This is a medley of Itsikel , Kolemeyke K.
You must listen to the MP3 to get the playing approach that is appropriate here. You can listen to the MIDI to pick up on this specific arrangement. A key source that I used to get started on this was found at www. Jerry is still interested in this piece. I've rearranged things so that the trumpet is carrying melody. In the mean time, it is what it is. It is a Roumanian style hora, not an Israeli style. The harmony parts are a 3rd or 4th below the melody and a 5th or 6th below the melody.
Trombone and flute are currently scored to play a counter. At Rich's suggestion most of the glissandos have been removed from the trombone part. This is a classic Yiddish Khanukah favorite. This is an original composition by Shpilkes's own Arnie Harris.
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Arnie and Barb are channelling Peter, Paul and Mary on the recording. The alto sax part was based on the the trombone part. The trombone glissandos now reflect what is in the book. The clarinet and flute have high melody parts. The violin and trumpet have low versions of the melody.
The trumpet can play the tenor or a transposition of the alto instead of being heavy on the melody. The piano is just the melody and the octaves of the bass line, sorry! I hope to get to it soon. This is still in progress. The freylekhs part was pulled from Klezmer Band Folio, Yale Klezmer Band and thus started as a pretty complete orchestration. The hora part is from The Compleat Klezmer and thus started as a lead sheet. I am still expanding the orchestration in that part.
This is a very exciting bulgar. I have heard a number of variations. The book has an alto sax part but no tenor sax part. I have constructed the tenor part by using liberal quotes from the alto part and from the violin part. The violin part is NOT a melody part! The violin part is most definitely a harmony part. In the violin score, the melody is a C transposition of the clarinet part. The primary violin part in the book is the second part in this score.
Metropolitan Klezmer has a recording flute, bass and hand drums. This arrangement is so spare because that is the direction I am taking our performance. However, I doubt that we will try to come with a ney flute. I'm making some progress on this. There is more to come.
I finally found an arrangement to emulate and expand on. Despite being titled as just a hora, this is a medley of a Romanian hora and a bulgar. The combination of starting slow and then kicking up the pace works particularly well. This is a medley of a Roumanian hora and a bulgar.
I haven't transcribed that yet. The B part has this great circus feel to it. This is a medley of Russishe Sher , No. This the same song as No. The arrangement is very different. It arrangement is basically the same as the December ? The only real change is that I've added a drum part. The MIDI will be useful in understanding the drum rhythms.
Polish Oberek No. 1 scored for Any Klezmer instrumentation
Note that in the individual reed parts I have a melody, accompaniment and counter melody. The counter melody is the basis of the alto sax and trombone parts. The midi that I am including here has the clarinet playing melody on the first pass and accompaniment on the second.
The trumpet reverses that. I believe it is a Shlomo Carlebach melody. This freylekhs is in the A and B sections the same as Shtiler Bulgar. The C section is a little different. The melody was made into the swing standard, "As the Angels Sing". This is a nice freylekhs with an interesting bass vamp.
We actually play it a bit slower than in the recordings. Starting in , "The Other Europeans" project, funded by several EU cultural institutions,  spent a year doing intensive field research in Moldavia under the leadership of Alan Bern and scholar Zev Feldman. They wanted to explore klezmer and lautari roots, and fuse the music of the two "other European" groups. The resulting band now performs internationally. A separate klezmer tradition had developed in Israel in the 20th century.
In order to preserve and promote klezmer music in Israel, Burstein founded the Jerusalem Klezmer Association , which has become a center for learning and performance of Klezmer music in the country. According to Walter Zev Feldman , the klezmer dance repertoire seems to have been relatively uniform across the areas of Jewish settlement in the Russian Empire.
Historically, young klezmorim learned tunes from their family and their elders in bands. However, there were several times in history where this transmission broke down, including mass emigration, but especially the Holocaust , which destroyed most of Jewish life and culture in Europe.
Few scions of klezmer dynasties remained in Europe, one notable exception being Leopold Kozlowski of Poland. Undoubtedly, much has been lost of the repertoires played in various locations and social contexts—especially wedding repertoire, since although Jewish weddings could last several days, early recording technology could only capture a few minutes at a time.
Also, recordings specific to one area may not have represented klezmer repertoire from other parts of the region. A few older klezmorim—such as Leon Schwartz , Dave Tarras , and German Goldenshtayn —survived into the klezmer revival era and could recall some forgotten repertoire. Also, some transcriptions survive from the 19th century. Some ethnomusicological work from Jewish Eastern Europe is still available in print, notably the work of Soviet Jewish field researcher Moshe Beregovski.
In the 21st century, klezmer is typically learned from " fake books " and transcriptions of old recordings, although the music was traditionally transmitted and learned by ear. Most klezmer tunes are in several sections, sometimes with each in a different key. Many songs have alternating sections with major and minor keys. Klezmer music often uses "folk scales ," or scales commonly found in folk music, such as the harmonic minor and phrygian dominant. Instrumental tunes often follow the types of chord progressions found in Middle Eastern and Greek music, whereas vocal Yiddish songs are often much simpler, and follow a style and chord progressions similar to Russian folk songs.
Freylekhs are often in the form ABCB, which is rare in music. Having a third distinct section is a relatively unique aspect of klezmer music. A common ending for songs is an upwards chromatic run or glissando , followed by a slow staccato They may also end with a Coda, a new melodic line that is accompanied by a change in the percussion rhythm and an increase in tempo.
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Klezmer is generally instrumental, although at weddings klezmorim traditionally accompanied the vocal stylings of the badkhn wedding entertainer. A typical 19th-century European orchestra included a first violin , a contra-violin or modified 3-stringed viola also called Groyse Fidl [Yid. Other instruments such as a piano or an accordion are used too. The melody is generally assigned to the lead violin, while the other instrumentalists provide harmony, rhythm, and some counterpoint the latter usually coming from the second violin or viola.
The inclusion of Jews in tsarist army bands during the 19th century led to the introduction of typical military band instruments into klezmer. The clarinet now often played the melody.
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Brass instruments—such as the French valved cornet and keyed German trumpet —eventually inherited a counter-voice role. The orchestration used by Joel Rubin —one of the most experienced and knowledgeable contemporary klezmer musicians—represents a historically justified link with that of contemporary ethnic music ensembles of Romania and Hungary. Percussion in early 20th-century klezmer recordings was generally minimal—no more than a wood block or snare drum.
The snare drum is the more "authentic" of the two. Wood blocks were introduced by modern klezmorim to imitate recordings from the early 20th century that replaced snare drums—which tended to overwhelm the recording equipment of the time—with quieter instruments. In Eastern Europe, percussion was often provided by a drummer who played a frame drum , or poyk , sometimes called baraban. A poyk is similar to a bass drum and often has a cymbal or piece of metal mounted on top, which is struck by a beater or a small cymbal strapped to the hand.
In Bulgaria, Serbia, and Macedonia, sometimes the paykler drummer also played in the tapan style, i. Some klezmer revival bands look to loud-instrument klezmer, jazz , and Dixieland for inspiration. Their bands are similar to a typical jazz band, with some differences. They use a clarinet , saxophone , or trumpet for the melody, and make great use of the trombone for slides and other flourishes. When a cymbalom sound is called for, a piano may be played. There is usually a brass instrument ensemble, and sometimes a tuba substitutes for bass.
Klezmer instrument choices were traditionally based, by necessity, on an instrument's portability. Music being required for several parts of the wedding ceremony, taking place in different rooms or courtyards, the band had to relocate quickly from space to space. Further, klezmorim were usually itinerant musicians, who moved from town to town for work. Therefore, instruments held in the hands clarinet, violin, trumpet, flute or supported by a neck or shoulder strap accordion, cimbalom, drum were favored over those that rested on the ground cello, bass violin , or needed several people to move piano.
In America, this trend has continued into the present day, with hand-held or strap-held instruments like guitars, saxophones, and even harmonicas integrated into klezmer ensembles. For example, the typical American klezmer wedding band uses a portable electronic synthesizer, not a piano.
The compositions of Israeli-born composer Ofer Ben-Amots incorporate aspects of klezmer music, most notably his composition Klezmer Concerto. The piece is for klezmer clarinet written for Jewish clarinetist David Krakauer ,  string orchestra, harp and percussion. In its historic form, klezmer was live music designed to facilitate dancing. Hence, musicians adjusted the tempo as dancers tired or better dancers joined in. Tunes could drag to a near-halt during a particularly sad part, picking up slowly, and eventually bursting into happy song again.
This is also a feature of many Rom and Russian folk songs. Like other musicians of their time, and many modern jazz performers, early klezmorim did not rigidly follow the beat. Often they slightly led or trailed it, giving a lilting sound. Klezmer is usually played in shteygerim , prayer modes of the synagogue. They are closely related to Greek, Turkish, and other "co-territorial" modes of Southeastern and Central Europe.
The following are the names of these modes; the names are taken from the names of familiar prayers that use that mode imagine an American composer referring to a piece as "a Grand Old Flag" instead of as "a march". Ahavo Rabboh means "Abounding Love" in Hebrew, and refers to a prayer from the daily morning prayer service shacharis. It is built on the 5th degree of the harmonic minor scale, with a descending tetrachord to the tonic being the most characteristic final cadence.
It is also called the " Freygish ", a Yiddish term derived from the German "Phrygisch", or Phrygian mode specifically, the Phrygian dominant scale. It is considered the mode of supplication. It is similar to the Arabic Hijaz maqam. Much of klezmer music uses the Ahavah Rabboh scale such as Nigun Rikud, Tish Nigun and numerous freylekhs , although Mi Sheberach is prevalent as well. Mi Shebeirach means "He who blessed" in Hebrew, from the Mi Shebeirach prayer, recited after the honor of being called to the Torah reading.
It is similar to the natural minor scale, but has raised fourth and sixth scale degrees, and is used often for the doina or dance pieces, like the Odessa Bulgar. Adoyn-y Moloch means "my Lord reigns" in Hebrew. It is common in traditional synagogue services they are the beginning words of many of the Psalms. It is similar to the Western Mixolydian mode and can be thought of as a major scale with a lowered 7th, which is sometimes raised at cadences, but is generally avoided altogether. Mogen Ovoys means "our forebears' shield" in Hebrew. It is an older mode from the synagogue , derived from the Friday night prayers.
It is similar to the Western melodic minor scale. Yishtabach means "it shall become superb" in Hebrew from the daily morning services. It has a frequent lowering of the 2nd and 5th. It is related to Mogein Ovoys , above. Media related to Klezmer at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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