Beethoven, in deference to his patron, Czerny says, "pledged himself to weave a Russian melody into every quartet" - dubiously so, however, if at all, in the case of the last. From the outset the Op 59 cycle was given a hostile reception. According to Czerny "when Schuppanzigh first played the Rasumovsky Quartet in F [No 1], they laughed and were convinced that Beethoven was playing a joke and that it was not the quartet which had been promised".
Others found it "crazy music". The Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung 27 February , on the other hand, was more qualified, reporting that "three new, very long and difficult Beethoven string quartets The conception is profound and excellently wrought but not easily intelligible - except perhaps for the third [this evening's work], whose originality, melody, and harmonic power will surely win over every educated music lover".
Soaring in concept, commanding in sweep, a quartet where, as Basil Lam says , "Beethoven finds everywhere To early 19th century sensibility a "rock of offence" Thayer , the first, of symphonic aspiration, is notable for the way Beethoven consciously abandons the usual repeat of the exposition; for the textural toughness and intensity of its central working-out; and for the development and character of its large-scale coda. In it fate does not knock at the door - it stares through the window". The complex B flat "scherzo", placed second, is a statement of often extreme tonal adventure and rhythmic ingenuity, where melody and harmony in the conventional sense are all but abandoned.
Continual development and variation rather than obvious repetition or segmentation is its essence. Writing of it in , Marx believed: "One can find no defined meaning in this dance, whose outward aspects are ever changing yet always akin; perhaps it is that this light-hearted fantasy finds in itself its own meaning and its own purpose. But it is the fantasy of an eager and sensitive spirit; joy and sorrow are reflected like sunlight and shadow flickering over a vast plain as the clouds move across the sun.
The romantically-inflexioned, elegiac F minor Adagio is a scena of inventive sonority and instrumental resource, of elegant embellishment, of harmonically-telling incident. Unlike the bright finale - a theme russe of teasing Dorian modality diatonically harmonised that fairly hurtles its way across the galaxy taken from Ivan Prach's collection of popular Russian songs published in St Petersburg in - the message it conveys is one of deeply private contemplation, of enshrined stillness, of sepulchral shadow.
Above the manuscript Beethoven wrote "A willow or acacia over my brother's grave" - curious, enigmatic words in remembrance maybe of a long-dead infant brother, of the first-born Ludwig? Who today can say? Franco-Ashkenazi Jewish, contemporary of Wagner and Verdi, friend of Chopin, recluse, man of mystery and enigma, dreamer of the fantastic, creator of extraordinary future worlds out of antique pasts, Classical ghosts and Romantic wraiths, dedicatee of Anton Rubinstein's Fifth Concerto, Charles-Valentin Alkan stands among the mighty individual forces of the Romantic age - a reclusive artist in the complexity and simplicity, eccentricity and esotericism, dramatic and emotional temperature of whose music flow currents as central to our understanding of the European stage and psyche of his lifetime as anything in the oeuvre of his bettter-known contemporaries.
Busoni revered him among the "greatest 'piano' composers" of all time - the equal of Beethoven, Chopin, Schumann, Brahms and Liszt - and in his historic Berlin recitals of defied the hostility of German critics "preposterous French rubbish" by playing several of the Op 35 Etudes in Major Keys, the Military Caprices Op 50, and other pieces - a revival to be continued famously by his students.
Alkan may have composed almost exclusively for the piano - but his music as Hans von Bulow recognised early on traverses a range of sonorities, a cosmos of textural spacings and extremes, a span of melodic dialogues and chordal balances as brilliantly lit and theatrically charged in their associative imagery as anything orchestral. More than once he aspires to plains extraordinarily Mahlerian in their vision of innocence and wisdom, of the beautiful and the celestial, the pastoral, the worldly, the imploring, the grand, the bold, the bizarre. In a sonata for two instruments, such as a violin and a piano, each of the instruments is of equal importance.
All of the following were common forms in the Classical period. The Classical sonata-allegro form was generally conceived as a three-part structure. The three main sections of the Classical sonata-allegro form are the. The most significant difference between the exposition and the recapitulation in sonata-allegro form is that. An extended closing section in the Classical sonata-allegro form is called the.
The third movement of many Classical symphonies, sonatas, and string quartets is a. The minuet was a stately dance introduced at the seventeenth-century court of Louis XIV. The Classical rondo form was used for any multimovement work, but often seemed particularly appropriate for the last movement. Although the Classical period produced much more vocal than instrumental music, very few operas and very little vocal religious music was composed during this time. In his reform operas, Gluck did all of the following except.
The introductory orchestra piece of an opera is called the. Audiences appreciated the fact that comic operas were written in their own, local language and that all comic operas except the Italian form used spoken dialogue instead of recitative. In Italy during the early eighteenth century, short comic episodes interspersed between acts of a serious opera became so popular that composers used them as the basis for a new style of opera.
Although Mozart had a short life that was marked by financial difficulties. In The Marriage of Figaro one of the main characters is a nobleman who is outwitted and humiliated by his own servants. Although the Classical period was primarily a secular age, the Church remained a strong influence in some areas of Europe; however, very few composers contributed to the repertoire of religious music. Initially, the goals of the French Revolution included all of the following except. Napoleon Bonaparte was the political and military leader who eventually achieved the goals and reforms of the Enlightenment.
Around the turn of the nineteenth century, painters turned from classical subjects and styles to a subjective and highly emotional artistic expression. The artist who was called the Great Romantic but considered himself a classicist was Eugene Delacroix. All of the following were TRUE regarding the Romantic period around the turn of the nineteenth century. Between and , metal braces were added to the piano to increase the amount of tension the strings could bear, and a cast-iron frame was added, making the piano essentially like our modern instrument.
In the transition from the Classical to the Romantic periods, the role and number of wind instruments was greatly reduced to make room for the expanding brass section. Beethoven and his younger contemporary, Schubert, inherited all of the following musical traditions except.
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Like Mozart before him, Beethoven was a talented prodigy who received a careful and thorough musical education. Beethoven developed a close relationship with Haydn because their personalities were so closely matched. Although Beethoven mastered the forms of the Classical style, he also altered them by. Beethoven made frequent use of the sonata-allegro design, and he always kept its traditional proportions. When Schubert died in , he was just 31 years old and not widely known as a composer. The characteristic tone quality of a sound is determined by the voice or instrument which produces it.
Composers use changes in pitch and dynamic levels in their music to. Changing the size of a vibrating medium causes it to produce a different pitch. A faster rate of vibration causes a higher pitch, and a slower rate of vibration causes a lower pitch. Inside a grand piano, the strings that are shorter and thinner produce lower tones than the strings that are longer and thicker. Each key of the keyboard represents one tone, and each of the seven different white keys bears one of seven letter names.
The sign placed at the beginning of the staff to fix the position of all of the pitches on the staff is the. The musical term referring to the distance between two tones is. The interval from one C note to the C note eight tones above or below is called an eighth, or a n. The higher tone of an octave is produced at three times the rate of vibration of the lower tone. Musical sounds vary in intensity as well as in duration. In metered music, tones may occur on, before, or after the beats. In metered Western music, it is customary to accent the first and fourth beats of each measure.
When there are more than three beats per measure, a secondary accent cannot occur. Accents may be achieved each of the following ways except. Accented notes occurring in unexpected places create the rhythmic effect called. One way to achieve rhythmic variety in metered music is to avoid syncopation. There is usually no reference to tempo on a printed program. The conductor bears little responsibility and has only limited control over a performance.
The conductor brings his arm up on the first beat of the measure, which is normally the strongest.
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The last beat of a measure, which is usually the weakest, is called the. A melody is a succession of tones logically conceived so as to make musical sense. A written melody forms a linear pattern on the staff called the. When the pitches of a melody lie close to one another on the staff, the melodic line is smooth or. When the pitches of a melody occur in wide intervals, the melodic line is angular or. A sequence is the repetition of a melodic phrase at the same pitch level.
All cadences convey the same degree of arrival or finality. An example of a melodic sequence occurs in the beginning of. An example of motivic repetition occurs near the beginning of. Rhythmic patterns, phrase structure, and contour are some of the qualities that distinguish one melody from another. A recurring melody in a movement, a section of a movement, or an entire composition is called a. The distance from any note on a keyboard to its nearest neighbor in either direction is a n. The smallest interval traditionally used in Western music is the.
A scale is an ascending or descending pattern of half and whole steps with the range of one octave. The most commonly used scales in Eastern music are major and minor. The first and last note of either the major or minor scale is called the. The whole-tone scale divides the octave into eight whole steps. Melodies based on the major or minor scales always lead to and conclude on the. A five-tone scale within the range of an octave is called the. One melody that can be played on the black keys of the piano is. There are an unlimited number of possible scale patterns.
A recurring section of text and melody that follows each verse of a song is called a. In music, two or more different tones sounded together produce harmony. In music, harmony signifies a pleasant or desirable condition. In music, dissonance implies a negative or undesirable situation. When two or more simultaneous pitches create a sense of tension and drive, they are said to be.
Consonance and dissonance are relative rather than absolute terms, meaningful only when compared to each other. Three or more pitches sounding simultaneously to form a whole comprise a. The relationship between dissonance and consonance in tonal music may be summarized as:. Chords may be constructed upon the following intervals:. The most common interval used in chord construction in traditional Western music is. When two or more simultaneous pitches create a sense of stability or rest, they are said to be.
Tonality refers to the dominance of the dominant note over other pitches in the major or minor scale. The subdominant triad provides a somewhat weaker sense of drive toward the tonic chord than the dominant triad. Melodic lines, used singly, combined with one another, or accompanied by harmony, form.
A single, unaccompanied melodic line has a type of texture called. A texture that involves melody used in two or more lines simultaneously is called. When a primary melody is accompanied by other, subordinate voices that produce harmony, the texture is called. Because polyphony consists of simultaneous, independent melodies, it can not produce harmony. The modern concept of tonal harmony based on major and minor scales was accepted in the. The quality of sound that is characteristic of a particular voice, instrument, or ensemble is called its.
Timbre is largely determined by the shape of the sound waves produced by a voice or instrument. The four families of instruments within an orchestra are the. The instruments in the string family may be played in any of the following ways except. The stringed instrument in the orchestra that is always plucked is the. The stringed instruments that are normally not included in the orchestra include the.
Percussion instruments that produce definite pitches include the timpani, the chimes, and mallet instruments such as the. All keyboard instruments produce their sound through vibrating strings that are either plucked or struck when the player presses down on a key. The tones of a harpsichord last longer than those of a piano. Compared to the harpsichord, the piano allows the performer to play. The organ is a keyboard instrument whose tones are produced by wind going through sets of pipes of various lengths and materials.
The adjusting levers, buttons, or handles on an organ are called. An electronic instrument that can produce an unlimited variety of sounds as well as modify sounds produced by other sources is the. The advent of electronic composition has allowed some composers to completely bypass the uncertainties of live performance. MIDI is a recently developed system that allows musicians and composers to control synthesizers, sound modules, and drum machines from a computer. The best and most satisfying way to experience music is. Some of the elements that can differ in every performance are.
Both performing and listening to music are highly subjective experiences. Listening repeatedly to the same recording helps the listener discern the difference between the quality of the performance and that of the composition. If a keyboard instrument is included in the ensemble, the other instruments must tune to it, since the tuning of a piano or organ cannot be quickly adjusted. The last person to enter the stage, just before the concert begins, is the. The size of the orchestra can vary according to the style of music being performed. During the nineteenth century, several new instruments were added to the orchestra, making the orchestras bigger than eighteenth-century orchestras.
In order to understand and appreciate the form of a musical work, a listener must. Because a symphony is conceived as a whole, it is seldom appropriate to applaud between the movements of a symphony. A multimovement work that exploits the contrasts between a soloist and the orchestra is called a. Composers now write music specifically for symphonic band. Composers shaped the expression of mood in music by….
Which two of the following statements best illustrate how classical composers shaped expression mood in their music? Composers emphasized balance thru unity and logic in music with a wide emotional range. Composers firmly controlled changes of mood in their music, however abrupt or extreme the change might be. More and more music was written for amateurs who could not master the difficult art of improvising from a figured bass. True statements about orchestra of the classical period. Clarinet began to be used. Its used string, wind, brass and percussion instruments. Balance and symmetry in a typical melody of the classical era having the form AA.
A phrase with an inconclusive ending followed by a phrase with a conclusive ending. In the theme and variations form of the classical period. Mood in classical era music particularly in contrast to baroque music. The element of music that sounds loud or soft quiet is. American and French Revolution took place. Flexibility of rhythm was NOT a characteristic of the classical style.
Robust, direct and with a sense of optimism and humor, it was influenced by folk music and his love of nature. In a classical era work for orchestra or string quartet the tempos of the four movements typically followed which of the following patterns? A rondo can be an independent movement or the final movement of a multi-movement work such as a symphony or sonata.
Using the classical forms and techniques of Morzart and Haydn, Beethoven added innovations that bridged the classic and romantic areas. Composed long movements yet used various means of unity to give his works cohesion. Late baroque music was characterized by Polyphonic texture whereas classical music is basically in Homophonic texture. Composed music ordered by his employer. Spent most of his life working for one aristocratic family.
A work for string quartet in the classical era had the same pattern of movements as a symphony except that? Sometimes the minuet and trio is the second movement and the slow movement is the third.
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Characteristics of the second movement of a classical symphony. Is in a key other than the tonic key of the other movements. Slow tempo and song-like theme. May be in sonata sonata-allegro form or theme and variations form. They purchased instruments and printed music for use in the home.
They bought tickets to public concerts of symphonies and concertos. The paid for music lessons for family members. Beethoven completed nine symphonies. They are entirely instrumental except the Ninth symphony. The point in the movement when the cadenza is to be played is indicated by a fermata. The orchestra momentarily stops playing while the soloist plays dazzling scale passages and broken chords.
Cadenzas were originally improvised but later were written out by the composer. Influence of the middle class tastes on classical music. Early classical composers wrote pieces that were easy for amateurs to play. Classical composers used folk songs as themes in instrumental music and composed melodies with rustic country flavor. Classical composers wrote more comic operas some with plots that ridiculed the aristocracy.
Typical sequence of events in a movement in sonata-allergro sonata form. Characteristics of the first movement of a classical symphony. It may have a slow introduction, it is usually in sonata form, it has fast tempo and dramatic mood. Ability to bring characters to life through music by drawing on his inexhaustible gift for melody. Keen sense of theater with humorous and serious characters in his comic opera plots.
Coordination of music and stage action. Unlike earlier composers classical composers did NOT readily employ one type of instrument in place of another such as an oboe for a violin. Typical ensembles that played chamber music in the classical era. Musical passage that the piano begins in this audio selecion.
Innovative harmonies contrasting with song like lyricism. Balance, restraint, and proportion. Ease, grace and spontaneity. Which of the following statement about this audio selection are true. The selection is an operatic ensemble in which several led characters are heard singing different words simultaneously. What is the work in this audio recording and who composed it. Experimented and tested new ideas in his piano sonatas some of which were then used in his string quartets and symphonies. Musical development in Europe in the period — Polyphony-tuneful melody and simple harmony-contrasts of mood and theme- balance and clarity.
Baroque-preclassical-style galant rococo — classical. Cemetery statue of military officer whom Don Giovanni murdered miraculously come to life. The libretto combines elements of comic opera slapstick humor with serious opera violence and immorality. First movement is in sonata allegro form with two expositions. Begins with only the orchestra playing.
There is no modulation to a new key until near the end of the second exposition. As an alternative to the minuet and trio form for his third movement, Beethoven often used the. Skilled servant, Entered the service of the Esterhazy family for whom he worked for almost thirty years. Haydn composed a vast amount of music in many forms. After out of total deafness Beethoven composed magnificent piano sonatas, string, quartets and the Ninth Symphony.
After age 44 he was so deaf he could not perform piano in public and his conducting was ineffective. His music became popular all over Europe. He composed twelve symphonies for performance in London in the s. Choruses and orchestras were formed solely to perform his oratories, the Creation and The Seasons. Aristocrats from all over the holy roman empire spent the winter there bringing their private orchestras with them.
Street musicians could perform profitably in Vienna and be hired to play for outdoor garden parties. This is a rondo theme in the style of a Gypsy violinist playing a folk dance. Like many rondo themes this one is lively and easy to remember. Woodwinds and strings play the short-short-short-long rhythmic idea that unifies the symphony. A Bridge following the third movement connects the fourth movement. The trumpets proclaim the main theme of the final movement. A lyric theme in the woodwinds becomes a loud theme in the brass instruments. Entry of the lyric 2nd theme in the exposition of a movement in sonata from following the end of the bridge.
Conclusion of the bridge in the exposition of a movement in sonata form. A bass line that emphasizes the arrival at a new key. Ease, grace, and spontaneity. Europe in the period best represent musical development. Polyphony-tuneful melody and simple harmony-contrasts of mood and theme-balance and clarity. Baroque-preclassical-style galant rococo -classica. Characteristics of rhythm in music of the classical era. A change from one rhythmic pattern to another might be sudden or gradual. Had changes in rhythmic within a movement. Unexpected pauses and syncopation. Written Oct to May The lyrical and elegant mood of this concerto and its key of A major is shared by a love duet in Don Giovanni and the clarinet concerto in A major.
Which of the following adjectives summarize or typify the music of Mozart? A work for string quartet in the classical era had the same pattern of movements as a symphony, except that. Which of the following are true statements about the career of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart? Which of the following are common characteristics of the first movement of a classical symphony?
Which two sequences best represent musical developments in Europe in the period ? In the theme-and-variations form of the classical period,. In a classical-era work for orchestra or string quarter, the tempos of the four movements typically followed which of the following patterns?
Which of the following are true statements about the cadenza in most classical concertos? Which of the following were sections groups of instruments in the typical orchestra of Haydn or Mozart? Which of the following sequences accurately represent minuet and trio form?
Who were the tree master composers of the classical era? Which of the following are true statements about the classical concertos? True or false: Flexibility of rhythm was not a characteristic of the classical style. Which of the following lists best describes changes in artistic styles in the eighteenth century? Which of the following are true statements about the first movement of a classical concerto? Which of the following accurately describe mood in classical-era music, particularly in contrast to baroque music? Which of the following statements accurately interpret the influence of middle-class tastes on classical music?
Which of the following sequences correctly represents the typical sequence of events in the exposition of a classical-era sonata form? Which of the following statements describe how the middle-class public of the classical era enjoyed music? Which of the following are characteristics of rhythm in music of the classical era? They are entirely instrumental, except the Ninth Symphony. As an alternative to the minuet-and-trio form for his third movements, Beethoven often used the.
Which of the following are true statements about rondo form? Which of the following changes in European culture took place between the baroque era and the classical era? True or false: Unlike earlier composers, classical composers did not readily employ one type of instrument in place of another, such as an oboe for a violin.
Which of the following composers worked in Vienna during the classical period?
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Which of the following are true statements about Haydn in his later career? Which of the following correctly represent the typical sequence of events in a movement in sonata-allegro sonata form? With Beethoven, the fourth movements tended to be more triumphant in character. The crucial aspect of the recapitulation in a sonata movement is that. Which of the following is an example of music in theme-and-variations form? What is the approximate dates which encompasses musical Classical period. Define and date the stylistic phases 1. Pre classical 2. Preclassical : the transition from Baroque style to the full flowering of the classical, roughly Classical: Refer to Greek or Roman antiquity; Describe the following stylistic traits of the Classical period: A Style Galant.
Il bianco e dolce cigno 2. Margot labourez les vignes 1. Arensky, A. Fantasia on Russian Folksongs 1. Piano Trio No. Arlen, H. Somewhere Over the Rainbow 1. Arnold, M. Quintet for brass 1. Arnold, S.
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Song of the Shepherd Boy 1. Arriaga, J. String Quartet No. Arrieta y Corera, E. Marina opera 1. Arrieu, C. Suite en Quatre 1. Wind Quintet in C 1. Ascher, L. Ninon am Scheideweg 1. Asia, D. Pines Songs 1. Asma, F. Bede bij het kruis 1. Dit is de dag, die God ons schenkt 1. Lof zij het lam 1. Hallelujah, lofgezongen 1. Heft aan, heft aan een luide zang 1. Hoe zal ik U ontvangen? Jezus, leven van mijn leven 1. O Gij die onze schuld woudt boeten 1. O hoe heerlijk, hoe begeerlijk 1. O Hoofd bedekt met wonden 1. O, Kindeke klein, o Kindeke teer 1.
U, heilig Godslam, loven wij 1. Verlosser, vriend, Gij hoop en lust 1. Assad, S. Children's Cradle Suite 1. Valseana 1. Attaingnant, P. Bransle de Poictou 1. Tourdion 2. Auber, D. Audran, E. Gillette de Narbonne 1. La Mascotte The Luck Bringer 1. Azzaiolo, F. Chi passa per 'sta strada 1. La manza mia si chiama 1. Babbitt, M. Woodwind Quartet 1.
Bach, C. Cello Concerto in A major 1. Die Trennung in D minor 1. Flute Sonata in E minor Wq 1. Keyboard Concerto in A minor, H 1. Keyboard concerto in D minor H 1. Prussian Sonata No. Solfeggietto in C minor 1. Sonata for Flute solo in A minor 1. Symphony in D major Wq 2. Symphony in E flat major Wq 1. Symphony in F major Wq 1. Symphony No. Bach, J. Vom Himmel hoch da komm ich her 1. Keyboard Sonata in C minor op. Keyboard Sonata op.
Symphony no. Morgen kommt der Weihnachtsmann 1. Christ lag in Todesbanden BWV 3. Christ, der du bist der helle Tag BWV 1.
Christe, du Lamm Gottes 1. Christmas oratorio 2. Christum wir sollen loben schon BWV 1. Christus, der ist mein Leben BWV 1. Christus, der uns selig macht BWV 1.
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