Other editions. Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Veranstaltungstechnik by Stefan Kluge. Der Brandschutz bei Produktionen bildet einen weiteren inhaltlichen Schwerpunkt des Buches. Weitere Informationen sind auf der buchbegleitenden Internetseite zu finden: www. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. The building includes fragments of some architectural icons from around the world embedded in its walls, including the Reims Cathedral and the Great Wall of China N.
Right across from Tribune Tower is the world-famous Wrigley Building. Speaking of eateries, Chicago has myriads of them. But one of the more out-of-the-ordinary ones is the Weber Grill Restaurant, at N. State St. All meals are prepared on actual Weber-manufactured grills, much like the one you may have at home. Surrounding the patio is a railing made from Weber grill cooking grates. The Chicago Athenaeum is a museum dedicated to architecture and design. Included are drawings, sketches, models, and furnishings.
The Museum of Contemporary Photography is the 54 Route 66 Adventure Handbook only museum in the Midwest devoted entirely to photography as an art form. The Museum of Holography, at W. Washington Blvd. The Polish Museum of America, at N. Milwaukee Ave. The International Museum of Surgical Science is housed in a landmark lakeside mansion constructed by one of the heirs to the Diamond Match Company fortune. The museum features more than 10, display items, and traces the art and science of surgery from its primitive beginnings to the present day. Chicago, Illinois.
Illinois 55 N. Lake Shore Drive. Forest Preserve Drive. There are taste tests, too, of course. Oak Park was also the boyhood home of Ernest Hemingway. His birthplace is at N. Oak Park Ave. Visitors are encouraged to begin their tour at the museum. Lee St. Summerdale Ave. River Rd. In the community of Niles is a half-size replica of the world-famous Leaning Tower of Pisa.
Touhy Avenue. The Pyramid House is notable not for having an outstanding architectural pedigree, like so many Chicago structures, but for being shaped more or less like the Great Pyramids of Giza. It includes a moat, miniature sphinxes, and a foot-tall, ton statue of Ramses II. The house is open by appointment. Wadsworth is also home to Tempel Farms, where you can see world-renowned Lipizzan horses perform.
After the performance, check out the collection of antique carriages on the grounds. It boasts more than cars and locomotives, including interurbans, trolleys, Els, and a Burlington Zephyr.
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You can even ride some of these trains. On a smaller scale is the Valley View Model Railroad Museum, featuring 16 trains operating on eight miles of track. The town of Wheaton is home to the Red Grange Museum. Also in Wheaton is Cantigny Park, home to a pair of museums. Illinois 57 McCormick. The town of St. Charles is home to an annual Scarecrow Festival each fall. Rated one of the top events in North America, the festival features a scarecrow display, carnival, food, and juried craft show.
Or check out the St. Charles History Museum, at E. Main St. This end of Route 66 presents an immediate challenge, since eastbound and westbound lanes are actually on separate streets. Westbound 66 follows Adams Street, while eastbound 66 is a block to the south, on Jackson. Jackson eastbound Westbound travelers can turn left off of Adams at Des Plaines, then turn left again onto Jackson. The easternmost end of Adams Street has as its landmark the Art Institute of Chicago, where countless American artists have had some of their formal training.
Like all of the larger cities on Route 66, Chicago itself will 58 Route 66 Adventure Handbook not reveal much in the way of that Mother Road feel that you are looking for—at least not when compared with the hundreds of smaller towns ahead of you. Cities like this were plotted out in the days prior to automobile travel, and so you and your car do not feel entirely welcome here.
He took office in , at the time the city was first incorporated. On Ogden, you will pass through the communities of Cicero and Berwyn. In , that figure was removed and relocated to Atlanta, Illinois for more prominent display. Open only sporadically, it houses several stories of local memorabilia, including a post office and one-room school. Harlem Ave. Interstate 55 follows the course of primary 66, which went towards, but ultimately bypassed, the town of Plainfield. For a time, Route 66 split into two separate routes northeast of Plainfield.
The rightmost fork was the primary route at the time my atlas was printed, and went towards the city of Plainfield. The left fork was designated ALT 66, and headed south toward Joliet. Even at this early date, Route 66 was being realigned in such a way as to bypass most cities and their associated traffic. At the same time, the map shows the primary route passing near, but not through, Plainfield and other towns, much as I does today.
The two alignments later converged again just southwest of the town of Gardner. So whichever path you take and I recommend you explore both , it is here that you cross one of many routes of significance on your way west on The Lincoln Highway was established in , and was the first American transcontinental highway conceived with automobile travel in mind. Later, in the s, when such interstate routes were designated with numbers, the Lincoln Highway officially became U. This is the home of Midwest Hot Rods.
The Plainfield Historical Society is at E. That was considered pretty cute back when Juliet was just a few miles down the pike. But when Juliet changed her name to Joliet, somehow the magic in the marriage was gone. Keep an eye out for the White Fence Farm, a sort of grand catering enterprise right beside the highway. There was a very large fiberglass chicken on a flatbed truck parked outside the first time I passed through here. Romeoville also offers exhibits on what life was like for early fur trappers who first came to the region.
Check out Isle de la Cache, at E. Romeo Rd. Fishing, picnicking, and boating are also here to enjoy. JOLIET Once nicknamed the City of Spires due to its many houses of worship some at one time , Joliet has in recent years taken a liking to gaming, and is now very much a center for casino gam- Illinois 61 Joliet, Illinois. Even the local Joliet Prison has what might be called spires, though. You can drive by Joliet Prison and take a look at its depressing walls at Collins Street. The first prisoners were received here in In , the Dairy Queen ice cream chain was established, with the first store being in Joliet.
There is a related museum in the nearby town of Lockport. Chicago St. It contains the largest hand-cut chandelier in the U. The inner lobby area was fashioned after the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. Make reservations at Ottawa Street, in a former Methodist church building. There is also a Route 66 Welcome Center adjacent to the museum.
The house is especially well turned-out at Christmastime. At 20 S. This is a very small community just south of Joliet. Wilmington is known among Route 66 fans as the home of the Gemini Giant. This one has been decked out like an astronaut I guess and stands in front of the Launching Pad Drive-In restaurant at E. Baltimore St. The shape of his helmet is a bit unusual, perhaps a nod to the Coneheads of Saturday Night Live. Fans of architectural curiosities might want to check out the octagonal house, the Schutten-Aldrich House, at Water Street. It dates from The town takes its water seriously, with canoe rentals, an annual fishing derby, and the Kankakee River Valley Regatta each Labor Day.
Harrison St. Mount Carmel Cemetery, S. Wolf Rd. Route 66 slices through the southeast corner of Braidwood. Look for the Art Deco ceramic-tile station. Godley is right on the Will County-Grundy County line. The town of Gardner features a two-cell jailhouse dating from Downtown at the old Keeley Institute now Fox Development Center are five Tiffany-style windows, each of them portraying one of the five senses. Illinois 67 Dwight, Illinois. Nearby is an impressive Romanesque railroad depot listed on the National Register and now housing the Dwight Historical Society Museum.
The Bank of Dwight dates from and features a mural in the interior by Viennese artist Oskar Gross. Also notable is the windmill on the library grounds, which dates from But thanks to the efforts of donors and volunteers, the station has since been restored for your enjoyment. Between Cayuga and Pontiac is a recently restored barn bearing a Meramec Caverns advertisement. However, as they age and are removed, whether by natural or man-made forces, they cannot be replaced. Thus their number continues to diminish year after year. Just north of Pontiac on Pontiac Rd.
Since then, it has been faithfully restored by dedicated volunteers.
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Odell, Illinois. Illinois 69 Inn. This is the place which has gained some renown for not giving up when the highway was re-aligned and they found that the new Route 66 was at their back door. The owners simply re-oriented the place and barely missed a beat. The older roadway can be seen behind the present orientation, near the railroad tracks, as befits an early highway alignment. The Catherine V. Water Street, is a Queen Anne-style home from the late s containing most of the Yost family possessions. The Jones House, a gothic revival brick house built in , is located at E.
Madison Street. Scott Home at N. First Street. This was the home of Matthew T. Organized in and chartered by Congress in , membership in the DAR is limited to direct lineal descendants of soldiers or others of the Revolutionary period who aided the cause of independence. Illinois 71 Lexington, Illinois still has a vintage neon sign pointing the way to the downtown business district.
Depot, an antique store whose main building is an old railroad depot relocated to the downtown business district. This depot is a little different than most in that it is a two-story affair. The Patton Cabin is a log structure, parts of which date from It was used as an official polling place as early as Originally located about a mile and a half to the southeast, the cabin was reassembled in the Lexington Pool Park off N. Cherry St. At the time of my first trip through here, it was serving duty as a night club. Each subsequent time I see it, it appears to be serving a different purpose.
In recent years, a walking-biking path has been set up beside 72 Route 66 Adventure Handbook Towanda, Illinois. It consisted of Polynesianstyle huts elevated above the ground on piers. Bloomington seems to be able to claim more famous sons. These include Adlai Stevenson, whose home is at N. Gordon W. Lillie, who produced Wild West shows in the first decade of the s, similar to the shows Buffalo Bill became famous for.
Bloomington is also the birthplace of the Republican Party, which was organized here at a convention in Check out the Art Deco-influenced Normal Theater, which first opened its doors in North St. Bloomington, Illinois. Robinson Street. Bloomington also gave birth to the Nestle-Beich Candy Company, known for producing chocolate for fund-raising institutions.
Ask for a tour at S. Lumber St. The home, named Clover Lawn, is a room Italianate villa at E. Monroe St. The home was built in for U. Supreme Court Justice David Davis. Decorated by his wife, Sarah, the home contains original furnishings and stencil-work. It also has features which were quite luxurious at the time, such as indoor plumbing and a central heating system.
Main Street in the former courthouse, which was constructed from to The Prairie Aviation Museum includes a meticulously restored DC-3, a collection of Ozark Airlines memorabilia, and also offers pilot training and passenger flights. At E. Empire St. The home was originally built in —64, and includes the first electric kitchen island added a bit later, of course. A subtle indication that cross-country travel did not always involve automobiles.
Shirley, Illinois. The Funk family Illinois, is this retired railroad depot. Stop in and pick some up. The old one had much more character. The library is on the National Register, and is located at Race St. Atlanta was fortunate enough recently to host a sort of mural-making festival. This project was spearheaded in by a group of signmakers calling themselves LetterHeads. On Arch St. The town also boasts of a circa J. Atlanta was at one time called Xenia. LINCOLN This is said to be the only town named for Abraham Lincoln while he was still alive, and on hearing of this plan, he is attributed with the remark that he never knew of anything named Lincoln that amounted to much.
He was personally involved in drawing up the legal papers establishing the town, and he actually practiced some law here in the s. The Mill dates from the early days of the route, and features a lighted, revolving, Dutch-style windmill. Reconstructed in on the site of the original is a replica courthouse at the Postville Courthouse State Historic Site Fifth St.
The original, constructed in , was frequented by Abraham Lincoln during his years of practicing law in the area. In Illinois 79 , however, the county seat was moved to Mount Pulaski, and a new courthouse was erected there. The old Postville Courthouse was acquired in by Henry Ford, who dismantled it and reassembled it at his Greenfield Village complex in Dearborn, Michigan.
Incidentally, Greenfield Village is of interest, having more than historic buildings of all sorts spread over an acre tract. The Heritage In Flight Museum, a building that once housed German prisoners-of-war, is now a museum filled with aircraft and other artifacts dating to World War I. At the Logan County Airport. Check out the downtown monument depicting a life-sized, ear-to-ear watermelon slice, commemorating the day in when This old sign is an indication that you are on old Route Lincoln, Illinois.
The monument was erected in through the combined efforts of the local Kiwanis, Rotary, and Lions clubs. It was in Decatur that the Lincoln family first settled after coming to the state from Indiana. Here stands the courthouse where the young man first earned a reputation as a trial lawyer, and there is a memorial statue marking where he gave his first political speech. Decatur was also the original home of the Chicago Bears football team. Fork Rd. Local history is exhibited, including a train depot, print shop, and a log courthouse dating from , in which Lincoln is said to have tried some cases.
The James Millikin Homestead is at N. Pine Street. The home was built in in an ornate and rather gothic style, which contrasts sharply with the Frank Lloyd Wright-inspired designs with which it is surrounded. The home has been fully restored and is listed on the National Register. Open weekends. The Muellers, a family of German immigrants, played a significant role as inventors in both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
They either invented or improved such things as plumbing fixtures, roller skates, soda fountains, auto parts, and munitions. Country Club Rd. Recently, though, the old place has been turned into a museum. Stretch your legs awhile by paying a visit to this Route 66 roadside stop, which was established in You can even peruse the register that owner Ernie Edwards used to record the hundreds of marriage ceremonies he performed as Justice of the Peace during the s. Hours vary, so call ahead at Pig Hip Motel, Broadwell, Illinois. Today, Springfield is still the center of the Lincoln universe, as well as being nearly the exact geographic center of the state the precise center being about 28 miles northeast, in Logan County.
Springfield boasts more Lincoln Springfield, Illinois. Several of these Lincoln sites can be taken in rather conveniently via the Springfield Trolley Tours. The railroad depot here in Springfield is where he gave his eloquent departure speech before leaving permanently to assume the Illinois 83 presidency. There, you can walk the solemn halls of the mausoleum and rub the nose of his bronze likeness for luck, as many before you have. The Oak Ridge Cemetery even includes a souvenir kiosk where you can indulge your lust for more Lincoln memorabilia.
In at So. Sixth St. Ed Wa l d m i r e , w h o e s t a b lished a small chain of restaurants here, invented the corn dog while serving military duty at Amarillo, Texas also on Highway Today, the Cozy Dog location on Route 66 is still open, and still run by the Waldmire family. Peoria Road. The story goes that the general and a small group of his men were having a lunch of roasted chicken when an Illinois detachment surprised them.
The general had just time enough to mount his horse and escape, but was forced to leave behind his artificial leg and the remains of the chicken. Fortunately for him, he had a spare one just like it elsewhere— the leg, that is. MacArthur Blvd. In front of the Illinois Exhibits building at the state fairgrounds is a foot-tall statue of a clean-shaven Abraham Lincoln, entitled The Rail Splitter. It was created in by Carl W.
Rinnus, a Springfield native. It was also the scene of the Lincoln-Douglas debates. Fifth at Adams. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum recently expanded is at Jefferson and Sixth Streets, and includes thousands of documents including the Gettysburg Address plus numerous artifacts.
The Dana-Thomas House, at E. Lawrence Ave. It is considered one of his earliest experiments in what was later to become famous as his Prairie Style. On October 8th each year, citizens turn out to celebrate the birthday of the lady of the house, socialite Susan Lawrence Dana, with an open house, live music, etc. Springfield, Illinois. Today it provides the visitor with an interesting tour and a gallery filled with contemporary art. Fourth St. Many rooms are open to public viewing, including the state dining room, library, ballroom, and the Lincoln bedroom. Jackson St.
The Vachel Lindsay Home is the birthplace of the native Springfield artist and poet, who resided here until his death—by suicide—in Fifth St. The Oliver P. Parks Telephone Museum houses a collection assembled by a long-time Ma Bell employee. At last count, there were phones on display here, including such classics as wooden wall-mounted phones, candlestick models, early coin phones, and even a switchboard.
Seventh St. The Thomas Rees Memorial Carillon has 67 bronze bells and is distinguished by the fact that you can actually view the bells and playing mechanism. The largest bell, a G-flat, weighs in at about 15, pounds. Rees was publisher of the State Journal-Register newspaper and bequeathed the funds upon his death to the construction of this amazing instrument, which was completed in Regular concerts are given Sunday afternoons.
Western edge of Washington Park. The interior of the Lawrence Memorial Library was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, and has been restored to its original luster at E. Laurel St. Illinois 87 In the fall, you can take in the Springfield Air Rendezvous Air Show, an event featuring civilian and military aircraft performing aerobatic maneuvers at the Capital Airport on J.
David Jones Parkway. The Route 66 Drive-In Theater shows two features nightly in season beginning at dusk. The theater is on the south side of town, at Recreation Drive. Not getting enough exercise? And once in Rochester, there is a connecting trail one mile to a community park with water fountains, restrooms, and other facilities.
Back on Leaving Springfield, you get a real treat—two distinct Route 66 alignments are here to enjoy. The more modern route takes you south out of town along the I corridor, through Divernon and Litchfield. This was the course of the highway during most of its years of existence. However, there is an older alignment, passing through Auburn, Carlinville, and Gillespie—today bearing the number 4—which carried traffic in the s.
In fact, this road predated Route 66 and was a major thoroughfare in the area years earlier. Because of the relatively early realignment early s , this older highway does not have much surviving road architecture. However, it is certainly worth driving, as it is easier to imagine yourself in an Illinois long gone. If you follow Highway 4, keep alert for a section of very old brick-paved roadway, just over a mile long, north of Auburn. Near Glenarm, Illinois, is a small park which includes this covered bridge.
Farmersville, Illinois. The first restaurant was established in Carlinville in Litchfield, Illinois. The Litchfield Library, dating from , was one of many around the country endowed by the Carnegie Foundation. Illinois 91 The 66 Motel Court is just down the street from a working drive-in theater in Litchfield, Illinois. State St, and is known for its extensive genealogical department. Main Street. It is said to have cost more than 10 times its original estimate, taking more than two years to build and 40 years to pay for. It has some rather overwrought features, such as iron doors— some weighing in at over a ton—and interior trim made of either iron or stone.
It was at one time the largest courthouse in the United States. The courthouse project also included a new jailhouse, and it, too, has some interesting features, such as leftover cannonballs this was just after the Civil War embedded in the walls as an 92 Route 66 Adventure Handbook additional escape prevention measure. Downtown Carlinville also features the Loomis House, a former room hotel which was designed by the same architect as the nearby courthouse and jail above. The Loomis has been preserved and today contains a number of local businesses. This fact has led to the publication of a number of books and documentaries in recent years.
The Macoupin County Historical Museum is in the Anderson Mansion, and also has a schoolhouse, church, and blacksmith shop on the property. Breckenridge St. There is a small stone marker in front of the United Methodist Church in Carlinville marking the spot where Abraham Lincoln delivered a speech in while campaigning for a Senate seat against Stephen A. At the Corner of Broad and E. First Sts.
Route 66 street sign near Mt. Olive, Illinois. Paul Lutheran Church, with its blue n e o n c r o s s. In the s, it was annexed by the city of Edwardsville, and is now listed as an official Historic District. The screen is gone; only the marquee remains. The Madison County Historical Museum and Library is housed in an home with period furnishings, historical costumes, and other exhibits N. Also in Edwardsville is Bilbrey Farms, with an exotic animal zoo featuring zebras, llamas, and miniature horses. There is also a bed and breakfast on the grounds. Called the Horseradish Capital of the World, the town holds a horseradish festival each spring, with horseradish-eating contests, cook-offs, and a horseradish toss competition.
Actually built as a water tower, the bottle is about 70 feet tall and stands atop a foot base. Brooks left town over 20 years ago, but the bottle replica, constructed in , remains. Local legend states that red-headed offspring may result when pregnant women pass too closely. Morrison Ave. Here are the ruins of a prehistoric city, inhabited from about A. There are also remains of a sort of wooden stockade, which has been nicknamed Woodhenge, due to its astronomical similarity to the world-famous Stonehenge.
Partial reconstruction of the site allows for dramatic effects at the time of the equinoxes. Cahokia is considered the largest prehistoric society on this continent north of Mexico. Further west lies the town center of Cahokia. It was then sold at auction and relocated to Chicago, where it was reassembled and stood for many years. In the s, it was reacquired by the citizens of Cahokia, and reassembled in on its original foundation with the aid of historic photographs. At First and Elm Sts. First St. Louis in favor of a beltway route. This is the favored route today, which in the old days crossed the Mississippi via the Chain of Rocks Bridge.
The complex dates from when it was operated by Shell Oil Company; after some 80 years, ownership passed to Phillips Petroleum. In addition to the usual pumps, globes, and advertising examples, the museum has on display a number of authentic vehicles, such as an oil tanker and a fire truck, both of which actually saw service at the refinery.
Just ahead is the mighty Mississippi. And beyond that, you and Route 66 will get much better acquainted. Yet while rivers have been conducive to transportation and settlement, they have at the same time presented barriers to movement where bridges have been few and far between. And so arises their age-old role as natural borders.
Missouri—first at St. Louis, later at Independence—was long the staging ground for that westward impulse. Situated at the threshold of an enormous, uncharted wilderness, this was the last bastion of civilization and the last chance to prepare and outfit for the rigorous journey that lay ahead. As Chicago is the starting point for Route 66, so Missouri is the starting place for the famous migratory trails of history that made settlement of the West a reality: the Overland, the Oregon, and the Santa Fe Trails all had their origins here on a Missouri riverbank.
And, under the sponsorship of President Thomas Jefferson, a corps led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark set out from here on their Voyage of Discovery in , eventually finding their way to the Oregon coast. As for U. Highway 66, its crossing of the Mississippi River into the Show-Me State occurred at several places over the years. Today, you will likely want to avoid the older alignments, which crossed the river directly into the central part of St.
Unfortunately, these alignments of the highway pass through sections of the city in which one does not always feel safe. For that reason, and also because urban alignments tend to fragment over time and be very hard to follow, you are better advised to approach St. Today, the Chain-of-Rocks is closed to auto traffic, but it has been turned into a recreational attraction open weekends from June through October.
The bridge is just south of Highway and Riverview Blvd. There, St. Louisans gathered for picnics, skating, swimming, and softball. Riverfront Trail now connects the bridge with the Gateway Arch to the south. Up on the bluff overlooking the bridge and the site of the old park, there used to be a fairly elaborate amusement park, called Fun Fair Park. Louis, which opened in the early s just to the west near Eureka. This modern-day loop highway has replaced the old route for several miles along here. Framing emancipation Republican and Democratic newspapers from nine Hoosier cities were closely read looking for evidence of framing.
Although frame analysis informed these readings, the approach here is primarily textual analysis. This study looks at how the problem that emancipation attempted to solve was defined or described; how emancipation was interpreted causally; how it was evaluated as a solution to the problem; and looks at what word choices that were made by the editors. Attention was given to what the editors emphasized, excluded and elaborated upon.
Similarly, this study looks at how the editors developed the context of emancipation. Almost all of the articles occurred on the second page of either daily or weekly newspapers that were generally four pages in length. The second page was generally reserved for editorial comment with news and commercial advertising often appearing on the front page. There were two types of editorials dealing with emancipation: 1 those that dealt with the issue entirely and 2 those that dealt with the issue in passing. The majority of the cases were single-issue editorials.
In terms of placement, editorials on emancipation tended to come on the top half of the page — above the fold. Ten of 15 Republican editorials were above the fold; 10 of 13 Democratic editorials were above the fold. Almost all of the newspapers. Republican and Democrat, printed the proclamation in its entirety after Sept.
In a few cases, both Republican and Democratic editors chose to print only key excerpts of the document. The proclamation was generally printed on either page one or page two, usually near the top of the page. Complementary commentary was provided, in all cases on page two. When the proclamation took effect on Jan. These include power, constitutionality, loyalty, freedom, race, and revolution. Here the frames worked along dichotomous lines. For example, the theme of disloyalty from Republican editors was countered by the theme of loyalty from the Democratic editors.
Democratic editors claimed that Democrats had loyally fought for the war and reserved the right to criticize its prosecution and policies, and even the right to offer another way through the conflict - namely, diplomacy. Another major frame dealt with the legality of the edict.
Democrats questioned its constitutionality, while Republicans defended its constitutionality. Democrats claimed that slavery was directly dealt with in the Constitution and assumed its prohibition would require constitutional measures like an amendment - which history affirmed with the passing of the 13''' Amendment after the war. However, an amendment was difficult to achieve, and the nation had been too divided to get anywhere close to the three-fourths hurdle necessary to make a change to the Constitution.
On the other hand, the Republicans claimed that an act of rebellion was unconstitutional and any measure designed to end it was appropriate. Imagery also helped frame the debate over emancipation. For example. Republican editors sometimes referred to the rebellion as a monster that had to be tamed. One editor referred to slavery as the cornerstone of Confederacy.
What stands out in analyzing the commentary of the partisan editors in these nine cities is how both sides tended to use power and its relationship to freedom as the organizing principle of emancipation. The contrast comes when the editors developed their frames for each. Republican editors saw power as a necessary and inevitable tool in ensuring the freedom of the Union from rebellion and the ultimate freedom - equality - of black men as seemed the logical consequences of the words written in the Declaration of Independence.
In forcing emancipation down the throats of the Southerners, the Lincoln Administration was quite literally destroying the economic liberty of Southern white male slaveholders. In the opinion of the Democratic newspaper editors, this opposed everything that the American Revolution stood for. Likewise, the Democrats saw emancipation of the black man in terms of a new, unwanted revolution. They believed a diplomatic solution could be reached, and that Northern radical abolitionists were as dangerous to the nation as fire-breathing Southern slaveholders. The Republican response George D.
Copeland, editor of the Republican newspaper in Goshen, saw the proclamation in terms of military power. He added that the Rebels could avoid emancipation by laying down their arms. Copeland also hit on the disloyalty theme. He warned that no Northerners should interfere in behalf of the Confederacy, directing this warning at the Copperheads. Mattingly and John D. They also focused on the religious and moral dimensions of the issue. No man who has Goshen, Indiana, Times, Oct. Goshen, Indiana, Times, Jan. Goshen, Indiana, Times, Oct.
Alfred Wheeler, the editor of the Republican paper in South Bend, saw the proclamation in terms of Northern good fortune. The proclamation would continue that momentum. Of course, Wheeler failed to mention the Democratic gains at the poll in the fall of , but that was another matter. Appealing to a sense of history in their readers. Republican editors Thomas H. Bringhurst and Joseph Dague in Logansport alluded to past American documents. This was central to developing a sense of patriotism and loyalty. They wrote that the Emancipation Proclamation was similar in stature to the Declaration of Independence because it divorced the nation from an awful institution - in this case, slavery.
The Cass County editors, whose paper had favored the Whigs in the s, called slavery the cornerstone of the Confederacy. Logansport, Indiana, Journal, Sept. Rather, the responsibility belonged to the Southern slaveholders who forced the war on the nation with secession and Fort Sumter. Meanwhile, the Indianapolis Indiana Journal was perhaps the most modem Republican newspaper in the state. Tilford, James M. Matthews, and Rawson Vaile. Berry R. Sulgrove, to edit the paper. The Journal Company provided the money for the enterprise and Sulgrove handled the editorial content.
John W. Indiana Newspaper Bibliography. Indiana Historical Society. Indianapolis, Indiana. It is more matter of fact than most of the editorials written about the Emancipation Proclamation. It claims that Lincoln had the right to free the slaves under the war powers of the executive branch. The Journal editor affirms the right a president has to suppress a rebellion and to use whatever means necessary to end the rebellion. Delphi Journal editor James Scott chose not to print his own commentary about the proclamation in his Republican newspaper.
Instead, it ran what Governor Morton had to say about emancipation. Morton, always loyal to Lincoln, favored the edict. In the party press era, it was not unusual for a newspaper editor of a party organ to defer to the words of a congressman, senator, governor, or another party leader. Likewise, John H. Scott, the editor of the Democratic newspaper in Evansville, chose not to print his own views after the initial September announcement. Indianapolis, Indiana, Indiana Journal, Jan.
This, too, was a frequent practice in mid- century journalism. Scott attempted to have balance with some of the papers supporting emancipation and some against it. Perhaps the most revealing of those editorials was from the New York Journal of Commerce. Its editor observed that the Emancipation Proclamation would distinctly draw the lines between supporters and opponents of the Lincoln Administration. They were mainly concerned the abuse of power and saw this as a constitutional issue and a limit on freedom. They held that the chief executive did not possess the authority to end an economic practice that was allowed by the Constitution.
Doing so amounted to the type of usurpation reserved for a dictator or monarch, and they added that this went along with the general tenor of trampling civil liberties that began with the suspension of habeas corpus. Daniel E. Jeffrey A. Oxford University Press. Cary, North Carolina. Plymouth, Indiana, Democrat, Oct. Hoosiers had been loyal to Lincoln and fought for the war. VanValkenburgh believed that Democrats who had come to favor a negotiated settlement of the conflict were being treated with the heavy hand of the federal government. He was also skeptical about how emancipation would aid the North in winning the war.
VanValkenburgh feared Lincoln was being misled by the abolitionists. Ever skeptical, VanValkenburgh referred to comments Lincoln made to the so-called Chicago Committee before he announced the Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln had told that pro-abolition group in August that he had his own misgiving about emancipation. VanValkenburgh thought he could not. Goshen Democrat editor William H.
Norton was equally skeptical. Norton wonders aloud why Lincoln worried about how to feed and clothe the freed slaves, but Plymouth, Indiana, Democrat, Oct. Lincoln also worried about the fate of freed blacks in the South after the war. Goshen, Indiana, Democrat, Sept. Lincoln had told the Chicago group in August that he even feared some blacks would give their guns to Confederate soldiers and that border state soldiers would go over to the South, but Norton had no illusion.
Here Norton interjected race into the argument. Clearly, race was a central issue to many Democrats. Storey of the Chicago Times. Storey, who would be suppressed by Burnside in June, focused his September editorial on the constitutional issue. Storey said Lincoln could not derive any power from the Constitution that allowed him to free the slaves. He added that military necessity served the Constitution, not the other way around. Fort Wayne, Indiana, Sentinel, Sept.
Many Democratic editors in Indiana read Storey closely and framed the issue similarly to the way he did. Samuel A. Hall, editor of the Logansport Democratic Pharos, continued the power theme. He fretted that emancipation would be a powerful tool for the Confederacy, not the Union. Indeed, they assumed their audience preferred such framing. Earlier, Hall had run an editorial from the Newburyport Herald, a Republican paper, that held that causing a revolution among the slaves was uncivilized and improper for a Christian nation.
The Newburyport editor worried that a slave uprising would be primarily directed against white women and children since the men were off fighting the Fort Wayne, Indiana, Sentinel, Sept. Logansport, Indiana, Democratic Pharos, Jan. Hall worried about atrocities committed against females. He also returned to the constitutional frame, saying that breaking its spirit would make the Union no better than the Confederacy.
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Ultimately, Hall concluded that emancipation made secession just and necessary as a self-defensive measure by the Southerners because it put the freedom of black men ahead of union as the primary reason for the war. Milton R. Graham, editor of the Delphi Weekly Times, also used the power frame. Echoing the arguments of the Indiana State Sentinel in Indianapolis, Graham questioned whether Lincoln had the constitutional power to free the slaves. In fact, Graham did a little homework.
He had a copy of the daily minutes of the U. House of Representatives from Feb. In it he found that the House overwhelmingly 1 16 to 4 adopted a resolution that stated the federal government nor the people of the non-slaveholding states had the constitutional right to interfere with slavery in any states of the Union.
Logansport, Indiana, Democratic Pharos, Oct. Lincoln also thought in those days that the majority of Southerners would oppose secession and thought the war chatter to be a bluff. Political power was also centermost in the thoughts of John R. Elder and John Harkness, editors of the Indiana State Sentinel, whose paper was intimidated twice by the Union military during the war.
Delphi, Indiana, Weekly Times, Oct. Conclusion The Democrats framed emancipation in terms of constitutional power. They believed Lincoln was misusing his power based on their interpretation of constitutional law, especially after he suspended the writ of habeas corpus. They were outraged and thought they once-moderate President was turning into a revolutionary. This new attitude of the President flew in the face of their Burkean conservative mindset. On the other hand, Republicans saw emancipation primarily as a war measure, but one that took the high moral road. The Republican editors wanted good news from the war front, and the freeing of black men to help fight it was a matter of pragmatism to them.
The editors of Civil War Indiana did not try to hide or imbed frames in inverted pyramid news stories. Their persuasive pieces did that work directly. Reporting was limited for these very small operations that generally had circulations of 1, or less readers. The editors provided the content for their papers. Information came from the telegraph, other newspapers, and gossip. There was a need for patronage, so they were often dependent on political parties to maintain financial solvency. The majority of their readers already held strong political positions. Yet it was a time of major political dynamics in U.
After all, the Republican Party had only been around for a decade. The framing contest was particularly important in as Democrats gained more and more at the polls. The Republican editors referred to the Democrats as Copperheads, the venomous snakes. Supporting the Democrats was hazardous and could ruin the nation. This negative framing word reinforced the idea that disloyalty would harm the Union, and at the same time reinforced nationalism. Political discourse had limitations in time of war, the Republicans held.
The words of the Republican editors would contribute to an atmosphere that allowed pro-union mobs to destroy several Democratic newspapers in the state. Framing emancipation would prove crucial with the more favorable war news that would come in the summer of The military victories caused Copperhead criticisms of the policy to lose much of their sting, and the more positive Republican frames ultimately won the day.
When General George McClellan lost the presidential election to Lincoln in , he showed how quickly public opinion could change. Known as a soldier-friendly general, McClellan polled only 22 percent of the vote - this with a high percentage of soldiers and ex-soldiers voting. Lincoln had benefited from victories at Gettysburg, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga. Yet the war bogged down again in , and Lincoln himself felt he was ripe for an upset.
However, Union soldiers and sailors appeared to accept emancipation and fighting the war for freedom, even if many Democratic and some Republican civilians did not. The war-measure frame won the contest of public opinion. This chapter in U. The Republican editors avoided making it a war about racial or economic reality; rather, they made it about freedom and equality and alluded to the Declaration of Independence. Instead, it became a war for reunion with newly freed men making the difference.
Their newfound freedom would make them highly motivated fighters. Freeing black men and having them fight in the war was the solution Lincoln and the North needed to gain the upper hand. The Democratic editors countered with frames that painted Lincoln as a dictator and a monster. They settled on constitutionality as their main frame. He and his allies also thought emancipation would rally Democrats North and South. It did, but in the long run the Democratic frames were not enough to unite the party nationally, and Lincoln prevailed in the fall of He made the war a revolution for freedom.
Senate before the war went to a black Republican from Mississippi after the war. If it works, it must be right. Emancipation worked. Ironically, Robert E. Lee proposed emancipation for the heavily- Democratic Confederacy in the waning days of the war. It was too late. The press faced more intrusions on its freedom in the Civil War than in any other U. The bitter political and military conflict was much more important than the civil rights of newspaper editors.
As William J. The conflict hung in the balance, and the words of both the Republican and Democratic editors were powerful instruments in helping to determine the outcome. Those words were framed in four major ways: in terms of power, freedom, constitutionality, and loyalty. Free labor was the way in the North, even if the Yankees, except the abolitionists, were not open to black social freedom. The freedom to fight for the Union was the ultimate expression of black power at a time when almost all African Americans were powerless.
The Republican editors, taking their cue from their president, tapped into that expression with their war-measure frame. Political Power and the Press. The Union had at least at 2-to-l advantage in men over the Confederacy. Editors on both sides ultimately realized that frames made complex political, social, and military issues easier to grasp. The frames selected what information needed to be made more salient to readers.
Thus, Republican and Democratic editors defined the problem inherent in emancipation in simple ways - Republicans in terms of manpower for the Union military to achieve the goal of reunion, and Democrats in terms of an erosion of political liberty due to presidential abuse of power. They interpreted the issue in terms of power, with freedom as complementary issue, and each offered a solution that would save the country within a context - that is, in a way that was consistent with their view of the nation and the ideology that served as its theoretical basis.
They included some aspects of the issue while avoiding others. For example, the Republicans focused on the practical manpower issue, meaning that they avoided the legal issue of whether the president had the authority to free the slaves; the Democrats focused on the erosion of freedom caused by a president who was overstepping his constitutional power, meaning they avoided the immorality of slavery.
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Editors on both sides did this because they were seeking specific reactions from their audiences. This is the essence of framing. Alger, Russell A. Government Printing Office. Washington, D. Chicago, Illinois, Times. September-October and January Cincinnati, Ohio, Enquirer. Columbia City, Indiana, News. Cowden, Joanna D. University Press of America, Inc. Lanham, Maryland. Curtis, Michael Kent. Durham, North Carolina. Delaware County, Indiana, Free Press. Delphi, Indiana, Journal. Delphi, Indiana, Weekly Times.
Detroit, Michigan, Free Press. Dickerson, Donna Lee. Reese, Oscar H. Gandy Jr. Grant, editors. Lawrence Elbaum Associates. Dilts, Jon Paul. Columbia, South Carolina. Spring , pp. Entman, Robert M. Esherick, Joseph W. November , Vol. Evansville, Indiana, Daily Journal. Evansville, Indiana, Weekly Gazette. Fort Wayne, Indiana, Daily Gazette. Fort Wayne, Indiana, Sentinel. Cans, Herbert J. Ginenapp, William E. Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America. Gitlin, Todd. The Whole World Is Watching.
University of California Press. Berkeley, California. Goshen, Indiana, Democrat. Goshen, Indiana, Times. Harper, Robert S. Lincoln and the Press. Heclo, H. Hinshaw, Gil. Indianapolis, Indiana, Indiana Daily Journal. Klement, Frank L. The Limits of Dissent. University Press of Kentucky.
Lexington, Kentuckyy. Lincoln 's Critics. Logansport, Indiana, Democrat Pharos. Logansport, Indiana, Journal. Marshall County, Indiana, Republican Plymouth. Marvel, William. University of North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. McPherson, James M.
McPherson, James. Ballantine Nooks. Meyer, David S. Miller, John W. Neely, Mark E. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Paterson, Chris A. Plymouth, Indiana, Democrat. Randall, James G. Constitutional Problems Under Lincoln. University of Illinois Press.
Urbana, Illinois. Reese, Stephen C. Gandy and August E. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Mahwah, N. Richmond, Indiana, Jeffersonian. Richmond, Indiana, Broad Axe of Freedom. Ryan, Charlotte. Skidmore, Joe. Small, William J. Smith, Jeffrey A. Smith, Reed. David B. Sachsman, S. Kittrell Rushing and Debra Riddin van Tuyll, editors. Transactions Books. Piscataway, New Jersey. Ohio State University Press. Columbus, Ohio. South Bend, Indiana, Forum. Stampp, Kenneth M. Indiana Politics During the Civil War.
Indiana University Press. Bloomington, Indiana. Stone, Jon. Latin for the Illiterati. Tankard, J. Hendrickson, J. Silberman, K. Bliss and s. August Tenney, Craig D. Indiana University. Thombrough, Emma Lou. Indiana in the Civil War Era: Towne, Stephen E. Chattanooga, Tennessee. October September , pp. Tredway, G. Democratic Opposition to the Lincoln Administration in Indiana. Indiana Historical Bureau. Wubben, Hubert H. Civil War Iowa and the Copperhead Movement. Iowa State University Press. Ames, Iowa. Box ChapelHillNC pmever email.
The long-term costs in reduced reader loyalty are slower to materialize. We are taking the first small steps toward making those costs more visible. We survey current editors to get their collective judgment on valid indicators of newspaper quality. Then we use factor analysis to reduce their fine-grained rankings to five operable indicators: ease of use, localism, editorial vigor, news quantity, and interpretation.
For the newspaper industry, as it faces competition from disruptive new technologies, the issue has taken on new urgency. Profitability is not as certain as it used to be. Investors and their advisors tend to focus on short-term financial results, and this puts pressure on newspaper managers to cut back on resources in order to maintain steady earnings growth from year to year.
If we take that seriously, as we should, our jobs as leaders of newspaper enterprises is to find the sweet spot where we can fulfill both our fiduciary obligation to the shareholders and our social obligation to provide communities the kind of information they need in order for people to make their sovereign choices wisely. The assumption of such studies is that readership is related to profitability. This is true most of the time, although some newspaper companies have begun to tailor their products to more specific audiences and 46 4 increase profitability by reducing readership and circulation to customers less desired by advertisers.
It probably follows a bell curve where quality is measured on the horizontal axis, profitability on the vertical. Increasing quality improves profitability up to the peak of the curve. Beyond that point, additional quality fails to bring enough new readers to add to the value of advertising or pricing power, and becomes net cost. The sweet spot is defined by two lines near the peak of the curve.
The left boundary marks the point at which reducing quality will harm profits. The right boundary is where increasing quality shifts from net benefit to net cost. From our own observation of the behavior of publicly-owned newspaper companies and their investors, we believe that many are being managed as though they were on the right or downhill side of the curve. In fact, we believe, they are clustered on the left, or uphill side, where degrading quality creates an imminent danger. Providing evidence to support this intuitive observation requires many steps, of which this paper takes only one.
The proof requires multiple measurements over a long period of time of both profitability and journalistic quality. Our contribution is to help explicate and operationalize the concept of quality.
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