The Method Compilation Volumes 1 - 4 (Law Of Attraction Series)

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Taught through the channeling of Abraham this book has gone a long way to assisting me in believing that the law of attraction can work for people. It provides reasons why many people are not successful in using this law and as a consequence raises the level of understanding that the reader will have. I highly recommend it. This book is a sure way to great wealth if only the principles therein are strictly adhere to. The law of attraction harmonises with me, however after listening to 2 audiobooks by The Hicks that they are charlatans.

Some of the information is useful, but telling anyone they can have anything by pure belief without action is ridiculous. That said, some of the LOA information has some credibility in my personal opinion. Just take it all as a pinch of salt. I listened to the first 30mins of this thinking it would be motivating and insightful but it was two insincere people laughing, sounding like bad actors mocking the audience.

And the whole spelling out numbers with her nose in a trance and typing without having control over her hands sounded a bit dark and supernatural, find a better audiobook, like The Secret! What did you like most about The Law of Attraction? This is a phenomenal book about understanding yourself in relation to what you have and what you wish to attain and how to get it.

This books give tools that are easy to understand and easy to implement. Even though I had never read The Law of Attraction before this week, I have implemented many of tools offered in this book for decades with patients, and the results my patients have attained are proof that what Abraham teaches works. Any additional comments? I gave four stars because I disagree about the comments made by Abraham about abuse and rape. As a Psychologist, I work with people that have had these negative experiences and it is not beneficial or correct to say they attracted this to themselves.

This explanation by Abraham has the potential to re-traumatize someone and undo all of the good this book offers. Therefore, I hope that people that have experienced sexual abuse or sexual assault can ignore these explanations and instead just focus on the other The most amazing, practical, inspiring, powerful, life changing, mind blowing, uplifting, hope giving book on the law of attracion. I am relatively new to Abraham's teachings, I have learned so much from this book.

Despite being a woman of science and firm facts, I am completely open to the ideas presented in this book. It was both entertaining and funny. At times I laughed out loud and I also found the topics very interesting. By: Esther Hicks , Jerry Hicks. Narrated by: Esther Hicks , Jerry Hicks. Length: 6 hrs. People who bought this also bought Dyer, Esther Hicks Narrated by: Dr.

Publisher's Summary This abridged audiobook presents the powerful basics of the original Teachings of Abraham. Abraham speaking through Esther Hicks reveals how all things, wanted and unwanted, are brought to you by this most powerful law of the universe: the Law of Attraction "That which is like unto itself is drawn". You've most likely heard the sayings "Like attracts like", "Birds of a feather flock together", or "It is done unto you as you believe" a belief is only a thought you keep thinking.

Although the Law of Attraction has been alluded to by some of the greatest teachers in history, it has never before been explained in as clear and practical terms as it is here. What members say Average Customer Ratings Overall. Amazon Reviews. Sort by:. Most Helpful Most Recent. Niche Corner Victoria, Australia Good principals and good listen. Joanne Must read - create the life you want This book is For everyone! Amazing and inspiring 3 of 3 people found this review helpful.

Olga Peter Lifes secrets! Don Amazon Customer Life changing book This book inspired me to begin reallt 'living' my life in a happy energetic way. Linda Pinker Anonymous User Life Changing! Show More. Angelo Very Special I think it's great! Ryan Healey I Believe Carsten Extremely Powerful Knowledge I find that along with the Seth Books by Jane Roberts this is the most valuable and inspiring information on the nature of reality ever. Joyce Tad Works as stated Within weeks of practicing these techniques my life has been changing in miraculous ways.

Rod Stovall Robin Life Changing I've listened to this twice fully, other sections at different times, and will listen again next weekend. Denise LST A step backward - not forward I am a long-time listener and follower of the Abraham-Hicks materials. Roxanne Keywords: hydrological cycle, reservoir inflow, prediction, climate variables.

Abstract: Steel framed buildings are flexible, ductile and light weight compared to that of reinforced concrete buildings. Intense research had been conducted in the last decades regardingthe fatigue and ductility behaviour of structural steel beam. Prismatic beams are the beams with uniform cross-section in the entire span of the beam. Non-prismatic beams are used to increase the efficiency of the beam, by increasing the strength per unit mass than that of prismatic beam.

In this study, the load-deformation, stress-strain analysis, the fatigue and ductile behaviour of non-prismatic steel beams with hunched and tapered ends was compared with prismatic beam for different loading condition. The beams were subjected to static loading conditions during analysis.

Keywords: Prismatic beam, non-prismatic beam, stress-strain analysis, static loading, fatigue and ductile behavior. Abstract: Fuzzy Sliding model control FSMC has been suggested to control hydraulic actuated nonlinear active suspension using full car model.

The development of efficient classical controller for active suspension has been difficult due to complex nature of full car mathematical model, nonlinear effect in suspension and unpredictable behaviour of hydraulic actuator. The sliding mode controller SMC has an ability to handle uncertain parameter, nonlinearity and complex mathematical model of dynamic system. Chattering phenomenon remains to be the only obstacle for nonlinear sliding mode controller which can be eliminated by integrating fuzzy logic with sliding mode control. In this work, fuzzy sliding mode controller proposed for hydraulic actuated nonlinear active suspension to handle nonlinearity, uncertainty in parameter variation and chattering effect.

The simulation is carried out using Seven degree of freedom based full car model to measure body displacement, acceleration, roll and pitch angle of vehicle. The response of full car model confirms the feasibility of fuzzy sliding mode controller for hydraulic actuated active suspension. Keywords: Fuzzy sliding mode control, Vibration control, Active suspension, Actuator dynamics. Abstract: The continuous increase in population and the urbanization resulted in over exploitation of natural resources which directly affects the land use pattern and use of water.

A study was framed to assess the changes in the land and water resources management in the Udumalpet taluk region during The changes in land use pattern, growth and reduction in surface water body area in the region was analysed using ArcGIS 9. The land use pattern analysis results showed that the cultivable land and build-up land level increased during the study period , and a trend of decrease in water holding structures and uncultivable land area.

The growth of area with buildings was The area of surface water bodies at the urban and rural areas were declined by 7. The portable water demand forecast analysis showed that the portable water requirement in would be 2. Keywords: Land use pattern change, land cover change, Urbanization, portable water requirement. Abstract: The expanded living spaces in provincial and urban territory require great quality water dissemination administration framework.

In this way, there is a basic prerequisite to outline a programmed water supply framework to accomplish rise to measure of water conveyance to every one of the natural surroundings. Internet of things, another idea is employed as a part of the planned framework for programmed water circulation and fault identification. The key idea of this paper is to plan a cost proficient framework to accomplish better water supply by regular supervising and furthermore controlling it from a central server to eliminate problems in the supply of water to the habitats.

The proposed design utilizes an Arduino as minicomputer, water flow sensor, and solenoid valves. Arduino is utilized to control the valve and flow meter. The purchase of water should be possible by utilizing cayenne application in which the requisite of water for any of the habitats can be fixed. It depends on the Wiz net W Ethernet chip datasheet. The proposed design takes care of the issue of overflow, over utilization, acquiring of water and makes an appropriate distribution. Abstract: Homotopy analysis method is attempted to evaluate the hypothalamo- pituitary - adrenocortical mathematical model.

The effects of hypothalamo- pituitary adrenocortical,corticotrophin releasing hormone, denocorticotropin, are discussed in this work. Keywords: hypothalamo- pituitary -adrenocortical, corticotrophin, adenocorticotropin. Abstract: Homotopy perturbation method is attempted to evaluate the cross-diffusion forest boundary dynamics. The effects of exothermic and endothermic parameters are are discussed. Keywords: Homotopy perturbation method, forest boundary dynamics.

Abstract: he core objective of the work is to propose a distributed environment based lazy learning Associative Classification AC. Associative Classification is a hybrid version of data mining tasks which integrated both Association Rule Mining ARM and Classification technique to construct accurate classifier. Unfortunately, the AC used for learning these classifier are less popular in real time for building application due to its higher computation time complexity and memory constraints in large volume of datasets. To overcome such downsides, we proposed a distributed and parallel computing for lazy learning associative classification for accelerating algorithm performance by projecting the testing instances with large training datasets.

In this work, we have implemented MapReduce based algorithms which reduce the computation by eliminates the need of constructing generalized classifier. It also well handled rare rules and generated institutive rules. The proposed algorithm may be suitable in area such as network intrusion detection, fraud detection, crowd analysis, rare disease prediction and crime analysis.

Our algorithm has been compared with well known existing algorithms in relations of precision and running time. The experiments result has strengthened the proposed algorithm well handle the rare rules in distributed environment and is making better performance even the size of the datasets is huge. Abstract: Modern techniques such as predictive analytics have gained a lot of research attraction these days. In the competitive world, it is important for a business people to predict the pulse of customer to shine.

With predictive analytics, it is possible to see what a customer will buy next. The goal is to increase the profit earned by a company. In this paper, various hypothesis tests have been conducted for analysing the purchases of a customer. Initially, the purchases have been analysed by grouping the purchases gender wise and by analysing what group of people buy more products. It also finds out which group prefers for promotion codes and discounts and for what type of products they preferred more. In which store, the sales of products are more and in which state, the sales are maximum. Based on this, techniques for improving the sales of a product is suggested.

Abstract: In India, the number of people applying for the loans gets increased for various reasons in recent years. The bank employees are not able to analyse or predict whether the customer can payback the amount or not good customer or bad customer for the given interest rate. The aim of this paper is to find the nature of the client applying for the personal loan. An exploratory data analysis technique is used to deal with this problem. The result of the analysis shows that short term loans are preferred by majority of the clients and the clients majorly apply loans for debt consolidation.

Abstract: Heart disease is frightening the people around the world and in some countries it is the number one disease which leads to death. Biomedical research efforts help to prevent and treat heart disease in a better way. Handling large amount of data is often very tedious with traditional methods which lead into problems, particularly in high level of complexity and vagueness factors.

Mining frequent patterns from large databases has emerged as an important area in data mining research and knowledge discovery community; this also contributes so much to health care domain. This heart prediction system helps to predict heart related problems at an early stage.

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The proposed system predicts heart related issues of a person based on questions and the answers given to the prediction system. To have better results in minimum time duration an Enhanced Apriori algorithm was introduced which is an improvement of Apriori algorithm. The experimental results proved that the proposed approach performs faster and memory efficient with more number of patterns. Abstract: In recent times, teaching and learning methods have a direct impact on students' learning experiences.

Blended learning is a combination of face-to-face and online delivery methods which influences students' perceptions on the learning environments to a great extent. Learning analytics is a growing trend at all levels of education. Relevant data has been collected from undergraduate and postgraduate students who are exposed to a blended learning environment while learning programming subjects. Learning analytics has been applied on the collected data. It can be inferred from the results that the blended learning approach is more beneficial for students who are skilled in using certain computer programs and applications.

The study results also provide new insights into the student preferences for learning in such knowledge sharing collaborative environments. Keywords: Blended learning, Learning analytics, Collaboration, Knowledge sharing. In highways the road safety and travel comfort are accomplished through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside unit communications. A major issue in safety application is to diffuse emergency message to all the other vehicles immediately without redundancy. There are number of works have been proposed to disseminate the emergency message, but those works suffer from delay and bandwidth consumption due to redundancy.

This paper considers vehicle-to-vehicle communication for emergency message diffusion without the assistance of roadside units. The performance analysis is done on reliability, channel occupancy, delay, message transmission per involved vehicle and traffic clearance delay. Abstract: Lesion from the retinal images are one among the main sources of visual deficiency. It impacts veins in the light-sensitive tissue known as retina.

Various kinds of marks in Diabetic Retinopathy DR will represent the abnormalities in the retina. The automated lesion segmentation in retinal pictures is a vital task in computer-aided detection systems. The research article proposes a computational framework for detection of lesion in retina images. In the initial process, Gabor filtering technique is used to enhance the lesion regions. Second, the segmentation of the suspicious region is based on expectation maximization bootstrap subgroup and mathematical morphology. A hybrid feature set is selected from the suspicious region.

Finally, a classification method is applied to pin-point the lesions in the suspicious region. The experimental result shows the proficiency and viability of the proposed strategy, and it can possibly be utilized to analyze DR clinically.


Abstract: Hazard Operability HAZOP study is especially valuable for recognizing shortcomings in frameworks existing or proposed including the stream of materials, individuals or information, or various occasions or exercises in an arranged grouping or the methodology controlling such a succession. The investigation was done for five unique tasks having 17 hubs, unusual working conditions and bothersome exercises which may happen are recognized and considered amid the examination utilizing suitable guide words like No, More, Less, As well as and so on.

More stream, more temperature, more weight and additionally in the hubs are having unfavourable impact and prompt consideration is required. The causes are as given: disappointments in the dimension estimation instrument, non direction of the siphon, execution of creation process physically, erosion of the caustic way, obstruction of the passages, blemished check valves, mechanical issues of check valves, spillage of the channels, and blending of water in the framework. Abstract: Social media helps to share the data around the globe.

In this world, data is shared everywhere with the advent of social media, so that people from one place can share the data and their comments to others. Social Media provides comfortable way for sharing one information out of their interests. It can be used to contact their friends as well as making more friends and also search person with same kind of ideas and interests. It is very useful for any disasters occurred.

At the time of tragedies social media paves a way for finding them and assist them. However sharing of the information in the social media like twitter, the traffic problem might be occurred due to heavy traffic. The social media user wants a minimum traffic to transmit the data without gap. In order to overcome this problem, this paper helps to study the comparison of various data mining techniques for smooth transfer of data. Abstract: Online shopping is the culture of current e-commerce scenario. It provides lot of choices and opportunities. Every day million of transactions are performed and billion dollars are traded.

But the major drawback of online shopping system is latency in order fulfillment and inventory management. There is a imperative for a system to address the time efficiency of the above process. The Bee colony optimization modes performs stock clustering. The Pathrouter, a greedy algorithm is used to optimize the short path to improves the efficiency. The proposed model address the latency issues in order fulfillment. Abstract: Students are the soul of Academics. The Goal of the education is students centric. Educational Data Mining is one of the budding research area in educational sector.

It helps to enhance the standard of the academic system by understanding the educational method and their involvement within the higher manner. Personality is a blend of an individual emotional, Attitudinal, Behavioral responses. Personality is an intrinsic influence of emotions.

This research is to study the influence of the personality trait of students on their Learning Style. The personality is of the students is evaluated using Eysenck Personality Inventory. Navies Bayes Classification and K-Means clustering is utilized to classify the learners under their Learning and Personality classes. Abstract: The objective of education exclusively aims on students. Cognitive but also in his emotions i. Learning is the way toward getting new data or capacity to fabricate data from definitely known data. Learning is influenced by the human behavior i. Human behavior is influenced by the living environment.

Educational Data Mining is one of the budding applications in educational sector. This allows the further improvement of the quality and the productivity of the educational system. Eysenck Personality Inventory and Criterion Reference Model used to determine the personality of the students. Eysenck Personality Inventory and Criterion Reference Model used to decide the identity of the understudies.

Abstract: An effective planning is required to overcome cost over-run and time over-run problems in construction which could be achieved with the help of lean concept. The aim of lean is to maximize the value, in other words minimizing the wastes. Last Planner System LPS is one such lean concept developed in order to improve the project performance by reducing the inefficiencies faced in construction project.

The objective of this paper to present the results obtained from implementing the Last Planner System in the construction of an apartment project. A list of constraints have been found out during constraint analysis and various remedial measures have been suggested for look ahead planning. Based on number of occurrences of constraints, root cause analysis was done to determine the causes for variation in Percentage of Plan Completed PPC. A list of success factors and barriers for improvement of project performance have also been listed.

Abstract: The materials used for pavement is bitumen, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and soil, concerned about this throughout the globe research works are under progress to find alternative materials for pavement construction and obviously the plastic waste from municipal solid waste and foundry sand from industrial waste materials are one such category.

Plastic is a toxic and persistent material. Another environmental threat is foundry sand which is the waste product from casting industries. The foundry sand can be used in various engineering applications. This will solve the depletion of regular use materials and also disposal of foundry waste. There is a need for bulk use of plastic waste from municipal solid waste and foundry sand from foundry industrial wastes in our country. This paper elaborates about the materials and its suitability for flexible pavement construction that is economically feasible.

Industrial waste replaced from cumulative weight of aggregate to understand the load carrying capacity of the flexible pavement. Keywords: plastic waste, foundry sand, bitumen. Abstract: Multimodal images are scenes with anatomy details that are captured using two different devices. Different imaging techniques give complementary details about what is visualized.

Infrared and visual images are examples of multimodal images that are fused together in order to obtain a single comprehensive fused image. Combining multimodal images yield enhanced features for image analysis, feature extraction and detection. Infrared and Visual image fusion will fuse the source images into single extensive image to raise image quality. This will in turn decrease the redundancy in image data. This is broadly used in different applications to improve the perception of the scene. The reliability, accuracy and complementary details of the scene in the resultant fused image makes these approaches be used in multiple areas.

However, a unified survey paper about this field has not been published in a few years. Consequently, we make a survey report to record the methodical advancements of visual and infrared image fusion. In this paper, firstly the overview of applications of IR and VI image fusion is represented. Secondly, we present the existing state of the art fusion techniques. Finally, image quality metrics are discussed to measure the efficiency of the fusion algorithm.

Although, this survey halts with various fusion methods that have been proposed earlier there is still room for improvement in research in the field of multimodal image fusion. Abstract: Emotion recognition is the part of speech recognition which is gaining more popularity and need for it increases enormously. Although there are methods to recognize emotion using machine learning techniques, this project attempts to use deep learning and image classification method to recognize emotion and classify the emotion according to the speech signals.

Various datasets are investigated and explored for training emotion recognition model are explained in this paper. Some of the issues on database, existing methodologies are addressed in the paper. Inception Net is used for emotion recognition with the paper. Keywords: speech recognition; emotion recognition; automatic speech recognition; deep learning; image recognition; speechtechnology; signal processing; image classification. Abstract: The Olympic games are international sports events with more than nations participating in various competitions.

The Sportspersons from various countries participate in competitions and make their countries proud of their excellence in sports. Despite massive population, many most populous countries fail to grab many medals at the Olympic games. The primary objective of this paper is to analyse the Olympic dataset using python to compare overall performance of countries and to evaluate the contribution of each country in Olympics. In this paper, the exploratory data analysis techniques are used to provide comparison between performance of various countries and the contribution of each country in Olympics.

Abstract: Railway system places a vital role in public transportation. Railways are widely used commutation by the public. There are many services provided by it like a ticket, catering, etc. Ticketing system has evolved from paper ticketing system to electronic ticketing system. In a metro train, the system provides smart card where a passenger can recharge and buy tickets using that, this may be regular or seasonal ticket smart card which will calculate the fare for travel.

In order to book tickets for long distance travel, passengers can buy e-ticket via an internet or can in person at railway stations. In case of e-ticket, the tickets would be validated by ticket examiner TTE with a valid original identity proof. Passengers will be in trouble if they forget to take the ID card. Lack of Ticket Examiner leads minimal verification of the passenger's ticket. In the proposed system by the use of online services with the internet, passengers can add their own unique national Identity proof Aadhaar card while booking tickets, which helps automatic ticket validation.

Biometric checks of the passenger take place at the entrance and exit of each compartment of the train. With the help of cloud storage, the details can be validated by comparing Aadhaar database. In case of mismatching tickets alarm rings and alert message will be sent to Ticket Examiner. Using GPS on a train, location can be obtained and the source and destination of the passenger can be validated. Checking at the exit path, the destination can be checked and can avoid the persons travelling long distance with short distance travelling ticket.

Also, the system prevents the person travels without buying tickets. Keywords: Indian Railways, automatic ticket validation, biometric checking, Aadhaar data base. Abstract: The innovation is changing the scene of the world and driving us towards a down to earth specialized world. It enhances the nature of care, builds the patient security and information insurance and limit working and regulatory cost.

The media transmission gadgets are easier to understand and utilized by everybody around the globe which have decreased the correspondence hole to a zero level. The paper clarifies a portion of the correspondence innovation and the particular conventions for moving the information in a protected way i. Abstract: The Satellite based imaging system which is based on a network of artificial satellites is more efficient for remote monitoring of our ecosystem.

It provides geospatial positioning and high precision information regarding the local time which can be used in global positioning, air and sea traffic and so on. Effective monitoring of our ecosystem has been achieved through remote sensing which extracts even fine spatial details of the earth, thus producing an image with good resolution for better clarity to be analyzed. This paper discusses about two different variants of satellite imaging on spatial objects which varies with the spatial significance.

These satellite imaging instruments are primarily stresses on the pixel count for ejecting an accurate and more specific image. Increase in spatial resolution produces an accurate and precise overview about the chosen spatial entity thereby supporting the data collection technology and offers effective data interpretation.

This can bring out better discrimination among the various resolution strategies and their relevance to a specific need.

Keywords: air and sea traffic and so on. Abstract: A Question and Answer Software is a software that focuses on answering the questions one might put up on an online platform. These are usually implemented by large organizations which aim on implementing a platform where users can clear their doubts about their respective fields. It varies from small scale to large scale or from topic to topic.

Many of these platforms may restrict access to either their employees or make it a public one. The disadvantages of the existing systems are less security, searching efficiency is less, chances of faking answer. Sometimes people even lie on such platforms and there might not be any checker to cross-analyze these answers. Now one might also want similar answers to their question which may resolve their query beforehand. Problems which are undertaken are first, making sure that there is more security and safety. Second, helping the users to search answers for similar questions which may answer their question beforehand and even highlight other important points worth knowing.

There had to be a way to find if the answers are worth trusting. They either look for other users who've said the same thing or maybe a trustworthy person like an expert. So in order to resolve these problems, the software created focuses on ensuring that a user has to make an account in order to access the website. Both users and experts can make their accounts and help out people with their queries. Third, there would be a similarity check that would allow the person to review similar questions and get more information. One can find a number of such platforms, varying from technical to a know-all domain.

Quora or Yahoo! Answers are standalone Question and Answer Softwares and along with Stack Overflow, Qhub, and they all are open source. Keywords: Software, questions, answers, platform, similar, query. Abstract: This is the era of automated cars or self-driving cars. All car vendors are trying to come up with different advancements in the cars Like Automatic car parking, Automatic Lane changing, automatic braking systems, android auto, car connect, Vehicle to external environment technology etc.

In the automation industry, TESLA, Google and Audi are the most competent leader among each other as well as for other automation business also. This paper explains how the proposed feature, unlocks the semiautonomous cars or autonomous cars safely and provides the safety to the entry level cars.

The acknowledged pictures are put away in the picture database amid confront acknowledgment by utilizing Support Vector Machine SVM classifier. Information from confront pictures through picture pressure utilizing the two-dimensional discrete cosine change transformation 2D-DCT. A self-arranging map SOM utilizing an unsupervised learning method is utilized to order DCT-based element vectors into gatherings to distinguish if the picture is "available" or "not available" in the picture database.

The face is detected by the event that the framework perceives faces, only the authentic users are able to start the ignition of the car and untheorized users are not allow to start the ignition. Abstract: Programming has become one of the most demanded skill of a working professional in almost every industry. Even though we have a lot of platform to work on and learn from, we are not properly trained in this domain. This has increased the need for a platform that is targeted only for the colleges students to develop a coding culture among them , right from the start.

The project that we aim to develop solves this particular issue and will also enhance the skills of the students by continuous feedback learning. The end-product will be a web application which the teachers can use to set problems and give assignments while the students will use the application to solve the assignments. The data will be transferred in the form of a JSON contract for easy interpretation.

The web application will be composed of REST api endpoints for performing various operations. The application will be built on Micro Services Architecture to support modularity, scalability and ease of use. Some of the features provided by the application are performance comparison of the students, customizable test environment, compilation and execution of the code, cloud storage for sensitive data and support for many languages.

Thus, this web application will solve the critical need for skills that are to be possessed by the individuals graduating out of the college as demanded by the IT industry. Abstract: In recent growth of business challenges the landscape of the cloud computing under major change. Especially the management of datacenter is challenging task because of its increase in capital and operational expenses due to the spending on its workforce.

The paramount importance of any data center is to reduce energy cost and computation cost by effectively utilizing the available physical machines. Virtualization is a key technology in datacenter to provide demand specific virtual resources as per application requirement. Migration helps in avoiding under utilization of resources also in overloaded conditions from the flood of requests coming in these days.

The trend in choosing the right migration techniques in cloud data center depends on the nature of the deadline it follows from the utilization of the resources. The goals in virtual migration are the effective management in load balancing of servers, reduced power consolidation of server by right model, faster recognition to the server failure and minimizing the overall system maintenance.

In this paper, we discuss some of the latest techniques used in the virtual migration based on their key performance metric like total transfer data, migration time and total down time. Abstract: Diabetes Mellitus DM is a condition in which glucose level in the body is much higher than the normal. As this method is slightly painful and uncomfortable several another method which are more comfortable and non-invasive are found.

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In this paper, we propose a new non-invasive method to detect DM based on facial block color features using various classification algorithms. Facial images are first captured using a specially designed non-invasive device, and calibrated to ensure consistency in feature extraction and analysis. Four facial blocks are extracted automatically from face image and used to represent a face features. A facial color gamut is constructed with six color centroids red, yellow, light yellow, gloss, deep red, and black to compute a facial color feature vector, characterizing each facial block.

Finally, the features are classified using J ForJ48, two sub dictionaries, a Healthy facial color features sub dictionary and DM facial color features sub dictionary, are employed in the classification process. Apart from this we also use ZeroR, Support vector machine SVM [8] ,J48 to determine the accuracy, precision and recall using the data set that comprises of healthy and DM samples. Finally, we compare all these algorithms and choose the efficient one using its accuracy level. Abstract: Elephant intrusion causes a major problem like crop damage, human death and injuries.

Elephant Intrusion has been on the rise in the forest border areas with groups of elephants entering into human habitation and creating a heavy loss to grown plants in agriculture land and their properties. The surveillance and tracking of elephants by humans alone may not always be effective. Mostly the elephants enter into the agriculture land in the night. Detecting elephant intrusion and driving it back is very difficult by the farmers because human cannot watch full night.

So, we develop a system which detects the elephant intrusion, creates an alert and repel the elephant away from human habitat. Elephant intrusion detection are useful to avoid human elephant conflict as they stray into agriculture areas searching for food, resulting to economic losses and in extreme cases human casualties. Hence a system to detect elephant intrusion into human habitat and to alert the habitat and forest officials is essential. Keywords: human death and injuries, agriculture land and their properties. Abstract: Now-a-days waste management seems to be a challenge in every city right from its inception to its disposal.

Waste management involves the collection of waste from its source, transportation and its disposal at the respective location. Garbage collections bins are flooded due to incremental increase in waste which emits foul odour causing health hazards, diseases and environmental pollution. In this paper, we survey on the mechanisms available for scientific collection and disposal of waste along with its challenges. From the descriptive survey we analyse the present scenario in waste management.

It is explicit that issues are prevailing in policies and technologies available for the treatment and management of wastes and insufficient trained manpower to collect, dispose and process the wastes. Abstract: Nowadays health connected issues are terribly high, and it can'tbe simply foretold earlier to avoid complications. The previous studies related to predict heart problems have used several features which has been collected from patients.

The accuracy level of prediction and the number of features is very less in the previous systems. To improve the prediction accuracy the planned system, consider additional range of options and implements a Weighted Principle Analysis WPCA and changed Genetic Algorithm GA The planned technique helps the medical domain for predicting HD with its numerous co-morbid types of heart diseases conditions.

The system has 2 main objectives, that are rising diagnosing accuracy and reducing classification delay. The WPCA represents with the effective cacophonous criteria that has been applied into the genetic Algorithm. The system effectively identifies the disease and its sub types, the sub type which is referred as the level of class such as normal and mild or extreme.

Using combinatorial methods from data mining decision making has been simplified and the proposed work achieved Abstract: In agriculture, irrigation plays an important role. Normally, we have many issues in irrigating the plants. Over irrigation of plants leads to decay of plants and low irrigation of plants leads to retardation of crop growth, late flowering. The proposed model build an automatic irrigation system approach using Arduino in which moisture sensor senses the moisture content present in the soil.

According to the moisture content level water will be pumped to the soil by the DC motor. The sensor continuously monitors the soil moisture content, when it reaches the required water tank level will be used for planting water and its water level will be continuously monitored from an Ultrasonic sensor using distance value.

If the range goes beyond the certain level, then the system will send message notification to the user mobile. By this proposed AI —SH approach the user can know the pouring method of water for home plants. Keywords: soil moisture sensor, ultra sonic sensor, motor driver circuit. Cloud computing gives numerous advantages and unparalleled convenience for the cloud customers to get the on-demand access of cloud provided that the local infrastructure limitations need not be taken into account.

While accessing data, there may be a co-operative relationship among different users which makes sharing and exchanging of information, a tedious process. The view of current security solutions is mainly on authentication to apprehend that the data of an individual cannot be approached illegally, but there arose a privacy issue when a user request for data sharing to other users through cloud server.

In the proposed system, a privacy-preserving authentication protocol is employed to prevent the above privacy complications. In this technique, authority of data through shared access is achieved by the process of sending anonymous access request which gives privacy to the cloud users. Access control is based on attributes so that the cloud users can only access their own authorized data fields. Advanced encryption standard algorithm is used to achieve data anonymity and data protection. The proposed method dealt with secure privacy preserving data access authority is attractive for multiple-user in cloud real time storage.

Keywords: Cloud computing, authentication protocol,shared authority, privacy preservation, data anonymity. In QA system, once the question is posted by the client, the system need to find meaning of the words such as synonyms and provide correct answer to the user. It is very difficult to find answer from large collection of information available in Internet. The process involved in QA is question generation, answer filtering and store in the database. The proposed approach is used to retrieve the answers for the posted query in an efficient manner and reduce time consumption.

WAD approach is used to analyze the answer and rank the accuracy of the answer with the existing method. Abstract: This paper analyzes the forest cover in India as a whole and also in terms of states. The species growth with respect to the forest cover and the survival of species based on their Kingdoms of Classification is studied.

The dependencies between the forest covers of India with the flora of India is studied. This also studies the wasteland cover and the areas of improvement for the betterment of Indian flora and vegetation. This also checks for relationships, dependencies and variations between flora and fauna to obtain patterns for improving the Indian Ecosystem.

Keywords: environment, prediction analysis, forest cover, Deforestation, Tiger population. Abstract: To study about the learning outcome and measuring the same has considerable amount of complexity. This study focuses on measuring and assessing students learning outcome. Assessment primarily starts with the measurement of outcomes.

It can be measured directly or indirectly. This study will formulate a strategy to improve the success rate of the students.

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Keywords: outcomes, learning outcome, program outcome, assessment and students behavior. When the boat is on board, its position is tracked and checked if it is crossing the border. Once the boat is about to cross the safe border and enter into the prohibited zone, a notification is sent to the control unit in the land and a buzzer is also set in the control unit. The control unit controls and turns the boat into the safe side. The position of the boat is tracked by using the GPS Global Positioning System and every movement of the boat can be noted. By using a GSM module, the boat can be connected to the control unit in the land.

The position of boat is sent to the control unit using a GSM module via cloud.

Books by Scott Soloff (Author of The Method)

When the border is crossed by the boat, the buzzer goes on in the control unit and the boat is immediately controlled. Abstract: E-commerce systems plays the vital role in Information Technology and communication applications. Compared to the technology of olden days, people now days buys their required products and services from the online service transactions. Buying and selling products are frequently increasing factor for both the buyer and seller. From the customer point of view searching of quality products with the consumable cost is a big challenge.

The proposed system Unique Identical weightage UIW system reveals about the customer searching analysis using the weightage system approach. The UIS analysis system will track the identity of the customer queries with respect to the searching categories. The proposed system will make the classification based on the customer searching criteria. Ranking weightage is allotted based on the searching method and finally produce the judgemental range of searching choices to the customer. The advantage of the system will provide quick searching solutions to the customer.

This method outperforms the existing system in reducing the time wasted by a customer for searching a product. Abstract: In this current era, social media plays a important role in data exchange, sharing their thoughts. Emotional Effect of a person maintains an important role on their day to day life. For instance, the attendance on one day might be from 8 to 11 a.

By the excessive addition of women and children to the ranks of the workers, machinery at last breaks down the resistance which the male operatives in the manufacturing period continued to oppose to the despotism of capital. If machinery be the most powerful means for increasing the productiveness of labour — i. In the first place, in the form of machinery, the implements of labour become automatic, things moving and working independent of the workman.

They are thenceforth an industrial perpetuum mobile , that would go on producing forever, did it not meet with certain natural obstructions in the weak bodies and the strong wills of its human attendants.

Books by Scott Soloff

The automaton, as capital, and because it is capital, is endowed, in the person of the capitalist, with intelligence and will; it is therefore animated by the longing to reduce to a minimum the resistance offered by that repellent yet elastic natural barrier, man. The productiveness of machinery is, as we saw, inversely proportional to the value transferred by it to the product. The longer the life of the machine, the greater is the mass of the products over which the value transmitted by the machine is spread, and the less is the portion of that value added to each single commodity.

The active lifetime of a machine is, however, clearly dependent on the length of the working-day, or on the duration of the daily labour-process multiplied by the number of days for which the process is carried on. The wear and tear of a machine is not exactly proportional to its working-time. The material wear and tear of a machine is of two kinds. The one arises from use, as coins wear away by circulating, the other from non-use, as a sword rusts when left in its scabbard.

The latter kind is due to the elements. The former is more or less directly proportional, the latter to a certain extent inversely proportional, to the use of the machine. But in addition to the material wear and tear, a machine also undergoes, what we may call a moral depreciation. It loses exchange-value, either by machines of the same sort being produced cheaper than it, or by better machines entering into competition with it. It has, therefore, lost value more or less. The shorter the period taken to reproduce its total value, the less is the danger of moral depreciation; and the longer the working-day, the shorter is that period.

When machinery is first introduced into an industry, new methods of reproducing it more cheaply follow blow upon blow, [65] and so do improvements, that not only affect individual parts and details of the machine, but its entire build. It is, therefore, in the early days of the life of machinery that this special incentive to the prolongation of the working-day makes itself felt most acutely. Given the length of the working-day, all other circumstances remaining the same, the exploitation of double the number of workmen demands, not only a doubling of that part of constant capital which is invested in machinery and buildings, but also of that part which is laid out in raw material and auxiliary substances.

The lengthening of the working-day, on the other hand, allows of production on an extended scale without any alteration in the amount of capital laid out on machinery and buildings. It is true that this takes place, more or less, with every lengthening of the working-day; but in the case under consideration, the change is more marked, because the capital converted into the instruments of labour preponderates to a greater degree.

Ashworth, a cotton magnate, to Professor Nassau W. It is, in truth, monstrous, that a single one of our people should ever leave the factory! The magnitude of the profit whets his appetite for more profit. As the use of machinery becomes more general in a particular industry, the social value of the product sinks down to its individual value, and the law that surplus-value does not arise from the labour-power that has been replaced by the machinery, but from the labour-power actually employed in working with the machinery, asserts itself.

Surplus-value arises from variable capital alone, and we saw that the amount of surplus-value depends on two factors, viz. Given the length of the working-day, the rate of surplus-value is determined by the relative duration of the necessary labour and of the surplus-labour in a day. The number of the labourers simultaneously employed depends, on its side, on the ratio of the variable to the constant capital.

Now, however much the use of machinery may increase the surplus-labour at the expense of the necessary labour by heightening the productiveness of labour, it is clear that it attains this result, only by diminishing the number of workmen employed by a given amount of capital. It converts what was formerly variable capital, invested in labour-power, into machinery which, being constant capital, does not produce surplus-value. It is impossible, for instance, to squeeze as much surplus-value out of 2 as out of 24 labourers.

If each of these 24 men gives only one hour of surplus-labour in 12, the 24 men give together 24 hours of surplus-labour, while 24 hours is the total labour of the two men. Hence, the application of machinery to the production of surplus-value implies a contradiction which is immanent in it, since of the two factors of the surplus-value created by a given amount of capital, one, the rate of surplus-value, cannot be increased, except by diminishing the other, the number of workmen.

This contradiction comes to light, as soon as by the general employment of machinery in a given industry, the value of the machine-produced commodity regulates the value of all commodities of the same sort; and it is this contradiction, that in its turn, drives the capitalist, without his being conscious of the fact, [71] to excessive lengthening of the working-day, in order that he may compensate the decrease in the relative number of labourers exploited, by an increase not only of the relative, but of the absolute surplus-labour. If, then, the capitalistic employment of machinery, on the one hand, supplies new and powerful motives to an excessive lengthening of the working-day, and radically changes, as well the methods of labour, as also the character of the social working organism, in such a manner as to break down all opposition to this tendency, on the other hand it produces, partly by opening out to the capitalist new strata of the working-class, previously inaccessible to him, partly by setting free the labourers it supplants, a surplus working population, [72] which is compelled to submit to the dictation of capital.

Hence that remarkable phenomenon in the history of modern industry, that machinery sweeps away every moral and natural restriction on the length of the working-day. They understood, as the learned Bastiat, and before him the still wiser MacCulloch have discovered, nothing of Political Economy and Christianity. They did not, for example, comprehend that machinery is the surest means of lengthening the working-day. They perhaps excused the slavery of one on the ground that it was a means to the full development of another. The immoderate lengthening of the working-day, produced by machinery in the hands of capital, leads to a reaction on the part of society, the very sources of whose life are menaced; and, thence, to a normal working-day whose length is fixed by law.

Thenceforth a phenomenon that we have already met with, namely, the intensification of labour, develops into great importance. Our analysis of absolute surplus-value had reference primarily to the extension or duration of the labour, its intensity being assumed as given. We now proceed to consider the substitution of a more intensified labour for labour of more extensive duration, and the degree of the former.

It is self-evident, that in proportion as the use of machinery spreads, and the experience of a special class of workmen habituated to machinery accumulates, the rapidity and intensity of labour increase as a natural consequence. Thus in England, during half a century, lengthening of the working-day went hand in hand with increasing intensity of factory labour. Nevertheless the reader will clearly see, that where we have labour, not carried on by fits and starts, but repeated day after day with unvarying uniformity, a point must inevitably be reached, where extension of the working-day and intensity of the labour mutually exclude one another, in such a way that lengthening of the working-day becomes compatible only with a lower degree of intensity, and a higher degree of intensity, only with a shortening of the working-day.

So soon as the gradually surging revolt of the working-class compelled Parliament to shorten compulsorily the hours of labour, and to begin by imposing a normal working-day on factories proper, so soon consequently as an increased production of surplus-value by the prolongation of the working-day was once for all put a stop to, from that moment capital threw itself with all its might into the production of relative surplus-value, by hastening on the further improvement of machinery. At the same time a change took place in the nature of relative surplus-value.

Generally speaking, the mode of producing relative surplus-value consists in raising the productive power of the workman, so as to enable him to produce more in a given time with the same expenditure of labour. Labour-time continues to transmit as before the same value to the total product, but this unchanged amount of exchange-value is spread over more use-value; hence the value of each single commodity sinks. Otherwise, however, so soon as the compulsory shortening of the hours of labour takes place. The immense impetus it gives the development of productive power, and to economy in the means of production, imposes on the workman increased expenditure of labour in a given time, heightened tension of labour-power, and closer filling up of the pores of the working-day, or condensation of labour to a degree that is attainable only within the limits of the shortened working-day.

This condensation of a greater mass of labour into a given period thenceforward counts for what it really is, a greater quantity of labour. In addition to a measure of its extension, i. We now come to the question: How is the labour intensified? The first effect of shortening the working-day results from the self-evident law, that the efficiency of labour-power is in an inverse ratio to the duration of its expenditure. Hence, within certain limits what is lost by shortening the duration is gained by the increasing tension of labour-power.

That the workman moreover really does expend more labour-power, is ensured by the mode in which the capitalist pays him. Hence, when in the reduction of the working-day to less than twelve hours was being debated, the masters almost unanimously declared. This assertion was contradicted by experiments.

Robert Gardner reduced the hours of labour in his two large factories at Preston, on and after the 20th April, , from twelve to eleven hours a day. But in the weaving department, where, moreover, many sorts of figured fancy articles were woven, there was not the slightest alteration in the conditions of the work. While they got the same wages and gained one hour of spare time, the capitalist got the same amount produced and saved the cost of coal, gas, and other such items, for one hour. Similar experiments, and with the like success, were carried out in the mills of Messrs.

Horrocks and Jacson. The shortening of the hours of labour creates, to begin with, the subjective conditions for the condensation of labour, by enabling the workman to exert more strength in a given time. So soon as that shortening becomes compulsory, machinery becomes in the hands of capital the objective means, systematically employed for squeezing out more labour in a given time. This is effected in two ways: by increasing the speed of the machinery, and by giving the workman more machinery to tent. Improved construction of the machinery is necessary, partly because without it greater pressure cannot be put on the workman, and partly because the shortened hours of labour force the capitalist to exercise the strictest watch over the cost of production.

The improvements in the steam-engine have increased the piston speed, and at the same time have made it possible, by means of a greater economy of power, to drive with the same or even a smaller consumption of coal more machinery with the same engine. The improvements in the transmitting mechanism have lessened friction, and, what so strikingly distinguishes modern from the older machinery, have reduced the diameter and weight of the shafting to a constantly decreasing minimum.

Finally, the improvements in the operative machines have, while reducing their size, increased their speed and efficiency, as in the modern power-loom; or, while increasing the size of their framework, have also increased the extent and number of their working parts, as in spinning-mules, or have added to the speed of these working parts by imperceptible alterations of detail, such as those which ten years ago increased the speed of the spindles in self-acting mules by one-fifth.

The reduction of the working-day to 12 hours dates in England from In a manufacturer stated:. In the year , Lord Ashley, now Lord Shaftesbury, made in the House of Commons the following statements, supported by documentary evidence:. Machinery has executed, no doubt, the work that would demand the sinews of millions of men; but it has also prodigiously multiplied the labour of those who are governed by its fearful movements In , the labour of following a pair of mules spinning cotton of No.

In , the distance travelled in following a pair of mules, spinning cotton yarn of the same number, was 20 miles, and frequently more. In , the spinner put up on each mule 2, stretches, making a total of 4, In , 2, stretches, making a total of 4,; and in some cases the amount of labour required is even still greater I have another document sent to me in , stating that the labour is progressively increasing — increasing not only because the distance to be travelled is greater, but because the quantity of goods produced is multiplied, while the hands are fewer in proportion than before; and, moreover, because an inferior species of cotton is now often spun, which it is more difficult to work In the carding-room there has also been a great increase of labour.

One person there does the work formerly divided between two. In the weaving-room, where a vast number of persons are employed, and principally females In , the number of hanks spun per week was 18,, in it amounted to 21, In , the number of picks in power-loom-weaving per minute was 60 — in it was , showing a vast increase of labour. The apparent correctness of their reasons will be best shown by the following contemporary statement by Leonard Horner, the factory inspector, their ever watchful censor. One of the most important problems, therefore, which the owner of a factory has to solve is to find out the maximum speed at which he can run, with a due regard to the above conditions.

It frequently happens that he finds he has gone too fast, that breakages and bad work more than counterbalance the increased speed, and that he is obliged to slacken his pace. I therefore concluded, that as an active and intelligent mill-owner would find out the safe maximum, it would not be possible to produce as much in eleven hours as in twelve.

I further assumed that the operative paid by piecework, would exert himself to the utmost consistent with the power of continuing at the same rate. Horner, therefore, came to the conclusion that a reduction of the working hours below twelve would necessarily diminish production. James Nasmyth, the eminent civil engineer of Patricroft, near Manchester, explained in a letter to Leonard Horner, written in , the nature of the improvements in the steam-engine that had been made between the years and After remarking that the horse-power of steam-engines, being always estimated in the official returns according to the power of similar engines in , [87] is only nominal, and can serve only as an index of their real power, he goes on to say:.

The number of spindles and looms in was respectively 33,, of the former, and , of the latter, which, reckoning the force of the nominal horse-power required to be the same as in , would require a force equal to , horses, but the actual power given in the return for is ,, less by above 10, horses than, calculating upon the basis of the return of , the factories ought to have required in Without any doubt, the shortening of the hours of labour The latter, combined with the more intense strain on the workman, have had the effect, that at least as much is produced in the shortened by two hours or one-sixth working-day as was previously produced during the longer one.

One fact is sufficient to show how greatly the wealth of the manufacturers increased along with the more intense exploitation of labour-power. But however great the progress of English industry had been during the 8 years from to under the influence of a working-day of 10 hours, it way far surpassed during the next period of 6 years from to In silk factories, for instance, there were in , spindles 1,,; in , 1,,; in , looms 9,; in , 10, But the number of operatives was, in , 56,; in , 52, The increase in the spindles was therefore In the year there were employed in worsted mills , spindles; in , 1,, increase But if we deduct the doubling spindles that figure in the numbers for , but not in those for , it will be found that after the number of spindles remained nearly stationary.

On the other hand, after , the speed of the spindles and looms was in many cases doubled. The number of power-looms in worsted mills was, in , 32,; in , 38,; in , 43, The number of the operatives was, in , 79,; in , 87,; in , 86,; included in these, however, the children under 14 years of age were, in , 9,; in , 11,; in , 13, In spite, therefore, of the greatly increased number of looms in , compared with , the total number of the workpeople employed decreased, and that of the children exploited increased.

Instead of as formerly one person with two helps tenting two looms, one person now tents three looms without helps, and it is no uncommon thing for one person to tent four. It is therefore self-evident, to what an enormous extent the toil of the factory operative has increased during the last 10 years. Although, therefore, the Factory Inspectors unceasingly and with justice, commend the results of the Acts of and , yet they admit that the shortening of the hours of labour has already called forth such an intensification of the labour as is injurious to the health of the workman and to his capacity for work.

Greenhow has pointed out in his recent report on this subject. There cannot be the slightest doubt that the tendency that urges capital, so soon as a prolongation of the hours of labour is once for all forbidden, to compensate itself, by a systematic heightening of the intensity of labour, and to convert every improvement in machinery into a more perfect means of exhausting the workman, must soon lead to a state of things in which a reduction of the hours of labour will again be inevitable. At the commencement of this chapter we considered that which we may call the body of the factory, i.

We now turn to the factory as a whole, and that in its most perfect form. These two descriptions are far from being identical. In one, the collective labourer, or social body of labour, appears as the dominant subject, and the mechanical automaton as the object; in the other, the automaton itself is the subject, and the workmen are merely conscious organs, co-ordinate with the unconscious organs of the automaton, and together with them, subordinated to the central moving-power. The first description is applicable to every possible employment of machinery on a large scale, the second is characteristic of its use by capital, and therefore of the modern factory system.

Ure prefers therefore, to describe the central machine, from which the motion comes, not only as an automaton, but as an autocrat. Along with the tool, the skill of the workman in handling it passes over to the machine. The capabilities of the tool are emancipated from the restraints that are inseparable from human labour-power.

Thereby the technical foundation on which is based the division of labour in Manufacture, is swept away. Hence, in the place of the hierarchy of specialised workmen that characterises manufacture, there steps, in the automatic factory, a tendency to equalise and reduce to one and the same level every kind of work that has to be done by the minders of the machines; [98] in the place of the artificially produced differentiations of the detail workmen, step the natural differences of age and sex.

So far as division of labour re-appears in the factory, it is primarily a distribution of the workmen among the specialised machines; and of masses of workmen, not however organised into groups, among the various departments of the factory, in each of which they work at a number of similar machines placed together; their co-operation, therefore, is only simple. The organised group, peculiar to manufacture, is replaced by the connexion between the head workman and his few assistants. The essential division is, into workmen who are actually employed on the machines among whom are included a few who look after the engine , and into mere attendants almost exclusively children of these workmen.

This is a superior class of workmen, some of them scientifically educated, others brought up to a trade; it is distinct from the factory operative class, and merely aggregated to it. To work at a machine, the workman should be taught from childhood, in order that he may learn to adapt his own movements to the uniform and unceasing motion of an automaton.

When the machinery, as a whole, forms a system of manifold machines, working simultaneously and in concert, the co-operation based upon it, requires the distribution of various groups of workmen among the different kinds of machines. But the employment of machinery does away with the necessity of crystallising this distribution after the manner of Manufacture, by the constant annexation of a particular man to a particular function. The most striking proof of this is afforded by the relays system , put into operation by the manufacturers during their revolt from Lastly, the quickness with which machine work is learnt by young people, does away with the necessity of bringing up for exclusive employment by machinery, a special class of operatives.

Although then, technically speaking, the old system of division of labour is thrown overboard by machinery, it hangs on in the factory, as a traditional habit handed down from Manufacture, and is afterwards systematically re-moulded and established in a more hideous form by capital, as a means of exploiting labour-power. The life-long speciality of handling one and the same tool, now becomes the life-long speciality of serving one and the same machine.

Machinery is put to a wrong use, with the object of transforming the workman, from his very childhood, into a part of a detail-machine. Here as everywhere else, we must distinguish between the increased productiveness due to the development of the social process of production, and that due to the capitalist exploitation of that process.

In handicrafts and manufacture, the workman makes use of a tool, in the factory, the machine makes use of him. There the movements of the instrument of labour proceed from him, here it is the movements of the machine that he must follow. In manufacture the workmen are parts of a living mechanism.

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  6. In the factory we have a lifeless mechanism independent of the workman, who becomes its mere living appendage. The burden of labour, like the rock, keeps ever falling back on the worn-out labourer. At the same time that factory work exhausts the nervous system to the uttermost, it does away with the many-sided play of the muscles, and confiscates every atom of freedom, both in bodily and intellectual activity.

    Every kind of capitalist production, in so far as it is not only a labour-process, but also a process of creating surplus-value, has this in common, that it is not the workman that employs the instruments of labour, but the instruments of labour that employ the workman. But it is only in the factory system that this inversion for the first time acquires technical and palpable reality. By means of its conversion into an automaton, the instrument of labour confronts the labourer, during the labour-process, in the shape of capital, of dead labour, that dominates, and pumps dry, living labour-power.

    The separation of the intellectual powers of production from the manual labour, and the conversion of those powers into the might of capital over labour, is, as we have already shown, finally completed by modern industry erected on the foundation of machinery. The technical subordination of the workman to the uniform motion of the instruments of labour, and the peculiar composition of the body of workpeople, consisting as it does of individuals of both sexes and of all ages, give rise to a barrack discipline, which is elaborated into a complete system in the factory, and which fully develops the before mentioned labour of overlooking, thereby dividing the workpeople into operatives and overlookers, into private soldiers and sergeants of an industrial army.

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    To devise and administer a successful code of factory discipline, suited to the necessities of factory diligence, was the Herculean enterprise, the noble achievement of Arkwright! Even at the present day, when the system is perfectly organised and its labour lightened to the utmost, it is found nearly impossible to convert persons past the age of puberty, into useful factory hands. All punishments naturally resolve themselves into fines and deductions from wages, and the law-giving talent of the factory Lycurgus so arranges matters, that a violation of his laws is, if possible, more profitable to him than the keeping of them.

    Every organ of sense is injured in an equal degree by artificial elevation of the temperature, by the dust-laden atmosphere, by the deafening noise, not to mention danger to life and limb among the thickly crowded machinery, which, with the regularity of the seasons, issues its list of the killed and wounded in the industrial battle.

    The contest between the capitalist and the wage-labourer dates back to the very origin of capital. It raged on throughout the whole manufacturing period. He revolts against this particular form of the means of production, as being the material basis of the capitalist mode of production. These machines were invented in Germany. But the Mayor being apprehensive that this invention might throw a large number of workmen on the streets, caused the inventor to be secretly strangled or drowned. In Leyden, this machine was not used till ; there the riots of the ribbon-weavers at length compelled the Town Council to prohibit it.

    Hinc turbae ortae et querulae textorum, tandemque usus hujus instrumenti a magistratu prohibitus est. As a result there arose disturbances and complaints from the weavers, until the Town Council finally prohibited the use of this instrument. It was also prohibited in Cologne in , at the same time that its introduction into England was causing disturbances among the workpeople. By an imperial Edict of 19th Feb. In Hamburg it was burnt in public by order of the Senate.

    The Emperor Charles VI. This machine, which shook Europe to its foundations, was in fact the precursor of the mule and the power-loom, and of the industrial revolution of the 18th century. It enabled a totally inexperienced boy, to set the whole loom with all its shuttles in motion, by simply moving a rod backwards and forwards, and in its improved form produced from 40 to 50 pieces at once. About , a wind-sawmill, erected near London by a Dutchman, succumbed to the excesses of the populace.

    Even as late as the beginning of the 18th century, sawmills driven by water overcame the opposition of the people, supported as it was by Parliament, only with great difficulty. No sooner had Everet in erected the first wool-shearing machine that was driven by water-power, than it was set on fire by , people who had been thrown out of work.

    The enormous destruction of machinery that occurred in the English manufacturing districts during the first 15 years of this century, chiefly caused by the employment of the power-loom, and known as the Luddite movement, gave the anti-Jacobin governments of a Sidmouth, a Castlereagh, and the like, a pretext for the most reactionary and forcible measures.

    It took both time and experience before the workpeople learnt to distinguish between machinery and its employment by capital, and to direct their attacks, not against the material instruments of production, but against the mode in which they are used. The contests about wages in Manufacture, pre-suppose manufacture, and are in no sense directed against its existence. The opposition against the establishment of new manufactures, proceeds from the guilds and privileged towns, not from the workpeople.

    Hence the writers of the manufacturing period treat the division of labour chiefly as a means of virtually supplying a deficiency of labourers, and not as a means of actually displacing those in work. This distinction is self-evident. If it be said that millions of people would be required in England to spin with the old spinning-wheel the cotton that is now spun with mules by , people, this does not mean that the mules took the place of those millions who never existed. It means only this, that many millions of workpeople would be required to replace the spinning machinery.

    If, on the other hand, we say, that in England the power-loom threw , weavers on the streets, we do not refer to existing machinery, that would have to be replaced by a definite number of workpeople, but to a number of weavers in existence who were actually replaced or displaced by the looms. During the manufacturing period, handicraft labour, altered though it was by division of labour, was yet the basis.

    The demands of the new colonial markets could not be satisfied owing to the relatively small number of town operatives handed down from the middle ages, and the manufactures proper opened out new fields of production to the rural population, driven from the land by the dissolution of the feudal system. At that time, therefore, division of labour and co-operation in the workshops, were viewed more from the positive aspect, that they made the workpeople more productive. The labourers are first driven from the land, and then come the sheep. Land grabbing on a great scale, such as was perpetrated in England, is the first step in creating a field for the establishment of agriculture on a great scale.

    The instrument of labour, when it takes the form of a machine, immediately becomes a competitor of the workman himself. The whole system of capitalist production is based on the fact that the workman sells his labour-power as a commodity. Division of labour specialises this labour-power, by reducing it to skill in handling a particular tool. That portion of the working-class, thus by machinery rendered superfluous, i. The first consolation neutralises the second. When machinery seizes on an industry by degrees, it produces chronic misery among the operatives who compete with it. Where the transition is rapid, the effect is acute and felt by great masses.

    History discloses no tragedy more horrible than the gradual extinction of the English hand-loom weavers, an extinction that was spread over several decades, and finally sealed in The Governor General reported The bones of the cotton-weavers are bleaching the plains of India. Hence, the character of independence and estrangement which the capitalist mode of production as a whole gives to the instruments of labour and to the product, as against the workman, is developed by means of machinery into a thorough antagonism.

    The instrument of labour strikes down the labourer.

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