Bamberg [FN 2]. Bayreuth [FN 2]. Berchtesgadener Land. Freiburg im Breisgau [FN 2]. Coburg [FN 2]. Darmstadt [FN 2]. Dillingen an der Donau. Pforzheim [FN 2].
Cultural spheres of influence
Erlangen [FN 2]. Grafschaft Bentheim. Hannover, Region [FN 1]. Heidenheim an der Brenz. Heilbronn [FN 2]. Herzogtum Lauenburg. Hof [FN 2]. Jerichower Land.
Kaiserslautern [FN 2]. Karlsruhe [FN 2]. Kassel [FN 2]. KC, SAN.
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Landsberg am Lech. Landshut [FN 2]. Lindau Bodensee. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Baltagi, B. Econometric Analysis of Panel Data. West Sussex: Wiley. Google Scholar. Boadway, R. Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations in Canada. Bordignon, M. Manasse and G. Bundesministerium der Finanzen BMF.
The official language of the country, Estonian, is the third most spoken Finno-Ugric language; the territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9, B. Ancient Estonians were some of the last European pagans to be Christianized , following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Swedes and Russians , a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the 19th and early 20th centuries; this culminated in independence from Russia in after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I.
Democratic, after the Great Depression Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule since during the Era of Silence. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. In the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of de facto independence on 20 August ; the sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.
It is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy, among the fastest-growing in the EU. Estonia ranks high in the Human Development Index , performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties and press freedom. Estonian citizens are provided with universal health care , free education, the longest-paid maternity leave in the OECD.
One of the world's most digitally advanced societies, in Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, in the first state to provide e-residency. In the Estonian language the oldest known endonym of the Estonians was maarahvas, meaning "country people" or "people of the soil"; the land inhabited by Estonians was called Maavald meaning "Country Realm" or "Land Realm". One hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia derives it from the Aesti , a people described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania ; the historic Aesti were Baltic people, whereas the modern Estonians are Finno-Ugric.
The geographical areas of the Aesti and of Estonia do not match, with the Aesti living farther south. Ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to an area called Eistland, as the country is still called in Icelandic, with close parallels to the Danish , Dutch and Norwegian terms Estland for the country. Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name include Hestia. Esthonia was a common alternative English spelling before According to radiocarbon dating it was settled around 11, years ago; the earliest human inhabitation during the Mesolithic period is connected to the Kunda culture, named after the town of Kunda in northern Estonia.
At that time the country was covered with forests, people lived in semi-nomadic communities near bodies of water. Subsistence activities consisted of hunting and fishing. Around BC appear ceramics of the neolithic period, known as Narva culture. Starting from around BC the Corded Ware culture appeared.
The Bronze Age started around BC, saw the establishment of the first hill fort settlements. A transition from hunting-fishing-gathering subsistence to single-farm-based settlement started around BC, was complete by the beginning of the Iron Age around BC; the large amount of bronze objects indicate the existence of active communication with Scandinavian and Germanic tribes. A more troubled and war-ridden middle Iron Age followed, with external threats appearing from different directions.
Several Scandinavian sagas referred to major confrontations with Estonians , notably when Estonians defeated and killed the Swedish king Ingvar. Similar threats appeared in the east. In Yaroslav the Wise established a fort in modern-day Tartu. Around the 11th century, the Scandinavian Viking era around the Baltic Sea was succeeded by the Baltic Viking era, with seaborne. Lithuania is considered to be one of the Baltic states, it is situated to the east of Sweden and Denmark.
It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, Kaliningrad Oblast to the southwest. Lithuania has an estimated population of 2. Lithuanians are Baltic people; the official language, along with Latvian, is one of only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family. For centuries, the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes.
In the s, the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas , the King of Lithuania , the first unified Lithuanian state, the Kingdom of Lithuania , was created on 6 July During the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe. The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighbouring countries systematically dismantled it from to , with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory.
On 11 March , a year before the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union , Lithuania became the first Baltic state to declare itself independent, resulting in the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania. The first known record of the name of Lithuania is in a 9 March story of Saint Bruno in the Quedlinburg Chronicle. The Chronicle recorded a Latinized form of the name Lietuva: Litua. Due to the lack of reliable evidence, the true meaning of the name is unknown. Nowadays, scholars still debate the meaning of the word and there are a few plausible versions.
Since Lietuva has a suffix, the original word should have no suffix. However, the river is small and some find it improbable that such a small and local object could have lent its name to an entire nation. On the other hand, such a naming is not unprecedented in world history. The first people settled in the territory of Lithuania after the last glacial period in the 10th millennium BC: Kunda and Narva cultures, they did not form stable settlements.
In the 8th millennium BC, the climate became much warmer, forests developed; the inhabitants of what is now Lithuania traveled less and engaged in local hunting and fresh-water fishing. Agriculture did not emerge until the 3rd millennium BC due to a harsh climate and terrain and a lack of suitable tools to cultivate the land. Crafts and trade started to form at this time. Over a millennium, the Indo-Europeans , who arrived in the 3rd — 2nd millennium BC , mixed with the local population and formed various Baltic tribes.
The Baltic tribes did not maintain close cultural or political contacts with the Roman Empire , but they did maintain trade contacts. Tacitus , in his study Germania , described the Aesti people, inhabitants of the south-eastern Baltic Sea shores who were Balts , around the year 97 AD; the Western Balts became known to outside chroniclers first.
Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD knew of the Galindians and Yotvingians , early medieval chroniclers mentioned Old Prussians and Semigallians ; the Lithuanian language is considered to be conservative for its close connection to Indo-European roots. It is believed to have differentiated from the Latvian language, the most related existing language, around the 7th century.
Traditional Lithuanian pagan customs and mythology , with many archaic elements, were long preserved. Rulers' bodies were cremated up until the conversion to Christianity : the descriptions of the cremation ceremonies of the grand d. Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country with mountainous terrain, it is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west and southwest, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east.
Its capital and largest city is Bishkek. Kyrgyzstan's recorded history spans over 2, years, encompassing a variety of cultures and empires. Although geographically isolated by its mountainous terrain, which has helped preserve its ancient culture, Kyrgyzstan has been at the crossroads of several great civilizations as part of the Silk Road and other commercial and cultural routes.
Though long inhabited by a succession of independent tribes and clans, Kyrgyzstan has periodically fallen under foreign domination and attained sovereignty as a nation-state only after the breakup of the Soviet Union in Since independence, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic , although it continues to endure ethnic conflicts, economic troubles, transitional governments and political conflict.
Ethnic Kyrgyz make up the majority of the country's 6 million people, followed by significant minorities of Uzbeks and Russians. Kyrgyz is related to other Turkic languages, although Russian remains spoken and is an official language, a legacy of a century of Russification ; the majority of the population are non-denominational Muslims.
In addition to its Turkic origins, Kyrgyz culture bears elements of Persian and Russian influence. Kyrgyz means We are forty. The ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan is a reference to those same forty tribes and the graphical element in the sun's center depicts the wooden crown, called tunduk, of a yurt—a portable dwelling traditionally used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia.
In terms of naming conventions, the country's official name is "Kyrgyz Republic" whenever it is used in some international arenas and foreign relations. However, in the English-speaking world, the spelling Kyrgyzstan is used while its former name Kirghizia is used as such. According to David C. King , Scythians were early settlers in present-day Kyrgyzstan; the Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the Uyghur Khaganate in A. From the 10th century the Kyrgyz migrated as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about years.
In the twelfth century the Kyrgyz dominion had shrunk to the Altay Range and Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century, the Kyrgyz migrated south. The Kyrgyz peacefully became a part of the Mongol Empire in The descent of the Kyrgyz from the indigenous Siberian population, on the other hand, is confirmed by recent genetic studies; because of the processes of migration, conquest and assimilation, many of the Kyrgyz peoples who now inhabit Central and Southwest Asia are of mixed origins stemming from fragments of many different tribes, though they now speak related languages.
Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the 17th century by the Mongols, in the midth century by the Manchurian Qing Dynasty , in the early 19th century by the Uzbek Khanate of Kokand. In the late nineteenth century, the eastern part of what is today Kyrgyzstan the Issyk-Kul Region , was ceded to the Russian Empire by Qing China through the Treaty of Tarbagatai ; the territory known in Russian as " Kirghizia ", was formally incorporated into the Empire in The Russian takeover was met with numerous revolts, many of the Kyrgyz opted to relocate to the Pamir Mountains and Afghanistan.
In addition, the suppression of the rebellion against Russian rule in Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz to migrate to China. Since many ethnic groups in the region were split between neighboring states at a time when borders were more porous and less regulated, it was common to move back and forth over the mountains, depending on where life was perceived as better.
During the s, Kyrgyzstan developed in cultural and social life. Literacy was improved, a standard literary language was introduced by imposing Russian on the populace. Economic and social development was notable.
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Many aspects of the Ky. Luxembourg Luxembourg the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, France to the south, its capital, Luxembourg City , is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice , the highest judicial authority in the EU.
Its culture and languages are intertwined with its neighbours, making it a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French and the national language, Luxembourgish ; the repeated invasions by Germany in World War II , resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union.
With an area of 2, square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. In , Luxembourg had a population of ,, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate. Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP per capita; the City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city.
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Maximin in nearby Trier. Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the Counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory. Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg , of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. The Grand-Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France.
In , following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution , the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part became what is the present state of Luxembourg. The city of Luxembourg, the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years and , a first in the country's history; as of , Luxembourgish citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgish passport 5th in the world, tied with Austria, the Netherlands , Portugal , the United Kingdom and the United States.
The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes , in through an exchange act with St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier. Around this fort, a town developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In , the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.
In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons , Habsburgs and the French. The Dutch king became, in the grand duke. Although he was supposed to rule the grand duchy as an independent country with an administration of its own, in reality he treated it to a Dutch province; the Fortress of Luxembourg was manned by Prussian troops for the German Confederation.
This arrangement was revised by the First Treaty of London , from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned. At the time of the Belgian Revolution of —, by the Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium.
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein the Principality of Liechtenstein, is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Alpine Central Europe. The principality is a constitutional monarchy headed by the Prince of Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is bordered by Switzerland to Austria to the east and north, it is Europe's fourth-smallest country, with an area of just over square kilometres and a population of 37, Divided into 11 municipalities, its capital is Vaduz , its largest municipality is Schaan , it is the smallest country to border two countries.
Economically, Liechtenstein has one of the highest gross domestic products per person in the world when adjusted for purchasing power parity, it was once known as a billionaire tax haven, but is no longer on any blacklists of uncooperative tax haven countries. An Alpine country, Liechtenstein is mountainous, making it a winter sport destination; the country has a strong financial sector centered in Vaduz.
It has a customs union and a monetary union with Switzerland.
Geographical distribution of German speakers | Revolvy
The oldest traces of human existence in what is now Liechtenstein date back to the Middle Paleolithic era. One of the most important tribal groups in the Alpine region were the Helvetii. By 15 BCE, Tiberius—destined to be the second Roman emperor—with his brother, conquered the entirety of the Alpine area. Liechtenstein was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia ; the area was maintained by the Roman military, who maintained large legionary camps at Brigantium, near Lake Constance , at Magia. A Roman road which ran through the territory was created and maintained by these groups.
In the Early Middle Ages , the Alemanni settled the eastern Swiss plateau by the 5th century and the valleys of the Alps by the end of the 8th century, with Liechtenstein located at the eastern edge of Alemannia. In the 6th century, the entire region became part of the Frankish Empire following Clovis I's victory over the Alemanni at Tolbiac in ; the area that became Liechtenstein remained under Frankish hegemony , until the empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in CE, following the death of Charlemagne.
Until about , the predominant language of the area was Romansch , but thereafter German began to gain ground in the territory. In , an Alemannic population—the Walsers , who originated in Valais—entered the region and settled. The mountain village of Triesenberg still preserves features of Walser dialect into the present century. Other regions were accorded the Imperial immediacy that granted the empire direct control over the mountain passes; when the Kyburg dynasty fell in , the Habsburgs under King Rudolph I extended their territory to the eastern Alpine plateau that included the territory of Liechtenstein.
This region was enfeoffed to the Counts of Hohenems until the sale to the Liechtenstein dynasty in In Vaduz gained imperial immediacy; the family, from which the principality takes its name came from Liechtenstein Castle in Lower Austria which they had possessed from at least until the 13th century. The Liechtensteins acquired land, predominantly in Moravia , Lower Austria and Styria ; as these territories were all held in feudal tenure from more senior feudal lords various branches of the Habsburgs, the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet a primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial diet, the Reichstag.
Though several Liechtenstein princes served several Habsburg rulers as close advisers, without any territory held directly from the Imperial throne, they held little power in the Holy Roman Empire. For this reason, the family sought to acquire lands that would be classed as unmittelbar or held without any intermediate feudal tenure, directly from the Holy Roman Emperor. Tiny Schellenberg and Vaduz had the political status required: no feudal lord other than their comital sovereign and the suzerain Emperor.
On 23 January , after the lands had been purchased, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor , decreed that Vaduz and Schellenberg were united and elevated the newly formed terri. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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