be the most suitable technique because it is a simple analytical method in its purely instrumental form. Marajoara ceramics culture was sophisticated and well developed. The purpose of the quantitative data was to identify compositionally homogeneous groups within the database.
Having this in mind, the data set was first converted to base logarithms to compensate for the differences in magnitude between major elements and trace elements, and also to yield a closer to normal distribution for several trace elements. After that, the data were analyzed using the Mahalanobis distance and using the lambda Wilks as critical value to identify the outliers. The similarities among the samples were studied by means of cluster analysis, principal components analysis and discriminant analysis.
Additional confirmation of these groups was made by using elemental concentration bivariate plots. The results showed that there were two very well defined groups in the data set. In addition, the database was studied using artificial neural network with unsupervised learning strategy known as self-organizing maps to classify the marajoara ceramics. The experiments carried out showed that self-organizing maps artificial neural network is capable of discriminating ceramic fragments like multivariate statistical methods, and, again the results showed that the database was formed by two groups.
This project demonstrated that higher temperature capabilities of ceramic matrix composites CMCs can be used to reduce emissions and improve fuel consumption in gas turbine engines. The work involved closely coupling aerothermal and structural analyses for the first-stage vane of a high-pressure turbine HPT. These vanes are actively cooled, typically using film cooling. Ceramic materials have structural and thermal properties different from conventional metals used for the first-stage HPT vane. This project identified vane configurations that satisfy CMC structural strength and life constraints while maintaining vane aerodynamic efficiency and reducing vane cooling to improve engine performance and reduce emissions.
The project examined modifications to vane internal configurations to achieve the desired objectives. Three-dimensional fluid and heat transfer analyses were used to determine vane aerodynamic performance and heat load distributions. Phase composition of murataite ceramics for excess weapons plutonium immobilization. As interest grows in the use of ceramic matrix composites CMCs for critical gas turbine engine components, the effects of the CMCs interaction with the adjoining structure needs to be understood. Test results include: scanning electron microscope characterization of the surfaces, micro-structural characterization, and microprobe analysis.
Methods of enhancing conductivity of a polymer- ceramic composite electrolyte. The polymer- ceramic composite electrolyte is also preferably annealed after stretching such that it has a room temperature conductivity of from The polymer- ceramic composite electrolyte formed by the methods of the present invention may be used in lithium rechargeable batteries. National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Durable, creep-resistant ceramic composites are necessary to meet the increased operating temperatures targeted for advanced turbine engines.
Higher operating The aperture and depth of perforation of projectile into the armor plates as well as the residual mass of bullet core under the same conditions were comparatively analyzed. Based on the simulated results, the penetration performance was further analyzed in terms of the residual mass of bullet core.
The results show that the ceramic nose has a great effect on the protection of bullet core. However, for the development of robust and reliable integrated systems with optimum performance for high temperature applications, detailed understanding of various thermochemical and thermomechanical factors is critical. Different technical approaches are required for the integration of ceramic to ceramic and ceramic to metal systems.
Active metal brazing, in particular, is a simple and cost-effective method to integrate ceramic to metallic components. Active braze alloys usually contain a reactive filler metal e. In this presentation, various examples of brazing of silicon nitride to themselves and to metallic systems are presented. Thermomechanical characterization of joints is presented for both types of systems. In addition, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of integrated similar ceramic-ceramic and dissimilar ceramic -metal material systems will be discussed.
Potential opportunities and need for the development of innovative design philosophies, approaches, and integrated system testing under simulated application conditions will also be presented. Ultrasonic and radiographic evaluation of advanced aerospace materials: Ceramic composites.
Two conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to evaluate advanced ceramic composite materials. It was shown that neither ultrasonic C-scan nor radiographic imaging can individually provide sufficient data for an accurate nondestructive evaluation.
Both ultrasonic C-scan and conventional radiographic imaging are required for preliminary evaluation of these complex systems.
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The material variations that were identified by these two techniques are porosity, delaminations, bond quality between laminae, fiber alignment, fiber registration, fiber parallelism, and processing density flaws. The degree of bonding between fiber and matrix cannot be determined by either of these methods. An alternative ultrasonic technique, angular power spectrum scanning APSS is recommended for quantification of this interfacial bond. Infiltration processing of metal matrix composites using coated ceramic particulates. A new process was developed to fabricate particulate metal matrix composites MMCs.
The process involves three steps: 1 modifying the particulate surface by metal coating, 2 forming a particulate porous compact; and 3 introducing metal into the channel network by vacuum infiltration. MMCs with different reinforcements, volume fractions, and sizes can be produced by this technique. Powders of alumina and silicon carbide were successfully coated with nickel and copper in preparation for infiltration with molten aluminum.
Electroless Ni and Cu deposition was used since it enhances the wettability of the reinforcements for composite fabrication. While Cu deposits were polycrystalline, traces of phosphorous co-deposited from the electroless bath gave an amorphous Ni-P coating. The spreading data indicated that local diffusion at the triple junction was the governing mechanism of the wetting process.
Infiltration with molten Al showed that the coated-particulates are suitable as reinforcing materials for fabricating MMCs, giving porosity-free components with a homogeneously distributed reinforcing phase. The coating promoted easy metal flow through the preform, compared to the non-infiltration behavior of the uncoated counterparts. Liquid state diffusion kinetics due to temperature dependent viscosity forces controlled the infiltration process.
Microstructural analysis indicated the formation of intermetallic phases such as CuAl 2, in the case of Cu coating, and Ni2Al3 and NiAl 3 when Ni-coated powders were infiltrated.
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Bonded carbon or ceramic fiber composite filter vent for radioactive waste. Carbon bonded carbon fiber composites as well as ceramic or carbon bonded ceramic fiber composites are very useful as filters which can separate particulate matter from gas streams entraining the same. These filters have particular application to the filtering of radioactive particles, e.
Microstructural, compositional and mechanical properties of the archaeological indigenous ceramics of Caninhas, Sao Paulo,Brazil. The ceramics present a gradient of color ochre to dark gray , when from the surface to the center of the piece, indicating compositional variability caused by inefficient sintering carried out by indigenous peoples.
It was analyzed the composition phases by X-rays diffraction XRD and mapping by EDS, identifying the illite, quartz and lutecite phases ochre region and illite, quartz, hydrated alumina and lutecite phases dark gray region. The results of EDS confirmed the stages identified by X-rays diffraction and suggesting the presence of roots and scrap of ceramics sintered in the composition of indigenous ceramics , when compared by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope.
Vickers hardness identified as fragile and heterogeneous are archaeological ceramics , reaching approximately HV in the grains of silica and 16 HV in the ceramic matrix. Ceramic matrix composites are leading candidate materials for a number of applications in aeronautics, space, energy, and nuclear industries. Potential composite applications differ in their requirements for thickness.
Little is known about the effect of thickness on stress-strain behavior or the elevated temperature tensile properties controlled by oxidation diffusion. In this study, composites consisting of woven Hi-Nicalon trademark fibers a carbon interphase and CVI SiC matrix were fabricated with different numbers of plies and thicknesses. The effect of thickness on matrix crack formation, matrix crack growth and diffusion kinetics will be discussed. In another approach, hybrid fiber-lay up concepts have been utilized to "alloy" desirable properties of different fiber types for mechanical properties, thermal stress management, and oxidation resistance.
In addition, shear properties of these composites at different temperatures will also be presented. Other design and implementation issues will be discussed along with advantages and benefits of using these materials for various components in high temperature applications.
The objective of this work was to develop design concepts for a cooled ceramic vane to be used in the first stage of the High Pressure Turbine HPT. To insure that the design concepts were relevant to the gas turbine industry needs, Honeywell International Inc. The work performed under this contract can be divided into three broad categories. The first was an analysis of the cycle benefits arising from the higher temperature capability of Ceramic Matrix Composite CMC compared with conventional metallic vane materials.
The second category was a series of structural analyses for variations in the internal configuration of first stage vane for the High Pressure Turbine HPT of a CF6 class commercial airline engine. The third category was analysis for a radial cooled turbine vanes for use in turboshaft engine applications. The size, shape and internal configuration of the turboshaft engine vanes were selected to investigate a cooling concept appropriate to small CMC vanes.
In contrast, in synthesizing a material of the present type, one uses a combination of infiltration with, and pyrolysis of, a preceramic polymer [polymer infiltration followed by pyrolysis PIP ]. PIP processing is performed in repeated, tailored cycles of infiltration followed by pyrolysis. Information on the temperature and exposure time was not available at the time of writing this article.
The synthesis of a material of this type includes processing at an elevated temperature to a low level of open porosity. The approach followed in this processing allows one to fabricate not only simple plates but also more complexly shaped parts. The carbon fiber. Constant amount of magnesia was added as a sintering aid.
The technological parameters of the sintered ceramic composites , i. The phase compositions and microstructure of the sintered ceramic composites were detected by using X-ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscopy SEM. Full Text Available Infrared thermography IRT and acoustic emission AE are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites CMCs for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading.
IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately. Different in vitro behavior of two Ca3 PO42 based biomaterials, a glass- ceramic and a ceramic , having the same chemical composition.
The reactivity in simulated body fluid and Tris—HCl solutions was studied. Both materials showed bioactive behavior, but the glass- ceramic dissolved faster, releasing large proportion of Ca and P ions, which afterwards nucleated and precipitated.
SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis
However, the ceramic was more stable under the same conditions in these solutions. Glass- ceramic composite has a more open structure and allowed the faster formation of a bone-like apatite layer than the ceramic. Ceramic coatings can exhibit greater erosion resistance than most metallic coatings. Such coatings are conveniently produced by thermal spraying. Unfortunately, thermally sprayed ceramic coatings often exhibit poor adhesion, partly as a consequence of the development of residual stresses during spraying and subsequent cooling. The incorporation of ceramics within a ductile matrix has potential for sharp Effect of oxidation at elevated temperature on elastic and interface properties of ceramic matrix composites.
Videla, F. The composition of erbium-doped yttrium aluminate ceramics was analyzed by means of confocal luminescence spectroscopy, EDX, and X-ray diffraction. A well-defined linear correlation was found between a proposed estimator computed from the luminescence spectrum and the proportion of ceramic phases coexisting in different samples.
This result shows the feasibility of using erbium luminescence spectroscopy to perform a quantitative determination of different phases of yttrium aluminates within a micrometric region in nanograined ceramics. Structure recognition from high resolution images of ceramic composites. Fibers provide exceptional strength-to-weight ratio capabilities when woven into ceramic composites , transforming them into materials with exceptional resistance to high temperature, and high strength combined with improved fracture toughness.
Microcracks are inevitable when the material is under strain, which can be imaged using synchrotron X-ray computed micro-tomography mu-CT for assessment of material mechanical toughness variation. An important part of this analysis is to recognize fibrillar features. This paper presents algorithms for detecting and quantifying composite cracks and fiber breaks from high-resolution image stacks. First, we propose recognition algorithms to identify the different structures of the composite , including matrix cracks and fibers breaks.
Second, we introduce our package F3D for fast filtering of large 3D imagery, implemented in OpenCL to take advantage of graphic cards. Results show that our algorithms automatically identify micro-damage and that the GPU-based implementation introduced here takes minutes, being 17x faster than similar tools on a typical image file. Silicon carbide SiC composites are considered to be potential materials for future aircraft engine parts such as combustor liners. It is envisioned that on the hot side inner surface of the combustor liner, composites will have to withstand temperatures in excess of C for thousands of hours in oxidizing environments.
This is a severe condition; however, an equally severe, if not more detrimental, condition exists on the cold side outer surface of the combustor liner. Here, the temperatures are expected to be on the order of to C under high tensile stress because of thermal gradients and attachment of the combustor liner to the engine frame the hot side will be under compressive stress, a less severe stress-state for ceramics. Since these composites are not oxides, they oxidize. The worst form of oxidation for strength reduction occurs at these intermediate temperatures, where the boron nitride BN interphase oxidizes first, which causes the formation of a glass layer that strongly bonds the fibers to the matrix.
When the fibers strongly bond to the matrix or to one another, the composite loses toughness and strength and becomes brittle. To increase the intermediate temperature stress-rupture properties, researchers must modify the BN interphase. Three approaches were found to improve the intermediate-temperature stress-rupture properties: fiber-spreading, high-temperature silicon- Si doped boron nitride BN , and outside-debonding BN. Disc-shaped specimens 16 mm diameter, 1. Vickers hardness test was performed. Fracture toughness was calculated using fractography.
Weibull analysis was conducted. Polished and fracture surface characterization was made using scanning electron microscope SEM. Energy dispersive spectroscopy EDS was used for elemental analysis. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that LCM seems to be a promising technique for final ceramic object manufacturing in dental applications.
Both the manufacturing method and the material used should be improved. For development of new composite materials based on lanthanum hexaaluminate and alumina ceramics , a better understanding of the microstructure-properties relationship is essential. It was found out that the lanthanum hexaaluminate content plays a critical role in determination of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the composite ceramics.
In situ formation of plate-like lanthanum hexaaluminate in the ceramic matrix was accompanied with formation of pores so that the microstructure shifted from dense to porous. Increasing the lanthanum hexaaluminate content up to a certain value enhanced the fracture toughness, increased the hardness, and increased the elastic modulus of the composite materials.
Further increase in the lanthanum hexaaluminate content degraded the hardness as well as the elastic modulus of composite ceramics. The influence of lanthanum hexaaluminate on mechanical properties was described by means of microstructure, porosity, and intrinsic characteristics of lanthanum hexaaluminate. Advanced ceramic composite for high energy resistors : Characterization of electrical and physical properties.
There is a need to characterize and apply advanced materials to improve the performance of components used in pulse power systems. One area for innovation is the use of bulk electrically conductive ceramics for non-inductive, high energy and high power electrical resistors. Standard Ceramics Inc. The new, new, conductive, bulk ceramic material has a controlled microstructure, which results in improved homogeneity, making the material suitable for use as a non-inductive, high energy resistor. Efficacy of ceramic repair material on the bond strength of composite resin to zirconia ceramic.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of composite resin in five different repair systems. Sixty specimens 7 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height of zirconia ceramic were fabricated. After surface conditioning, a composite resin Grandio Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany was applied to the zirconia surface using a cylindrical mold 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in length and incrementally filled up, according to the manufacturer's instructions of each intra-oral system.
There were significant differences between Groups and Group 1. The highest bond strength values were obtained with Group 2 All repair systems tested increased the bond strength values between zirconia and composite resin that used surface grinding with a diamond bur.
Con el fin de elaborar nuevos. Polymer matrix composite materials that can emit radiation in the far-infrared region of the spectrum are receiving increasing attention due to their ability to significantly influence biological processes. This study reports on the far-infrared emissivity property of composite films based on far-infrared ceramic powder.
X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to evaluate the physical properties of the ceramic powder. The ceramic powder was found to be rich in aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, and silicon oxide, which demonstrate high far-infrared emissivity. In addition, the micromorphology, mechanical performance, dynamic mechanical properties, and far-infrared emissivity of the composite were analyzed to evaluate their suitability for strawberry storage.
However, the dynamic mechanical analysis DMA properties of the cFIR composite films, including a reduction in damping and shock absorption performance, were significant influenced by the addition of the ceramic powder. Moreover, the cFIR composite films showed high far-infrared emissivity, which has the capability of prolonging the storage life of strawberries. This research demonstrates that cFIR composite films are promising for future applications.
Development of a thin film vitreous bond based composite ceramic coating for corrosion and abrasion services. IPC has been involved with the Alberta Research Council in developing a vitreous bond VB - based composite ceramic fluoropolymer coating technology. Compared to the present state of the art which is based on a hard discontinuous phase ceramic particles suspended in a soft continuous matrix fluoropolymer mix the novelty of our approach consists of designing a composite system in which both the ceramic and the fluoropolymer phases are continuous. The ceramic matrix will provide the strength and the erosion resistance for the fluoropolymer matrix even at high temperatures.
The ceramic formulation employed is not affected by temperatures up to o F while the fluoropolymer matrix provides a corrosion protection seal for the ceramic matrix. The inherent flexibility of the polymer matrix will protect against brittle fractures that may develop by handling or impact.
Therefore the composite coating is able to withstand the deformation of the substrate without chipping or disbanding. The fluoropolymer matrix also provides dry lubrication properties further enhancing the erosion resistance of the ceramic phase. The thickness of the coating is very thin, in the 25 to micron range. In summary, the coating technology is able to provide the following features: Corrosion protection levels similar to those of fluoropolymer coatings; Erosion resistance similar to that of ceramic coatings; Price comparable to that of polymer coatings; Exceptional wear resistance properties; and Capability for coating complicated shapes internally or externally or both.
This paper will discuss the theory and development of this new technology and the resultant coating and potential properties. National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The work proposed herein is to demonstrate that the higher temperature capabilities of Ceramic Matrix Composites CMC can be fully utilized to reduce emissions and This paper presents modelling and simulation results on 1—3 piezoactive composites comprising a range of ferroelectric ceramics , which are assumed to have variable properties and an auxetic polymer i.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hot structures fabricated from ceramic composite materials are an attractive design option for components of future high-speed aircraft, re-entry vehicles and The incorporation of ceramics within a ductile matrix has potential for sharply reducing the erosive wear at high erodent impact angles, whilst retaining the good erosion resistance of ceramics at low angles. This welcome update presents the latest in environmental laws and policies in a comprehensive exploration of the interrelationship between environmental law and the energy sector.
The text covers international legal instruments and contains a new section on regulations of the major jurisdictions, including the US, the UK, Norway, the EU, India, and China. It addresses all major energy sources, including renewables, and addresses policy issues such as energy security.
Written in plain language, this book provides an excellent resource for non-lawyers as well as lawyers working in the energy sector. Designed primarily for students taking a senior or firstyear graduate bioenergy course, this textbook has a full range of learning features and instructor resources. It examines complete characterization for biomass for both the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes and discusses individual conversion processes such as biodiesel, bioethanol, and biogas production.
The book also covers liquid fuel production from biomass, as well as economics, environmental, and sustainability issues. It includes problems, case studies, and real-world examples using actual data from biomass research. K, July , c. What is forest-based biomass energy and why should we care? Written by environmental expert Frank Spellman, Forest-Based Biomass Energy: Concepts and Applications details how forest biomass can be converted to energy and energy products, including direct combustion, pellets, gasification, and co-firing.
It explores the possibilities of forest-based biomass energy for producing a reliable energy renewable energy source that will not destroy or pollute our fragile environment. Carefully avoiding the influence of media hype and political ideology, Spellman points out that every problem has a solution, we simply need to find sources and develop them. He delineates commonsense approaches and practical, sometimes poetic, examples. And he does all this while adhering to scientific principles, models, and observations.
However, you need not be a scientist to understand the principles and concepts. Spellman goes easy on the hard math and science and presents the material in a userfriendly manner, weaving real-life situations throughout the fabric of the text. Selected Contents: The Basics: Introduction. Basic Math Operations. Units of Measurement and Conversions. Forest Biomass Sampling.
Timber Scaling and Log Rules. ForestBased Biomass: Bioenergy. Biomass: Plant Basics. Forest-Based Biomass Feedstock. Forest Biomass Removal: Environmental Impact. Answers to Chapter Review Questions. This text provides a new treatment of the fundamentals of energy science, technology, and policy implications. It motivates readers with frequent use of real-life examples based on current and future technologies. The book examines alternative and sustainable supply strategies such as wind and solar as well as more conventional sources.
It addresses the need for diversity in any nation's energy portfolio and the educational requirements of scientists, engineers, and policymakers today. The book offers extensive hands-on exercises, online resources, and other learning tools. Figure slides are available upon qualifying course adoption. This second edition of a popular book provides a comprehensive, fully updated treatment of advanced conventional power generation and co-generation plants, as well as alternative energy technologies.
Organized into three parts, it covers advanced fossil fuel-fired power generation, advanced renewable energy systems, and clean energy systems. The book discusses the fundamentals, analysis, design, and practical aspects of advanced energy systems, providing a strong theoretical background for highly efficient energy conversion. It contains solved examples, basic and complicated, and problem sets within each chapter. Martinez, Ph. Roy C. Tew, Jr. A concise overview of various applications, this book reflects the conclusions of more than 20 years of worldwide research and development of Stirling regenerators, sponsored by DOE, NASA, and other organizations.
The text draws on the latest research in Stirling regenerator technology, covering topics including performance improvement of Stirling converters and coolers. It also discusses applications in power generation, including alternative energy systems, and presents information on associated thermal energy storage. Written by leading experts, including a NASA veteran, this guide offers a useful outlook on future applications of Stirling technology. Reviewing several ways in which large amounts of energy can be stored so that it may be deployable by utilities, this handbook covers major topics including pumped hydroelectric systems, compressed air, and batteries.
By considering the perspective of developers, planners, and legislators as well as engineers tasked with assessing and developing real energy storage systems, readers will find the information they need to make economic and practical decisions concerning renewable energy. Chapters on modeling for integration of wind and solar energy into the grid, hydrogen generation and storage, and thermal energy storage are included.
Bade Shrestha, Western Michigan University. Of particular importance and actuality are those issues related to safety and environmental impact. Furthermore, the variety of fuels and processes discussed is very wide. Exploring a wide range of key technical topics, this book discusses anisotropic materials used in the production of turbine blades. The author presents the strength criteria for anisotropic materials, as well as the manufacturing criteria for turbine blade materials selection.
This comprehensive resource also examines dynamic fatigue life factors in turbine blade design. Other topics include NDE methods for predictions deflections, stiffness, and strength. Providing essential theory and useful practical techniques for implementing hydroelectric projects, this book outlines the resources, power generation technologies, applications, and strengths and weaknesses for hydroelectric technologies. Emphasizing the links between energy and the environment, it serves as a useful background resource and facilitates decisionmaking regarding which renewable energy technology works best for different types of applications and regions.
Including examples, real-world case studies, and lessons learned, each chapter contains exercise questions, references, and ample photographs and technical drawings from actual micro hydropower plants. Recent years have seen acceleration in the development of cleaner energy systems. This book defines cleaner energy and presents applications that are highly efficient, produce minimum emissions, and use simpler technology with less material and energy needed for construction.
The author, who has more than 40 years of experience as an international journalist reporting on power-generation technologies and energy policies around the world, argues that there is no place for coal; rather, combined cycle, hydro, solar, and biomass must complement nuclear energy, which must serve more applications than just generating electricity. A reference manual for engineering, maintenance, and training personnel, this book explains the causes of equipment deterioration and what you can do to reduce it. It shows you how to identify the signs of aging and outlines techniques for protecting transmission and distribution equipment from deterioration and damage.
It offers practical guidance on slowing down the aging of electrical systems, improving their performance, and extending their life. K, May , pp. Patel U. Energy conversion techniques are key in power electronics and even more so in renewable energy source systems, which require a large number of converters. This book describes advanced conversion technologies and provides design examples of converters and inverters for renewable energy systems—including wind turbine and solar panel energy systems. It presents more than topologies of advanced converters developed by the authors, pioneers in the field, including updated circuits on modern conversion technologies.
The book also offers cutting-edge techniques for determining accurate solutions and explores numerous industrial applications. Throughout, its focus is on topics that are directly relevant in the daily work of power engineers. The first part looks at how electrical power is generated, distributed, and utilized. The second part delves into power electronics switches, converters, motor drives, quality-ofpower issues, and power converter cooling.
This book describes the fundamentals and principles in the field of energy harvesting. It provides the necessary theory and information to develop energy harvesting power supplies. The overall system design is explained and quantitative assumptions on environmental energy are given. Each one of the blocks that compose an energy harvesting power supply is analyzed and trade-offs related to the design of the required buildings blocks are discussed.
Various energy transducer technologies like piezo-electric, electrodynamic, solar-cell, and thermo-electric generators are covered. N, March , c. A vast array of experts and leaders in their respective fields share their perspectives on business drivers, benefits, current and future technologies, and standards, as well as critical factors for successful smart grid deployment. This book gives readers crucial information to understand magnetic design, dynamic modeling, and highgrade control of switched reluctance motor drives SRM in the context of various motoring and generation applications.
That includes those required in automotive, consumer products, and energy-harvesting industries. Content covers experimental and application-related design strategies and provides insightful explanations of multi-physics problems within SRM. It opens the door for new opportunities to use SRM drives in other relevant industries, especially those aimed at operation under harsh environmental conditions and very high speeds. This work explores a multidisciplinary approach to renewable energy, covering physical and engineering methods and addressing economic, social, environmental, and policy issues surrounding the implementation of large-scale renewable energy systems.
Rather than using extensive mathematics and theoretical science, the authors rely on straightforward language and emphasize the technical aspects and practical applications of renewable energy. Topics include energy basics, fuel cells, hydropower, and solar, wind, geothermal, and ocean energy. The book presents advantages and disadvantages of each type of energy and contains case studies, illustrations, and end-ofchapter questions to reinforce learning. Indelicato, U. Department of Energy Present , U. Naval Officer Submarine Qualified A solutions manual is available upon qualifying course adoption.
Offering an interdisciplinary approach, this book presents a comprehensive overview of the many renewable energy possibilities available. Examples and exercises throughout cover latitudes in northern and southern hemispheres and use worldwide solar radiation data. A comprehensive overview of renewable energy, this textbook covers energy sources, resource assessment, and applications. It includes chapters on solar thermal energy, photovoltaics, concentrating collectors, wind energy, geothermal energy, and biomass energy. It also covers water energy through mini hydro, ocean waves, tides, and currents.
The text discusses large and small systems for generation of electricity, including village power. It examines institutional issues such as policies, legislation, regulations, and environmental issues, and considers economic analyses of the different renewable energies. This book is excellent for the first step.
The fact that nuclear hydrogen production is now almost reality is not widely known. This handbook gives us the most thorough review of the state of art of nuclear hydrogen, which could be used not only for scientific and technological communities, but also for the potential users to assess its reality. With contributions from noted laboratory scientists, professors, and engineers, this book presents a new comprehensive approach for applying hydrogenbased technologies to the transportation and electric power generation sectors.
Exploring the wide-ranging landscape of nuclear function, this book details the breakthroughs in nanoscale applications and methodologies that are revolutionizing power production, biotechnology, and material science as they apply to the nuclear industry. The author addresses higher economic and safety improvement and reviews advanced studies that employ the Monte-Carlo and solid-state measurement methods.
Content presents applications in radiation protection, nuclear reactors, and waste disposal. In addition to industrial concerns, the book covers nuclear medicine and its use of nanotechnology, highlighting several nanomaterial systems and devices. With contributions from international scientists active in PEM fuel cell research, this two-volume handbook provides a comprehensive source of research in the field.
The handbook looks at how to overcome the technical challenges of PEM fuel cell technology and drive the technology toward increased commercialization. The first volume analyzes failure modes that result in the insufficient durability of PEM fuel cells. Supplying a handy toolbox for practical work, the second volume brings together the different types of diagnostic tools currently used by PEM fuel cell researchers. This book provides readers with practical information for understanding and developing an ISO Energy Management System EnMS , including explaining in clear English the detailed standards and requirements, which are written in complex legalistic language.
Building from chapter to chapter, the book leads readers from first principles into successively more detailed EnMS topics. It provides comprehensive direction for developing, implementing, and managing an EnMS. The text also explains the relationship between ISO and and provides guidance for integrating EnMS concepts with existing organizational policies, processes, and procedures.
Introduction to Biofuels David M. Mousdale Beocarta Ltd. This bestselling handbook is the most comprehensive and practical reference available on energy auditing in buildings and industry. Topics include energy assessment and computer software. Clear, easy-to-follow instructions guide you through accounting procedures, rate of return, and life cycle cost analysis. Also covered is information on understanding your utility bill and using that knowledge to trim your energy costs. Loaded with forms, checklists, and handy working aids, this book is required reading for anyone responsible for conducting or overseeing a facility energy audit.
N, November , pp. Providing complete coverage of biofuels, this textbook discusses the multidisciplinary study of bioenergy and the potential for replacing fossil fuels in the coming decades. Presenting numerous examples throughout, the book explores key technologies, including biotechnology and genetic reprogramming of microorganisms. The author also examines the future of chemistry from a broad perspective, addressing the economic, social, and environmental issues that are extremely important to any study of bioenergy as a route to sustainable development.
With new chapters on electrical system optimization and ISO , this edition covers the latest updates to codes and standards in the energy industry. It includes chapters on energy economic analysis, energy auditing, waste heat recovery, utility system optimization, HVAC, cogeneration, control systems, energy management, compressed air system optimization, and financing energy projects.
This reference will guide you step by step in applying the principles of energy engineering and management to the design of electrical, HVAC, utility, process, and building systems for both new design and retrofit projects. Scott Dunning and Jack Lindsey Updated to include new technology and requirements, this comprehensive practical guide covers illumination fundamentals as well as practical application.
The book examines a full range of light sources and presents design methods for both indoor and outdoor lighting, along with strategies for the lighting of merchandise, offices, industrial settings, parking lots, and streets. This edition adds a chapter on advancing LED technology and revises the lighting controls chapter to include new technologies. The book also includes updated specifications from IES and new requirements from the U.
Department of Energy. A Guide for Owners and Managers This book provides a blueprint for action for readers making decisions about how to improve the energy efficiency and performance of new or existing buildings. Suitable for both seasoned veterans and new managers, it takes an objective and orderly approach to what is often a complex, costly, and time-consuming process. The book presents fundamental principles illustrated with case studies. It thoroughly covers the topics in a concise, technically accurate way. The book is designed for architects, engineers, and construction managers.
This book provides an overview of the basic concepts of quality, indoor lighting, and explains concepts like visual comfort, visual interest, and integrated design as they relate to the practice of lighting design. Energy-efficient lighting technologies, including LED lighting and digital control systems, and design strategies that increase visual comfort and productivity are discussed in plain language, and examined in a straightforward way to give the reader—whether an architect, interior designer, engineer, building trades professional, or student—a broad understanding of the art and science of energy-efficient quality lighting.
Completely revised, this second edition of a bestseller explores the latest technology advancements and the many changes and developments in the utility and environmental regulation areas. It includes new information on the state of deregulation and market pricing as well as discussion of smart grid and other emerging programs.
The environmental sections reflect the current emphasis on greenhouse gas emissions and carbon management, updates to CAAA regulations and timelines, and the latest developments in the use and control of refrigerants. Robert K. McMordie, Mitchel C. Brown, and Robert S. Stoughton A compilation of decades of knowledge, this book is instantly practicable.
Topics include definitions of energy terms, relationship of the sun and earth, sunlight on the earth, heat transfer, solar collectors, absorbed solar energy, solar domestic hot water systems, solar photovoltaic systems, solar space heating, solar power towers, Stirling engine solar power systems, passive solar energy, and greenhouse solar collector.
Appendices cover Carnot and Stirling Efficiency, mathematical techniques for solving heat transfer problems, and case studies. N, March , pp. Windfarm Visualisation Perspective or Perception? Photography has been subverted by complexity. In Windfarm Visualisation this complexity is stripped away to provide a text which returns to the fundamentals of photomontage visualisation, discarding pseudo-science and concluding with simple recommendations to relay the foundations for fixed photographic standards to underpin the production of comprehensible and verifiable visuals for use in the planning process.
It is a scientific detective story into what we see, how it can be misrepresented and manipulated, and how standards, ethics, and validation can easily be established for wind energy proposals to reliably inform the planning system and the public. N, October , pp. Pletcher and John C. I earnestly recommend this book to graduate students and practicing engineers for the pleasure of learning and a handy reference.
The description of the basic concepts and fundamentals is thorough and is crystal clear for understanding. Shang, Wright State University A solutions manual and figure slides are available upon qualifying course adoption. RU, August , pp. Currie University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Khabensky and Vladimir Antonovich Gerliga This book offers an analysis and generalization of all known types of thermal-hydraulic coolant flow instabilities that occur in power equipment components of thermal and nuclear stations and have been reported in the published technical literature. The authors examine numerous examples of instability expression in various types of equipment including boilers, reactors, steam generators, condensers, heat exchangers, turbines, pumps, deaerators, bubblers, and pipelines.
In addition to the traditional sections, the book includes material that, until recently, has not been reflected in monographs and education literature. It emphasizes unique determination of the solution for a class of physical problems associated with Laplace- or Helmholtz-type equations, applications of the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations, Fourier analysis, and more. It provides a toolkit to a large section of the scientific community including mathematicians, physicists, and engineers working on fluid structure interactions.
This book discusses the science and recent advances of wicking in porous materials. It describes various modeling approaches, traditional and modern, but maintains an emphasis on the modern methodologies. A host of internationally recognized scientists and researchers contribute chapters describing the physics of wicking and the approaches for modeling wicking. Chapters cover capillary, sharp-front single phase-flow, two-phase flow, network, LatticeBoltzmann, and mixture-theory based models, as well as a fractal-based modeling approach.
The authors emphasize experimental validation of theoretical and numerical predictions along with experimental measurement of the necessary parameters. Hydraulics is extensively used in various applications in industry, construction, mining, petrochemical, and marine fields and is part of graduate-level engineering courses. This book includes those fundamentals of the fluid transmission of power that are necessary for these courses and builds further on knowledge of the different coordinate systems in mathematics, differential equations, elementary fluid properties, and the basics of gears, pistons, cranks, and levers.
This ninth edition of a bestseller updates introduction to the basic principles of fluid mechanics with great detail and clarity. It develops a sound physical understanding of fluid flow, focusing on engineering applications rather than mathematical techniques. The text gradually introduces the subject, building on simple, familiar information to convey more complex content. A new chapter examines the modern context of fluid mechanics and associated issues including climate change, new forms of energy generation, and fresh water conservation.
Crowe, John D. Schwarzkopf, Martin Sommerfeld, and Yutaka Tsuji Since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant advances in science and engineering applications of multiphase flows. This second edition reviews these advances while maintaining the same pedagogical approach. The book features a chapter on developments in carrier-phase turbulence, as well as an extended chapter on numerical modeling that includes new concepts in dense phase flow models.
In a chapter on droplet-particle cloud equations, the text now covers the kinetic theory approach, commonly used for dense phase flows and incorporated in commercial codes. It will be of value for both graduate students and faculty members. This text explains how to analyze and solve conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer problems analytically. It describes many well-known analytical methods and their solutions, such as Bessel functions, separation of variables, similarity method, integral method, and matrix inversion method. The text also presents step-by-step mathematical formula derivations, analytical solution procedures, and numerous demonstration examples of heat transfer applications.
Overall, the editor has performed an excellent balancing act of discussing important state-of-the-art techniques and also of discussing the underlying fundamentals of these topics. A comprehensive, two-volume handbook on microfluidics and nanofluidics, this text covers fundamental aspects, fabrication techniques, introductory materials on microbiology and chemistry, measurement techniques, and applications with special emphasis on the energy sector.
Each chapter begins with introductory coverage to a subject and then narrows in on advanced techniques and concepts, thus making it valuable to students and practitioners. The author pays special attention to applications of microfluidics in the energy sector and provides insight into the world of opportunities nanotechnology has to offer. Figures, tables, and equations illustrate concepts. Knowledge of heat and fluid flow through porous media finds extensive applications in several engineering devices spanning four major divisions: mechanical, civil, chemical, and bio-engineering.
This textbook fills the knowledge-gap between available research monographs in porous media and basic thermo-fluids courses required to understand such monographs. Coverage includes fluid flow, conduction, convection, and radiation in porous media as well as porous medium aspects of biological systems. The book includes end-of-chapter problems and an appendix of useful convection correlations. Tim McGloughlin, University of Limerick. This classroom-tested text teaches students how fluid mechanics is applied to the study of the human circulatory system.
This edition includes improved figures, additional examples, and more end-of-chapter problems. It also presents a new chapter on the computational fluid dynamic analysis of the human circulation. This handbook remains the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications.
Featuring new illustrations, data tables, and practical examples, this edition is updated with essential information on hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book offers a rigorous overview of hydraulic fluid technology and evaluates the ecological benefits of water as an important alternative technology.
This text presents the conceptual and technical developments of the subject without unduly compromising on either the historical or logical perspective. It also covers the tremendous range of scientifically deep and technologically revolutionary applications of thermodynamics.
The text explains how thermodynamics evolved from a few basic laws that were amazingly successful and with tremendous range, without even knowing about the atomic structure of matter or the laws governing the behavior of atoms. James J. Riley, University of Washington.
Solana University of Cantabria, Spain. The first book entirely devoted to an extensive review of perturbation theories for the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of classical systems, this volume discusses theories developed in the context of density functional theories and those used to deal with polyatomic molecular fluids, such as the statistical associating fluid theory.
With a focus on practical applications, the author provides guidance on how to use the many variations and applications of perturbation procedures to obtain the thermodynamic and structural properties of fluids and solids. Examining methods in data filtering, trend shift detection, and fault isolation, this book provides a variety of new research tools for use in the condition monitoring of jet engines. The signal processing algorithms presented will be useful to engineers, scientists, and researchers working on fault diagnosis of gas turbine engines.
The algorithms can also be used for condition and health monitoring problems in general. Written by world-renowned experts in their fields, this book presents the basic principles of industrial heat transfer enhancement. It introduces enhancement techniques and how they work, especially in the industrial environment. The contributors present the information in an interesting manner, using illustrations and definitions to enhance the text. They also include their own theoretical and practical results. Serving as a reference and guide for future research, this book presents a complete approach, from redesigning equipment to the use of nanofluids in industry.
Praise for the Previous Edition "A well-written volume by highly acknowledged and excellent researchers It is sure to be the standard to which others will refer. This book focuses on gas turbine heat transfer issues and their associated cooling technologies for aircraft and land-based gas turbines. It provides information on state-of-the-art cooling technologies and offers updated experimental methods for gas turbine heat transfer and cooling research, as well as advanced computational models for gas turbine heat transfer and cooling performance predictions.
Intended for use in an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course in heat transfer, this book covers conduction, convection, turbulence, radiation, mass transfer, heat exchangers, and micro- and nanoheat transfer. The author assumes no background knowledge and begins with introductory coverage, building to advanced topics, making the material accessible for novice readers. The text emphasizes solving problems using numerical methods with the aid of spreadsheets. During the last few decades, research aimed at the development of thermally powered adsorption cooling technologies has also intensified.
This book covers state-of-the-art adsorption research and technologies for relevant applications based on the use of efficient heat-transfer devices—heat pipes and two-phase thermosyphons— with the objectives of energy efficiency and sustainability. It explores a range of topics, including the heat pipe thermal control of spacecraft.
This comprehensive reference covers the important aspects of heat exchangers HEs , including design and modes of operation and practical, large-scale applications in process, power, petroleum, transport, air conditioning, refrigeration, cryogenics, heat recovery, energy, and other industries. It includes more than drawings, diagrams, tables, and equations, making it a great resource for engineers, designers, and students. This second edition includes updated material throughout, coverage of the latest advances in HE design techniques, expanded and updated coverage of materials selection, and a look at the newest fabrication techniques.
Minkowycz, E. Sparrow, and J. Abraham This work features contributed chapters on heat transfer and fluid flow processes in nanomaterials and nanofluids, an area of increasing importance in engineering. Leading experts explore a wide range of topics, including nanomaterial properties, nanotechnology for biological heat transfer, multiscale nano-simulations, energy conversion, nanotreatments for cancers, fluid dynamic modeling, nanofiltration, microchannel flow, and natural convection of nanofluids.
The book presents the state of the art and offers a view of the future, making it a valuable resource for experts as well as newcomers to this growing field. Revised and updated with new problem sets and examples, this new edition of a bestseller presents a systematic treatment of the topic, focusing on selection, thermal-hydraulic design, and rating. Topics include their classification, design methods, and single-phase forced convection correlations in channels.
Each chapter contains examples illustrating thermal design methods and procedures and relevant nomenclature. Appendices provide the thermophysical properties of various fluids. The layout is successful and the beautiful illustrations as well as the many written problems will make its useful as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses. Praise for the First Edition from Students: " I love the real-world examples and problems Designed for readers who need to understand and apply the engineering physics of thermodynamic concepts, this volume features physical explanations along with mathematical equations so that the principles can be applied to real-world problems.
This book exposes readers to the "big picture" of thermodynamics, and its streamlined presentation allows glimpses into important concepts and methods rarely offered by texts at this level. The use of inverse problems constitutes a new research paradigm in which groups of theoretical, computational, and experimental researchers synergistically interact to better understand the physical phenomena being studied.
This book presents a comprehensive research-based survey of modern inverse techniques and their applications to engineering heat transfer. Written by top-notch contributors, the text provides a concise, one-stop reference on the mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems in heat transfer.
It covers topics such as multiscale modeling, thermophysical properties, heat flux, and temperature measurements. Todreas and Mujid S. Focusing on thermal hydraulic design and analysis of the nuclear core, this text examines nuclear systems, enabling students to develop the knowledge and design skills needed for working with the next generation of nuclear reactors.
Then, the dynamic behavior to stepwise changes in the set points of the operation controls in the target air-conditioning system, i. ICOPE Generation of multiple best solutions in multiobjective optimal design of energy supply systems. Optimization approaches based on the mixed-integer linear programming MILP have been utilized to design energy supply systems. In this paper, an MILP method utilizing the hierarchical relationship between design and operation is extended to search not only the optimal solution but also suboptimal ones which follow the optimal one without any omissions, what are called K-best solutions, efficiently in a multiobjective optimal design problem.
At the upper level, the values of design variables for the K-best solutions are searched by the branch and bound method. At the lower level, the values of operation variables are optimized independently at each period by the branch and bound method under the values of design variables given tentatively.
Incumbents for the K-best solutions and an upper bound for all the values of the objective function for the K-best solutions are renewed if necessary between both the levels. This method is implemented into a commercial MILP solver. A practical case study on the multiobjective optimal design of a cogeneration system is conducted, and the validity and effectiveness of the method are clarified. ICOPE Heat transfer enhancement of turbulent flow through dimpled tubes fitted with twisted tapes.
Heat transfer, pressure drop and thermal performance characteristics in ellipsoidal dimpled tubes fitted with twisted-tape swirl generators have been studied experimentally. Ellipsoidal dimpled surfaces function as the turbulence promoter near the tube wall while twisted-tapes act as the swirling flow generators. The experimental results of the dimpled tubes equipped with twisted-tape were compared with those of the dimpled and plain tubes without twisted tape.
Evidently, the dimpled tubes fitted with twisted-tapes consistently yield higher Nusselt numbers and friction factors than the dimpled and plain tubes without twisted tape. ICOPE Influence of delta-winged dual twisted tapes insertion on heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. The article presents the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of turbulent flow in a uniform wall heat flux tube inserted with delta-winged dual twisted tapes.
Influences of the delta-winged arrangements in 1 the parallel direction DT-PW and 2 the counter direction DT-CW on the thermal performance characteristics were also described. The experimental results found that the use of the dual twisted tapes with parallel wing arrangements DT-PW provide the heat transfer higher than those the typical dual twisted tapes DTs and dual twisted tapes with counter wing arrangements DT-CW around 6.
The typical dual twisted tapes DTs , dual twisted tapes with parallel wing arrangements DT-PW and dual twisted tapes with counter wing arrangements DT-CW performs the highest thermal performance factor up to 1. In the experiments, water as the tested fluid is passed in a Reynolds number range of to 17, The results reveal that, the Nusselt numbers in the system with a micro-fin tube and twisted tape are considerably higher than those in the system without tape.
Evidently, the tape with the smaller twist ratio gives higher heat transfer rate, friction factor as well as thermal performance factor than the one with larger twist ratio as a result of a larger contact surface area, and stronger turbulence intensity and thus better fluid mixing which leads to a thinner thermal boundary layer. It is also obvious that the heat transfer and friction factor obtained from the micro-fin tube with twisted tape in counter-arrangement is higher than that from the micro-fin tube with twisted tape in co-arrangement.
ICOPE Numerical simulation of turbulent flow and heat transfer in round tubes equipped with multi-channel twisted tapes. This paper presents the numerical study of the turbulent flow and heat transfer in the round tubes equipped with multi-channel twisted tapes MC-TT.
Turbulent flow characteristics and heat transfer performance of heat exchanger tube fitted with annulus circular-rings A-CRs are experimentally studied. The experimental data of the tube with A-CRs are compared with those of the tube with a typical circular-rings CRs and also the plain tube. The enhanced heat transfer rates are respectively accompanied with the increased friction factors of around 28, 47 and 90 times of the plain tube.
Both friction factor and heat transfer caused by the A-CRs are considerably higher than those caused by the CRs. In order to understand the heat transfer enhancement mechanism of the heat exchanger tube fitted with A-CR, the numerical results of streamlines and fluid temperature distributions are also reported. ICOPE Dependence of crack growth rate on cyclic loading period of alloy in high temperature steam and dry gas environments. Ni-base superalloys have been considered as a candidate material for use in the high-temperature section of an A-USC plant.
Since these materials are exposed to the high-temperature steam, it is important to investigate environmental effects on material degradation. There is only limited knowledge about the environmental effects on the cracking behavior of Ni-base superalloys in the temperature range proposed for an A-USC plant. Results were compared with those obtained in a dry gas environment, and it was found that crack growth rates in the steam environment were faster than those in air.
According to the observation of oxides formed at the crack tip region, it was thought that steam oxidation enhanced intergranular crack growth. In a longer cyclic period, the cause of the enhancement in the growth rate is probably due to the interaction between environmental fatigue and creep. Electrochemical characterizations such as galvanostatic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were carried out to determine the discharge rate performance and electrical resistance.
Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were also used to observe the crystal structure and morphology of the electrode before and after the electrochemical test. The electrochemical results indicated that the positive electrode with nickel hydroxide has better rate performance than the pure manganese dioxide electrode. It is considered that the electrical path in the electrode was improved owing to the low electrical resistance of the nickel hydroxide and the bimodal effects between the nickel hydroxide and manganese dioxide particles.
Thus, monitoring techniques for deposition and corrosion are important in order to maintain plant conditions and keep boiler thermal efficiency high. In this study, the corrosion and the ash adhesive properties in corrosive conditions were evaluated through an Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in order to develop monitoring techniques. Moreover, corrosion and deposition characteristics of coal ash were evaluated on site using a new monitoring probe. The major conclusions were drawn as follows: A positive correlation between the polarization conductance and the corrosion current density was obtained in the hot corrosion tests for sulfate ash with simulated gas.
The corrosive property of solid fuel on-site could be evaluated qualitatively with the polarization conductance. ICOPE Transposition of stator bar strands of generators and inter-strand circulating current loss analysis. In the stator windings of large rotating machines such as the turbogenerators and the hydrogenerators, the conductor bars are divided into strands to reduce the eddy current loss due to the leakage magnetic flux which are mainly induced inside the slot. Moreover, in the case of the strands which are shorted in the most end of the stator bar, inter-strand circulating current is induced due to the leakage flux and it causes additional heating.
Therefore the strands are usually transposed in the stator core region and sometimes in the end region in the generators of large output. In this paper, magnetic field analysis method using multi-slice finite element method is proposed to calculate the circulating current in the stator bar which includes strands transposed in the coil end region. Then circulating current loss analyses of transposed stator bars are performed and the effect of the transposition is discussed for some variations of transposition.
ICOPE Effect of core volume in coil of a generator on wind power generation and cogging torque. The purpose of this study is to find a way to increase power generation by wind power generators. For wind power generators, cogging torque operates to resist generation. Firstly, a core-less coil generator to have smaller cogging torque was considered and developed. Such wind power generators are thought to be useful as self-powered street lights in case of disaster occurrence such as earthquakes, which may cause electricity system trouble.
When an earthquake occurs at night, people may not be able to easily escape without lights. Today, more than 70 units of self-powered street lights with a solar sell and a wind power generator had been installed mainly in Kochi, Shikoku. As wind power wing, savonius-type and gyro-type ones were considered. The prior stage of generator development was to study inside of generators by products dissection. The obtained information was combined with the knowledge obtained during development of eddy current brakes. The eddy current brakes were used in Japan as retarders for trucks and buses.
Through the analytical study, non-magnetic material for a drum is found to be preferable. Therefore, core-less coil for wind power generators was selected. The next stage is to obtain more power generation with cored coil generators. In the simulation, the discrete particle phase is solved by the DEM approach and each individual particle motion is described by Newton's equations of motion; the continuum fluid phase is solved by the Navier-Stokes equations at a computational cell scale.
Conclusions obtained from the simulation results are shown as follows. The rolling motion of CFB has a large influence on the axial velocity of air phase, which is caused by the instantaneous change of the relative pressure and the distribution of discrete particles. Several types of ORC systems, such as the direct evaporation, the indirect evaporation and their combined cycle were picked up and their operational parameters were optimized.
The results showed all of these ORC systems indicated better gross power generation efficiency than that of the conventional steam power generation system. It is also indicated that the direct evaporation is most effective and the indirect evaporation is preferable to the combined cycle in case that the direct evaporation system cannot be installed. To reduce both the power output fluctuation and the platform motion, a feedback control algorithm based on blade pitch and generator torque manipulations for a spar-type floating offshore wind turbine-generator system was developed through numerical analysis using the aeroelastic simulation model FAST , observed high wind speed data, and irregular sea waves.
The blade pitch is collectively manipulated to maintain the generator power at a rated value, and the generator torque is manipulated to dampen the nacelle fore-aft motion. The concept of this control approach is to increase the generator torque in response to the platform motion to the leeward side and to provide a positive damping effect immediately to the platform motion.
The sensitivity analysis of the feedback control parameters showed the effectiveness of the generator torque manipulation and the filter of the nacelle fore-aft speed for the reduction in the platform motion. This feedback control approach had an advantage in not only the power output fluctuation and platform motion but also damage equivalent fatigue load characteristics over previous control approaches.
This study is concerned with the development of a hollow micro-hydraulic turbine excellent in foreign matter passage performance. The runner has a circular hollow around the central rotating axis so that foreign matter included in water can easily flow without blocking the turbine. The laboratory experiments are conducted to investigate the turbine performance. The guide vane successfully heightens the turbine efficiency.
The hollow of the runner effectively heightens the passage performance of the polyester fibers entrained into the turbine. As the wind farms are constructed in complex terrain in recent years, the wind resource analysis is becoming more important. The purpose of our study is optimizing wind turbine placement in complex terrain for more AEP.
In this paper we performed validation of CFD wind analysis. The validation method is comparison of measured and calculated wind profiles. We compared the 10min averaged data by measurement and all time averaged data by CFD on the wind profiles of speed, direction, and standard deviation of north-west and north-east winds..
TAN, J. Three-dimensional numerical simulation was conducted to investigate the enhanced cooling performance caused by ridge-shaped tabs located along the upstream edge of the film cooling holes. Three covering ratios of ridge-shaped tab on film hole and four blowing ratios were considered in the present. The results show that the presence of ridge-shaped tabs in the nearby region of the primary film cooling holes mitigates the primary vortices due to mainstream-coolant jet interaction and transfers the higher coolant jet momentum flux to streamwise direction mainly.
The coolant jet penetration along vertical direction is suppressed and the peak velocity along streamwise direction is augmented under the action of ridge-shaped tabs, providing an increment in the film cooling effectiveness and enhancement of heat transfer coefficient over the baseline case. The ridge-shaped tabs provide enhancements in cooling effectiveness, but this is at the expense of larger pressure drop. It is suggested that the ridge-shaped tab with middle covering ratio should be the best choice in the present study.
Coal can be classified according to fixed carbon and calorific value, and each coal has different combustion characteristics. Anthracite is the most difficult coal to burn, because it has low volatile matter and high fixed carbon. Also, the temperature for starting devolatilization of anthracite is higher than that of the other coal. As a result, anthracite firing boiler is an arch firing type or fluidized bed type normally.
In Vietnam, electric power demand is increasing year by year together with high economic growth. In view of energy security, it is important to use fuel produced in own country and to reduce imported fuel. Vietnam has many reserves of anthracite. Therefore, there is a strong demand to use it for coal firing power plant. IHI developed a new type of burner for low volatile fuel. The feature of this burner is that coal can be pre-heated in the chamber of the burner by the high temperature gas in the furnace. Preheating can help devolatilization and promote combustion of anthracite.
This boiler is opposed firing with four burners and water tubes in burner zone are covered with refractory to increase the temperature around the burners. Only one burner was changed to IHI's low volatile fuel burner and demonstration test of anthracite firing was conducted.
As the result of test, anthracite firing succeeded in the boiler to which IHI's low volatile fuel burner was installed. In this paper, the result of this demonstration test will be introduced. The improvement of the burner for anthracite combustion will be discussed. ICOPE Study on heat transport characteristics of ground source heat pumps that use direct expansion system. Ground source heat pumps GSHPs use buried pipes to extract heat from the ground and to release heat to the ground.
In the conventional GSHP system, which uses an indirect heat exchange method, vertical systems use two long pipes connected by a U-shaped fitting at the bottom of a hole bored in the ground. These pipes form part of a closed loop, called the ground loop, through which a mixture of water and antifreeze circulate.
In contrast, a GSHP that uses a direct expansion method circulates a mixed refrigerant through the ground loop. In our tests of this method, the depth of the borehole was 30 m, and the refrigerant was RA. The heat exchanger of a ready-made air-conditioner was replaced by an underground heat exchanger. In the direct expansion GSHP, the underground heat exchanger consisted of narrow copper tubes inserted into the bottom end of a long pipe filled with water.
The amount of heat transferred was evaluated by obtaining an enthalpy difference at the indoor unit. It was found that the COP in the cooling mode was over Recently, the new wind farm has been successfully built in Nagashima island, Kagoshima prefecture.
Related Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors: 1581 (Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications)
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