And, to focus more narrowly, the two Gypsies, representatives of Oriental otherness in war-torn and philistine Europe, are the ultimate symbol of late Romantic selfunderstanding, vehicles of one of the last versions of the Romantic poetic utopia, symbol of healing for all the ills of Biedermeier Germany or Austria. But it is precisely the Romantic selection of the Gypsy — among all possible Oriental ethnic groups — which is most remarkable about this tale.
For of course the Romantic Gypsy utopia entirely fails to correspond to the reality of Gypsy life around Gypsies, Utopias and Counter-Cultures in Modern German Cultural History 49 degree than even the Jewish nation Jews were at least tolerated absolutely the most despised ethnic group. Naturally this had to do with their vagrant status and irredeemably low public esteem.
In every German state save Austria they were obliged by law on pain of death as vogelfrei to cross the border of wherever they happened to be. With no national territory, they were therefore obliged to make their home everywhere and nowhere, de facto outside of society, in fields and forests — in nature, and to make their scarce living by disreputable trades or theft. The negativity and marginalisation of the Gypsies rather like that of woman in patriarchal discourse paradoxically only increased their suitability as a poetic symbol of sheer Otherness, and precisely this is what Brentano exploits.
Nicholas Saul and Susan Tebbutt 50 lithe physicality as a Naturvolk which Brentano gleefully translates into his particular brand of aestheticised eroticism and their historical trajectory the myth of the return to Egypt, which Brentano translates into Romantic Heilsgeschichte. But this criticism is hardly the point. For none of this prevented the Gypsies around from serving as the perfect symbol of everything a Romantic utopian looked for.
This is also the case for much of the nineteenth century in Germany, through texts which cannot be explored here,8 at least up to Thomas Mann, whose Gypsies symbolise everything Gustav Aschenbach is not. The Romantic paradigm of the Gypsy, then, which effectively silences the Gypsy voice even as it preaches emancipation and transcendence, exerts a dominating influence over the literary representation of the Gypsy in the nineteenth century. It thus inaugurated and controlled the discourse on the Gypsy for this period. We shall now consider to what extent this received discourse of the Gypsy retained its power in the twentieth.
Counter-Cultures and the Twentieth Century In the eighteenth and nineteenth century the presentation of the Romany universe in normal German culture tended to be restricted to the Orientalist mode. It was an oppositional life-style, a bohemian liberated and liberating space, an escapist aesthetic utopia, which was available to cultivated Germans either in literature or in life. After Adorno signalled the perils of attempting to produce poetry after Auschwitz, and it is equally hard to see how after the extermination of half a million European Romanies the cultural history of the German-speaking world could continue unabashed to present the world of the Gypsies as a utopia.
It was not until the s that Romany voices were raised and the dystopian spaces around the Gypsy experience acknowledged.
- The Shadow Effect (Varia) (Italian Edition).
- Shop with confidence;
- Jesus Is: Find a New Way to Be Human.
Ethnicity and the Search for Utopia in the Early Twentieth Century Among the Expressionist writers and artists at the start of the twentieth century there was an enthusiasm for other cultures, for other peoples, whether they lived in Europe or beyond. Otto Mueller — — who reputedly had Gypsy blood and spent several extended periods with Eastern European Gypsies — created images of their proud independent culture.
In an exhibition in Bonn in some images of Gypsies bore witness to the ethnicity and individuality of the Romanies, rather than showing them as outsiders. Yet this artistic utopian landscape peopled by bronzed bodies, by angular and often distorted facial features, and scruffy clothing, defiantly staring out at the viewer, this glorification of what appeared more like a primitive tribe, was pronounced unacceptable, likely to inspire only disgust. Although these works portrayed the reconciliation of man and nature, and opposed urbanised civilisation, they were considered decadent, not in line with Nazi classicist ideals of beauty.
The images of Gypsies flowing from the brushes and charcoal of Mueller and Pankok were thus among the many banned by Hitler as degenerate in the infamous Exhibition of Entartete Kunst in Munich in Their works were proscribed, removed from public view, consigned to the storerooms of the galleries. After this cultural cleansing, Pankok comments in on how only one of the many Gypsies he had painted had actually survived the Holocaust. The others fell, victims of ethnic cleansing. In his speech on Post Acknowledgement of Dystopia After the Romanies were no longer officially persecuted.
But does this mean that they ceased to be part of a counter-cultural group? The fact that some forty years after the end of the war many Gypsies had still not received compensation from the German and Austrian governments was proof enough of the continuity of anti-Gypsyism. In cultural terms Romanies still do not form part of the dominant discourse and are marginalised. At a time when the heyday of socially critical literature in Germany was over, the Austrian writer Erich Hackl began to emerge as the champion of the underdog, the exposer of the iniquities suffered by various minority groups, be they in Europe or South America.
Interwoven with the story of the life of the young Gypsy girl Sidonie Adlersburg, who is adopted by an Austrian family, and later deported to a concentration camp, is the reflective discourse around later governmental and public responses to these events. The key issue is Gadzo non-Romany complicity in the crimes. Gypsies, Utopias and Counter-Cultures in Modern German Cultural History 55 issue of the play, but the bomb explodes before the play begins. For Jelinek it is the cultural representation of the deaths, and the media indifference and insensitivity, the oscillation between images of misery and banality, the failure to see beyond the surface, which intrigues.
The play is not only about the deaths but their memorialisation, the place which they take in history. Yet in both works they emerge as an important part of the literary counter-culture, and illustrate the cultural diversity of the contemporary German-speaking world. How do the minority group themselves react, respond, generate a new genuine counter-culture? Written down some fifty years after the end of the war, these autobiographies highlight the counter-culture, the culture of the Romanies, which was targeted for extermination 12 Cultural history does not only relate to works of literature.
Cultural memorials to the past can also be seen as an attempt to acknowledge dystopia. Since the s a substantial number of monuments and plaques have been erected in cities, towns and other sites which mark the events of the Nazi regime in which Gypsies were deprived of their liberty, tortured and murdered. In the debate over the memorial to the Sinti and Roma in Berlin the old concerns about whether the dystopian images should be brought into the foreground are raised again.
Driven by the wish to record the traumas which they had experienced, and perhaps themselves exorcise some of the pain, the Romanies use writing as a form of therapy. Whilst recording the depths of depravation and inhumanity of the Nazi period, they attempt with remarkable lack of bitterness to create a culture of tolerance and understanding, to recapture those idyllic days in which they led a life free of threats of violence and abuse.
The heterogeneity of the autobiographies is striking. Here the Romany counter-culture forms part of a further subculture — a regional counter-culture. Oliver, born in Swabia to Spanish parents, who mixes the Alemannic with the Andalusian. When Alfred Lessing writes of having to play in front of Nazi officials in Buchenwald he is describing the paradoxical attitude to countercultures — the Nazi at once proscribed Romanies and yet were perfectly willing to enjoy their musical talents be it wittingly, or as in the case of Alfred Lessing who played for the SS in Buchenwald concentration camp, unwittingly, since they did not know that he was in fact a Romany.
Oliver also interweaves writing and singing and has made a number of CDs in which he reads or sings his work. Gypsies, Utopias and Counter-Cultures in Modern German Cultural History 57 In the writing of all these Romanies and in the art of Karl and Ceija Stojka, both now internationally acclaimed as artists who depict the horrors of the Holocaust, the dystopian world of the concentration camp is described in all its inhumanity and excesses of barbarism. Although relatively few of their works relate unambiguously to the experience of Romanies — some refer to those of Jews and other persecuted groups — the aim is to create an aesthetic space in which the relatively utopian contours of a nomadic lifestyle prior to the introduction of strict laws preventing movement from one town to another are juxtaposed with the horrors which succeeded it.
Conclusion In the cultural history of the German-speaking world the art and writing about and by the Romanies illustrate the weakness of talking of a major and a minor culture. Although the works of both Mueller and Pankok were condemned as degenerate, they diverge from the officially accepted art culture in different ways.
The Romany may appear as a form of noble savage, a primitive in an utopian landscape, as in the works of Mueller, but for Pankok social inequality is signalled in his inner emigration to a cultural space beyond the Nazi propaganda machinery. After it is impossible to represent the Romanies without the Holocaust casting its shadow. The idea of utopian images of Gypsies seems a contradiction in terms. The continuity of anti-Gypsyism is perpetuated by the journalists, but Jelinek interrogates the melodramatically dystopian media images of the Oberwart bombing and sets against them her own counter-interpretation.
Rather than being seen as forming a minority alternative group within society, the work of the Romanies is no longer to be comprehended exclusively in terms of a counter-culture, in opposition to something which is not, but as a valid culture in its 58 Nicholas Saul and Susan Tebbutt own right. This recognition of dystopia and the reaching to reclaim utopia should not be dismissed summarily as a counter-culture, but should be appreciated as an integral part of the multicultural world of Germany and Austria today.
Works Cited Agnew, V. Saul, D. Steuer, F. Baumhauer, Ursula. Bhabha, Homi K. Breger, C. Ortlosigkeit des Fremden. Brentano, C. Schaub Hg , Clemens Brentano. Franz, P. Geertz, C. Selected Essays London, Fontana 3— Grellmann, H. Hackl, E. Abschied von Sidonie Zurich, Diogenes, Schriften, Hg P. Kluckhohn, R. Samuel, H. Schulz, 6 vols Stuttgart, Kohlhammer, — , I, pp.
Kurzke, H. Romantik und Konservatismus. Lessing, A. Malsch, W. Poetische Rede des Novalis. Mannheim, K. Ideologie und Utopie. Frankfurt aM, G. Schulte-Bumke, First edition, Mettbach, A. Milton, S. Reinhardt, L. Roland, B. Rosenberg, O. Das Brennglas Frankfurt aM, Eichborn, Said, E. Western Conceptions of the Orient Harmondsworth, Penguin, Saul, N. Tebbutt, S. Vietta, S. Die literarische Moderne. Welch, D. Winter, W. Zantop, S. Colonial Fantasies. The Burschenschaften and the German Counter-Cultural Tradition Throughout their history the Burschenschaften have been associated with strong nationalist tendencies.
Their public image has always gone hand in glove with the political intentions and positioning of German nationalism, which from the later nineteenth century onwards locates them in the right-wing regions of the political spectrum. From at the latest, modern German nationalism, reduced from its original complexity to the simple priority of establishing national unity, was a conservative force that aimed at consolidating an externally powerful and internally obedient nation which could challenge its neighbours for international supremacy.
The left-wing end of the political spectrum had meanwhile been claimed by the new movements of communism and socialism. However, prior to the appearance of these ideas to restructure a fully industrialised society, modern nationalism was the most left-wing element on the political scene because of its links with ideas promoted by the French Revolution, such as constitutional representative government. The levelling tendencies of nationalism, creating equal citizens of one nation, set it in direct opposition to absolutist dynastic systems.
It is in this politically progressive and socially revolutionary context of nationalism that the Burschenschaften originate. On the one hand, 62 Maike Oergel this investigation is a contribution to establishing the origins of modern German nationalism as politically progressive, as a radical opposition aiming at far-reaching social, political, and national reform. In other words, the essay asks whether there is a German tradition of opposition that is intrinsically flawed.
This approach redefines the perennial debate about the political nature of the early Burschenschaften and, in a more general sense, of German nationalism, which still revolves around the assumption that the German political tradition is profoundly antidemocratic and set against the values of Western rationalism and liberalism,2 by asking how and why solidly democratising tendencies promoting civil rights and social justice occur in close proximity to non-democratic activities which tend towards totalitarian dogmatism.
Although as a unique individual act it can only have signal function, the assassination of August von Kotzebue by Burschenschaftler Carl Sand represents these very different tendencies and persuasions: on the one hand, it can be regarded as an act based on the revolutionary desire for political liberation, i. The grandeur of France, for example, had already sparkled in the fountains at Versailles, before it was claimed by the revolutionary Republic. The recent study of the Burschenschaften by Dietrich Heither et al.
A similar view of the political tendencies of the Burschenschaften was put forward by Walter Grab see Grab, Ein Volk, — Researching German Jacobinism, Grab of course is keen to point out democratic tendencies in other German contexts. Revolutionaries, Traditionalists, Terrorists? It is evident that such violent opposition has proved counter-productive. Militant and radical fringes, committing acts of illegal violence to destabilise a system they find oppressive and exploitative, have repeatedly brought entire opposition movements into disrepute, thus paralysing all progressive powers.
The question arises to what extent there may be a direct line from Carl Ludwig Sand, whose actions precipitated the persecution not only of the Burschenschaften, but also of the entire liberal opposition, to the activities of the RAF and its descendant groups, who caused considerable problems to the self-understanding and efficacy of the Neue Linke.
A close analysis of the political and national ideas that informed the early Burschenschaft movement will shed light on the nature of any German peculiarity regarding political tradition and especially political radicalism, and also suggest a number of parallels to radical opposition movements in West Germany in the late s and early s.
Let me begin with a brief look at the political and intellectual background to the nationalism of the Befreiungskriege. Between and the basis for the modern German identity was laid. Political and cultural self- definitions of a modern German nation were in competition, until they eventually combined around the crisis-point of , when after the Prussian military collapse Napoleon controlled much of central Europe.
The Sturm und Drang-movement demanded reform in both the cultural and social fields, but had a mainly cultural impact. The events of gave fresh impetus to political ideas of representative and constitutional government — the enthusiasm of the German intelligensia for the early phases of the French Revolution is quite legendary — but the German situation laid the double obstacle of feudal absolutism combined with territorial division in the path of such ideas.
These circumstances necessarily reinforced a link between political reform or revolution and national unity. But political enthusiasm declined in the wake of the Jacobin Terror and the unprogressive handling of the occupation of conquered German territories by the French. It was replaced with the notion of the Kulturnation, which claimed that culture needed to precede politics and suggested that German culture, unsullied by political involvement and unfettered by an ossified classicism, could prepare the culmination of human culture for the benefit of humanity.
Although Napoleon brought no small degree of constitutionalism to the states of the Rheinbund, he came to be seen by nationalists as a foreign oppressor whose sole aim was territorial conquest. A new political-ideological German nationalism mobilised resistance. So for once the princes and the intellectuals stood on the same side to mobilise the people.
This is a unique constellation in the revolutionary phase — And it is responsible for the peculiar mix of revolution- and tradition-based approaches to reform, which has been taken as evidence of the immature backwardness of German political thought. It was clear that, if Napoleon could be defeated, the situation would be conducive to lasting political, social and national reform. Feudal absolutism had been weakened by the upheavals of the Napoleonic Wars, and a nationally inspired resistance would pave the way towards national unity on a constitutional basis, in conjunction with the constitutional converts among the princes.
The Prussian government in particular saw no reason to dampen the zeal of the nationalists and worked hand in hand with progressive nationalist intellectuals, hoping the situation would lead to a united Germany under Prussian hegemony. Many of these young volunteers became the next generation of politically active students see Steiger, 42—3.
The previously defined cultural superiority is now harnessed to invest the need to fight French occupation with a world-historical dimension. Again, culture, in the shape of education, must precede political action, but political action is now paramount. In Friedrich Ludwig Jahn and Karl Friedrich Friesen put together an Ordnung und Einrichtung des deutschen Burschenwesens, a proposal to organise and mobilise students nationally into a political and military opposition in line with their own political and ideological aims of bourgeois emancipation and national unity.
The Ordnung propagated an active life in the service of Vaterland and the people, based on middle-class efficiency and the Protestant work ethic. They intended to politicise the students in order to facilitate their becoming socially responsible and politically active citizens. Jena, situated in the territory of liberal Grand Duke Carl August of Sachsen-Weimar, became one of the hotbeds of liberation, i. It was no surprise that the Urburschenschaft was founded here.
But it was also a class exceedingly dependent on the good will of the aristocratic rulers and their bureaucracies, because in the end they would seek jobs not in the independent areas of trade and commerce, but in those feudal 66 Maike Oergel administrations to secure their material existence. The great majority of Jena students were preparing for some sort of office in the gift of the state.
Since the s Jena University had attracted many young up-and-coming academics, among them Fichte, Schiller, Hegel, Schelling, and Schlegel, all of whom launched their academic careers here. Oken and Fries both lost their posts after and endured lengthy professional bans. In a ceremonial act the Landsmannschaften dissolved themselves and united as one, symbolising the overcoming of the territorial division of the nation. Notwithstanding this, the new charter endeavours to emphasise democratic structures: the constitution was read out and voted on, and accepted.
The Landsmannschaften also used some democratic structures, but were run along more oligarchic lines, priding themselves on their hierarchical set-up.
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They had a large underclass of trainees who had no rights. Interestingly much in the Jena Burschenschaft charter is taken verbatim from the constitution of the Vandalia Landsmannschaft. This has been explained as due to time pressure and to the need to achieve a widely acceptable consensus between old and new practices.
It is also clear that members of the Vandalia were the driving force behind the national reformation of student organisations. The Jena foundation ceremony in June occurred at an historically interesting point in time, less than two weeks after the foundation of the Deutscher Bund at the Congress of Vienna and three days before the battle of Waterloo.
Both events mark the political crossroads that had been reached: Waterloo establishes the window of opportunity for change, Vienna symbolises the powerful resistance to it. Although Article 13 of the Bundesakte, signed in Vienna, which promised constitutional rule, might have given the Burschenschaftler some hope, the Deutscher Bund was dedicated to safeguard the 68 Maike Oergel absolutist forms of dynastic and monarchic government, and hardly any constitutions came to be agreed.
One unsurprising exception was Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, which received a liberal constitution in June , even guaranteeing the freedom of the press. However, due to increasing pressure from Austria and Prussia, this freedom was curtailed in and withdrawn in The politically progressive ideas were closely linked with a desire for national unity. The obvious lack of the latter and the widespread view that French models had become increasingly inviable resulted in a search for a distinctive German national tradition of reform.
The reformers were looking for a German tradition that supported change, were looking in fact for a precedent for a German revolution. The new historicist outlook, so prevalent among German intellectuals at the time, suggested that social, political and cultural innovations, in order to succeed, needed to be in keeping with tradition and history. The supporters of representative constitutions were a decided minority, and the notion of the separation of powers was rejected.
Traditional solutions based on representations of the estates were just about acceptable. The ideologues of this student movement, such as Arndt and Jahn, were Protestant, too. Hegel echoed this evaluation fairly precisely in his lectures on the philosophy of history. The link between the Christian and the Germanic, which had established itself as a standard topos in the German self-definition from the Revolutionaries, Traditionalists, Terrorists? The liberation of the individual consciousness was merely the moral basis for the political and national liberation to come, a notion that fits in well with the German idea that culture needs to precede politics.
So the politically responsible and active Burschenschaftler felt called upon to complete the Reformation. This search for a tradition led to an over- emphasis on what was considered original Germanness, which included Francophobia and anti-semitism. Revolutionary ideas were so closely linked with this Teutomania, that the one indicated the other. Steiger observes that conservative authorities viewed these clothes as a German variant of the French Sansculottes Steiger, The link between Jacobinism, nationalism and Teutomania, and their shared revolutionary nature, was taken to be an established fact for several decades, as the assessment of the conservative historian K.
Menzel of shows. The Jena Burschenschaft set about planning the two-day event of the Wartburgfest, a sort of national student congress. Jahn and Luden were closely involved in the preparations, Fries and Oken attended. It inaugurated the next phase in the development of the Burschenschaften. It seems that this frustration led to the inofficial act for which the Wartburgfest is really in famous, and which signals the beginning radicalisation of some parts of the Burschenschaft movement: the burning of books and other symbolic items on the evening of 18 October on the nearby Wartenberg.
All the books burnt were recent publications. It has been pointed out that attendance by universities from the south of Germany was sparse, because of their more predominantly Catholic student intake and the abiding suspicion of southern students that the German unity advocated in Burschenschaft circles was really a unity under Prussian hegemony. He was a moderate, who despite his commitment to German national unity, held the ideals of the French Revolution and of French legalism in high regard.
See Steiger, — Its burning has been interpreted as an indication of the political immaturity of the students, who, blinded by their Teutomania, could not see the constitutional foundations embedded in these laws. They also threw into the fire what they regarded as symbols of physical and ideological oppression by superpower militarism and authoritarianism, i.
These insubordinate acts of anarchic destruction gave the conservative rulers throughout the Confederation the occasion to act tough. There can be no doubt that many were worried. Although they demonstrated progressive criticism of the princes, their authors at the same time hoped for acceptance by and assistance from the feudal regents Steiger, —7. At this point, the split between a moderate majority, whose political opinions and commitment were vague, and a radical politicised wing became apparent. Internally, the spectrum of the politicised members also stretched from moderate to radical.
Unlike Riemann, Karl Follen reckoned that this sovereignty of the people was unlikely to be achieved through an alliance with the princes, or even by peaceful means. It would require politicising the masses, which would in turn lead to uprisings and the eventual breakdown of the current system. The Lied conceives of political revolution as a religious crusade that politically completes the spiritual process initiated by the Reformation.
In a grand historical panorama it associates the desired national liberation with an ancient Teutonic drive for independence from the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, its political and social aims were clear: the overthrow of the feudal lords and the priesthood. When unrest broke out among the peasants in the Odenwald region in the autumn of , the Schwarzen hoped that this might be the beginning of the revolution.
Level one is more moderate and focuses on ancient German traditions. See Steiger, The Reformation has a crucial status in this countercultural identity. Historicist thinking decreed that only if the revolution were anchored in a German tradition would its realisation be plausible and successful. The French Revolution and the German Reformation are the constant reference points in the discussion about political change in Germany at this time.
The French Revolution, particularly its violent and regicidal phase, was by many national ist reformers considered to be a failure rather than a model. Riemann wished to make clear that the German Burschenschaftler were no French revolutionaries. And yet the Revolution and Reformation were seen as related. The Reformation was the more promising German version of the French Revolution.
Nor did the religious language or the appeal to an ancient German past suggest to the reactionary-conservative authorities that these people were political traditionalists. This equation between spiritual and political freedom was turned into a historical relation — one precedes the other — by constitutionally minded theological thinkers in the early decades of the nineteenth century and became a commonplace in liberal thinking. It is important to note in this context that this equation is a topos congenial to rationalist interpretations as well as to more Romantic or Pietistic approaches that prioritise a living inner spirit of freedom and justice, as evinced by the post-rationalist generation of Protestant theologians such as Schleiermacher and de Wette.
All these interpretations share a focus on the need to complete the Reformation in the name of spiritual and political progress see Lange, — Do such metaphysical and spiritual concerns invalidate any political democratic principles, as has been argued by those who take modern German political traditions to be intrinsically non-Western? Does the spiritual always render the political irrational? Does this endeavour to base reform or revolution not only on political, but also on spiritual and historical principles necessarily lead to dogmatic self-aggrandisement?
The national ist element, trimmed with spiritual and cultural traditions, is dubious in both interpretations. Its presence has led to a devaluation of the democratic and constitutional trends in German thought in Western assessments, in GDR treatments it has been brushed aside as a lamentable error of immaturity. Yet it was integral at the time. In a pre-industrial economic situation only the revolutionary national Volk can occupy 15 See Heither et al.
Their democratic principles and structures were realised — reasonably successfully compared to early twentieth-century attempts — on German soil in the later twentieth century, while their exclusion of foreigners and Jews, common in Burschenschaft thinking, foreshadows German fascism.
Their theory of resistance also foreshadows arguments put forward by late twentieth-century German terrorists. Ins Gewehr! Apart from leading the masses into revolt, Karl Follen considered the single violent act against an unrepresentative and repressive system not only a legitimate, but also a successful weapon.
Follen made plans to set up a revolutionary organisation that would have revolutionary cells nationwide. After , Follen could not stay in Germany. To escape arrest, he first fled to Switzerland , but in made for the greater safety of the United States. He planned to found a democratic German state as part of the American federation. Once there, he returned to an academic career, introducing the teaching of German language and literature at Harvard.
However, he was removed from his Harvard post after he became active in the cause of liberating another group of oppressed people, the black slaves. He became an American citizen in See Steiger, —6. After a failed suicide attempt Sand was arrested and tried, and finally, on 20 May , executed. This month span is a phenomenally long gap to intervene between arrest and verdict, especially in a case where there is such a self-evident perpetrator to a crime, who never denied his deed. The drawn-out nature of the case is an indicator of the impact of the deed on the legal and political landscape of the Confederation.
The assassination caused a stir all over Germany. A few months later 1 July , there was an attempt on the life of the Nassau prime minister Karl Ibell. There were even suggestions that a black list of targets existed Haaser, It was widely believed that Sand belonged to an extensive underground conspiracy aimed at the absolutist system. Sand took great care not to implicate his comrades. He denied acting on behalf of an organisation, probably to protect his friends. He was not believed, but no directly incriminating evidence could be unearthed to connect Follen to the attack probably because Follen had had the foresight Revolutionaries, Traditionalists, Terrorists?
Part of a group or not, Sand had, in true PietisticProtestant tradition, executed the demands of his conscience. Not surprisingly, he saw his action in the context of completing the Reformation. Uwe Backes has recently pointed out to what extent terrorism relies on the media to amplify the impact of terrorist activities and to what extent media and terrorists are in an almost symbiotic relationship: spectacular attacks make good copy and extensive coverage makes the most of the deed Backes, The resonance of the Kotzebue assassination in the press was phenomenal.
His political views were conservative, and his provision of information to the Tsar, which had become public the year before, made him a hate-figure in the eyes of the bourgeois opposition. Large numbers of sympathisers lined the streets to the scaffold, some in mourning garb, most of them silent, a few expressing their admiration for Sand. The Wartburgfest and the Kotzebue assassination did not start a revolution, they instead radicalised the forces of Reaction. The Karlsbad Decrees, orchestrated by Metternich, were a direct consequence of the assassination.
They banned the Burschenschaften as criminal and treasonous, re-enforced strict censorship of the press, introduced strict and unaccountable policing of the universities, and made it possible to prosecute as demagogues the leading figures of the national-democratic movement. A Central Commission — the first confederation-wide institution of any kind — was set up in Mainz to implement and co-ordinate the investigations and prosecutions, and Metternich mobilised his network of secret agents to keep anything suspect under surveillance.
The measures of the Karlsbad Decrees were hardline, their creation partly illegal. The Decrees were discussed and prepared at the Karlsbad conference in August , to which Metternich had only invited the ten most powerful members of the Deutscher Bund, whom he considered most reliable. This contravened article 3 of the Bundesakte, which guarantees the same rights to all member states. This was noticed as early as To even prepare the preparations, Metternich had held a secret summit with Prussia a few days before Karlsbad, meeting with Friedrich Wilhelm and Hardenberg at Teplitz.
They also agreed co-ordinated action at the forthcoming conference. To ensure a unanimous vote in favour, which was necessary for additions to the Bundesakte, member states which had not been present in Karlsbad were left in no doubt by the superpowers about how to instruct their representatives. The usual debating period of fourteen days was shortened to four and the reservations that were voiced in Frankfurt were only recorded in a secret protocol.
The official protocol of the meeting only recorded the unanimous vote. On 26 Nov , the Jena Burschenschaft officially disbanded, and the bourgeois opposition was silenced for ten, if not twenty years. There is a generation conflict. They suspect that, despite promises to the contrary, reactionary forces are setting up the same old nasty system again. In the case of the Burschenschaften the period of turmoil originates in French Revolution and its political and military consequences, in the case of the s revolutionaries it is the extended period of instability beginning with the outcome of World War I and leading up to their present.
The historical situation has effected a moment of unusual liberality, a window of freedom that allows ideas of complete political change to flourish. Students and universities, i. But the fact that some radical professors are older than their students does not deny the fact that they too may stand against a system that is supported and condoned by a generation whose values are drawn from an earlier period of monarchical absolutism in this case.
They are convinced they are in the right because their consciences are clear, applying the dogmatic method of self-analysis and self-justification that originates in the Protestant and Pietistic background, which many of the radical activists share; Sand for example shares such a background with Meinhof and Ensslin. Neither movement manages to get mainstream opinion, bourgeois or proletarian, on whose behalf they thought they were fighting, actively on their side. In both cases the activists question, and threaten, the basic self-understanding of the state, which reacts with relatively severe measures.
Leonard Krieger argued in his study The German Idea of Freedom, with specific reference to the political aims of the radical elements of the Burschenschaften, that social rootlessness and critical dissatisfaction produced a critical negativity regarding political systems: The critical motif remained dominant even in the constructive process of working out a positive democratic system. The persistence of a strongly negative approach denoted the exclusive sponsorship of political radicalism by socially uprooted intellectuals, whose characteristic political expression consisted precisely in universal criticism rather than concrete engagement.
The general criticism of society involved […] the specific revulsion against the state as such. Krieger, Such an anti-state attitude of critical negativity applies to the RAF too. The German political tradition is the lack of a continuous political tradition. This includes the absence of a clearly defined tradition of opposition. Instead there is a plurality of different 28 The difference is that most of the political-constitutional demands made by the student activists around seem to have been validated by the historical process.
They have become reality. On the other hand, many of the political ideas of the radical left-wingers of the late s, anti-capitalism and antiimperialism anti-Americanism in particular, seem to have become, after —90, invalidated by the historical process. But perhaps it is still too early to judge this. It is no coincidence that both the concepts of fascism and communism received clear definition in Germany.
Neither is it coincidental that rival enterprises of capitalism and communism could be set up within German borders, and last for 40 years. Equally, there is a democratic-progressive tradition, which runs from the constitutional hopes of the Befreiungskriege via the Frankfurt Parliament of —9, and the well-intentioned and ill-fated Weimar Republic, to its fulfilment either in the Arbeiter und Bauernstaat, as GDR historiography argued, or in the West German Grundgesetz, as the other side would have it.
On the other hand, there is the tradition of the Obrigkeitsstaat, running from Catholic and feudal dependence, through enlightened absolutism and Prussian militarism, to the authoritarian state of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Between and , none of these approaches had been able to establish a lasting presence. This leaves openness as well as insecurity, which allows radical oppositional fringes not just to exist, but to impact to a far greater extent than in a society that has an established political tradition.
In a situation of shifting or uncertain political structures, anarchic disturbances carry much greater weight. By the same token, the radical fringe feels more justification to suspect existing political structures whole-scale. Political unease expresses itself in radicalism and violence, which, although only practised by a tiny minority, provokes a severe reaction on the part of the state. This in turn helps to foster the notion, or the myth, of political incompetence and unreliability. In this context it is useful to remember that political violence in the name of national -democratic change was no isolated German phenomenon around Of course, the political unrest of the s had a decided international dimension, too.
But nowhere, with perhaps the exception of Italy, was the radical fringe as violent and as committed as in Germany. So the Burschenschaften, at least in their origin, emerge not so much as an example of the undemocratic nature of the German mainstream political tradition, but as an example of a political constellation where some believe that violent radicalism needs to spearhead democratic progress, a belief that gradually solidifying forms of democratic government and opposition would in time make unnecessary.
In Germany, however, this process of solidification was interrupted too often to succeed. Works Cited Backes, U. Bleierne Jahre. Baader-Meinhof und danach Erlangen, Staube, This assassination occurred against the background of the conspiratorial activities of the Charbonnerie, a secret society of ex-army personnel, students and republicans that aimed at overthrowing the Bourbon dynasty. In Britain the severity of the Karlsbad Decrees is mirrored in the fearful and hardline decision of the authorities in Manchester to violently disperse a large crowd of demonstrators by sending in mounted troops, a decision which resulted in killing or injuring scores of people, and which became known as the Peterloo Massacre.
These drastic measures were followed by strict censorship of publications and a prohibition of public gatherings. In response the radical wing of an extra-institutional opposition, led by Arthur Thistlewood, planned a republican coup for the spring of , which was betrayed. Grab, W. Noch ist Deutschland nicht verloren. Haaser, R. Haupt, H. Heither, D. Blut und Paukboden. Heydemann, G. Carl Ludwig Sand.
Kranepuhl, P. Jahrestages des Wartburgfestes Berlin, Akademie Verlag, , 80— Krieger, L. The German Idea of Freedom. Lange, A. Prignitz, C. Jahrestages des Wartburgfestes Berlin, Akademie Verlag, , 70— Nevertheless, throughout his career he kept upsetting his public, antagonised his critics, and was the focus of interventions by the censor and the police.
The actor Nestroy was the darling of mid-nineteenth century Vienna — and beyond, as his numerous guest appearances in Budapest, Prague and other cities of the Habsburg Empire as well as in Berlin, Hamburg, Frankfurt and other German urban centres, clearly demonstrate. The number of roles Nestroy performed is simply astonishing — from to his death, in , he played leading roles, 70 of them in his own plays.
To that end he used any source that showed promise of box-office potential, while refashioning the source thoroughly to create his own inimitable kind of play. In all the texts he wrote and performed he asserted his opinions about the world as he experienced it, opinions that were changing with the times, of course. There is hardly a play that did not reflect the wretched aspects of Austrian society. Nonetheless, he retained his immense popularity. It is a language that is not easily decoded today, since we lack the Performing Counter-Culture in the Vorstadt 89 experience of quotidian life in Habsburg Austria and can only guess at the specific subtext that a given word or phrase may have suggested.
Inevitably, their ears must have been finely tuned to the ways language reflected ethnic and social status. In addition, this audience was extremely sophisticated in matters theatrical, certainly no less so than our contemporary audiences are in regard to television, motion pictures and pop music. Consequently, Nestroy could to great effect exploit the genre of literary parody. Moreover, his plays frequently contained visual details and textual quotes that made fun of the classic German repertoire, opera and the popular melodrama of the time.
The mastery with which Nestroy deftly employed and at the same time satirised the prevalent contemporary conventions of drama and opera has not been surpassed by any dramatist since.
- Corazón traicionero (Bianca) (Spanish Edition).
- Back On Base.
- Selections From The State Papers Of The Governors-General Of India, Vol. I, Warren Hastings;
It should be no surprise that Nestroy offended quite a number of contemporary observers, among them fellow playwrights, journalists and other intellectuals, though there were also critics who greatly admired him. Condemnation of his writings and, especially, his acting ranged from the right to the left of the political spectrum. When reading reviews of his openings, and comments that appeared in memoirs and critical essays, one is often amazed how deeply he aggravated many of his critics. An especially amusing statement if we recall that Nestroy had read law at Vienna University for several years.
These were, of course, times — as W. Edgar Yates has pointed out — when the development of taste and manners in the German states paralleled that of the Victorian morality in England Yates, Nestroy and his Critics, Costenoble, —6 Remarkably, this was written eleven years before the revolutionary year of !
Vischer, Quite a condemnation, one has to admit. It must have been Nestroy, the performer, who provoked such reactions, as Gutzkow complained. The prolific ad-libbing, the innuendo by vocal inflection and mis-pronouncing of words, the pliable facial expression with its curl of the lip and wink of the eye, and the suggestive gesturing created with his long limbs and tall bony frame, set Nestroy apart from other contemporary performers. Scholz was short and fat, the perfect foil for the tall and bony Nestroy, who wrote leading parts for both of them into nearly every one of his plays.
Except for that brief period, Nestroy saw his scripts rigorously sanitised by the censors or sent back with a long list of required changes, if they were not entirely banned. He became an expert in self-censoring his texts while retaining lines and stage business that could be made trenchant again by the way they were performed. Performing Counter-Culture in the Vorstadt 93 The cunning with which Nestroy would insert subversive connotations into his performance has rarely been paralleled, nor has the way he braved a rigid censorship with his critique of contemporary social and political ills.
On several occasions he provoked the intervention of the police and was, even if briefly, incarcerated whereas he frequently had to pay substantial fines for his extemporising. If there was a place in the German states during the nineteenth century where counter-culture was performed, it was the stages Nestroy acted on during thirty-seven years, nearly every night of the theatrical season. Probably the audience was put off by scathing remarks about the ludicrous behaviour of those mightily revolutionary burghers who suddenly appeared on the scene while previously having been obedient subjects of the Metternich system.
The first one, Lady und Schneider, opened in early February It appeared to many of his liberal critics as a loathsome about-face, while conservative minds applauded lines such as: Das Volk ist ein Ries in der Wiegen, der erwacht, aufsteht, herumtargelt, Alles zusammtritt, und am End wo hineinfallt wo er noch viel schlechter liegt als in der Wiegen.
His songs were always cleverly constructed and strategically placed, their meaning could either be supported or contradicted by the accompanying music, not to mention the mimetic fashion in which he might deliver them. Her love for Heugeign does not keep her from criticising his frequent stupidities.
Her father, played by Scholz, is appalled by her declaration; he is the typical Vienna petit bourgeois who constantly fears for his property and yet considers leaving town at the slightest probability of political unrest. At the time, censorship had been re-established, even if in somewhat less restrictive fashion than under Metternich.
Furthermore, there always was occasion to manipulate the text in performance according to the way he wanted it to be understood. He also may have tried to convince the authorities of his loyalty, to avoid feasible repercussions that his well known stance during the revolution could have provoked. The son helped the political prisoner Reichthal to escape, then absented himself from his post and now is in hiding from the police. After a sequence of increasingly madcap actions and mishaps, the narrative is brought to an improbable Happy End without the Performing Counter-Culture in the Vorstadt 97 slightest pretext of a reasonable conclusion: all the scoundrels are punished and every boy gets his girl.
The patently absurd ending clearly signalled that in post-revolutionary Austria there were no Happy Ends when evil ministers would suddenly die and honest successors be appointed. Nestroy, as the proletarian Wendelin, entered with a song describing what would happen if Nature should rise against all the injustices the Heavens decreed. Banned from Austria, he emigrates with his young wife to Australia and is joined by their friend and benefactor — ostensibly for a better life than Austria offers.
Nestroy kept the bare skeleton of his source text but changed all of the characters.
Opening in November , it was a success with audiences and also most of the critics. Schnoferl eventually manages to blackmail him into handing back the money he had stolen from his victims. But this is clearly Vienna, and no one would have had any doubt about it. Yet, any reference to democratic values, the slightest hint smacking of criticism of the ruling system was not permitted. Food prices doubled within two years after In the city of Linz, one third of the population lived below the officially acknowledged poverty limit.
PzK Panzer und Selbstfahrlafetten ein. PzK und von einem Panzerregiment des 5. Juli an dem Angriff gegen das II. Das ebenfalls in der ersten Staffel angreifende sowjetische 2. Das Korps hatte schon vor dem Juli im Kampf gestanden und erhebliche Verluste erlitten. Das betraf ganz besonders das Marschall Vasilevskij, der Chef des sowjetischen Generalstabes, der am Abend des Juli bei der 5.
Panzerkorps in der Zeit vom 7. Panzerkorps an den Befehlshaber der 5. Der Angriffstermin wurde dann aber auf 3. Noch in der Nacht zum PzK als Ausgangsposition zugewiesene Abschnitt mittlerweile von den Deutschen eingenommen worden war. Der] Angriff [des PzK haben. Da General Rotmistrov davon ausging, dem II. CAMO 2, S. Neu geboren - bei Prochorowka, in: Der Freiwillige, Nr. Diese wurde um 6. GdPzA, der kurz nach der Panzerschlacht erstellt wurde. SS-PzK seien am Morgen des Juli fast gleichzeitig zum Angriff angetreten.
Ihre Hauptteile sollten am Morgen des PzK und des Die Panzer Vgl. Vopersal, W. Der Himmel ist voll Rauchsichtzeichen. Unsere Ar[t]i[llerie] hat keinen Beobachter vorn und sich auch nicht eingeschossen. Es regt sich nichts. Dann kommen sie. In mehreren Wellen mit aufgesessener Infante- rie. Panzer, und schon stiegen auch links des Bahndamms violette Rauchzeichen auf; also auch da Panzer. PzBrig des Ihre Reste gingen bereits um 9.
PzK die beiden Panzerbrigaden 31 und 32 an. GdPzA deckt, die um 8. Chronik , o. Das war einer der dramatischsten Tage, an die ich mich erinnern kann. Die korrekte Benennung lautete 6. In: Der Freiwillige, Nr. Und hier spielten sich nun unbeschreibliche Szenen ab. PzK an. Die erste Staffel bestand aus der PzBrig, die zweite Staffel aus dem GdPzRgt und die dritte aus der Die PzK standen. Das 1. Panzerkompanie befanden.
PzBrig folgte als zweite Staffel das An diesem Tag hat unser Regiment 62 feindliche Panzer abgeschossen. Meine Kompanie, die das erste Treffen fuhr, allein Bataillon der PzBrig weiter entlang des Psel vor und traf gegen Agte, Jochen Peiper, S. PzK vgl. Chronik der siebenten Panzerkompanie der 1.
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Laut dem Gefechtsbericht der 5. GdPzA wurden Teile des Juli war der Angriff des PzBrig hatte zu diesem Zeitpunkt etwa Soldaten und 40 Panzer verloren, die PzBrig bis zum Nachmittag etwa Soldaten und 44 Panzer. PzK erlitten. An dieser Stelle wird die PzBrig bezeichnet.
CAMO 1, Meldung vom Auch dort ist seit Allein das PzBrig des 2. Die drei Gardepanzerbrigaden 4, 25 und 26 des 2. Feindangriff mit etwa 70 Panzern und Infanterie auf I. Im KTB der 4. PzA wurden die Ereignisse beim II. Rosenheim , S. GdPzK und des 2. Der Weg der 2. Panzerbrigade des Der Batail- lonskommandeur, Hauptmann P. Eine Granate durchschlug die Seitenwand, und ein zweiter Treffer verwundete den Bataillonskommandeur.
Der brennende Panzer fuhr in voller Fahrt gegen den deutschen Panzer. Ein deutscher Romanautor steigerte die Dramatik dieser Episode noch. Es handelt sich um Karl Kollatz, der in einem Romanheft Rotmistrovs Darstellung offenbar widerlegen wollte. Den Ausgang dieser Episode stellte Kollatz jedoch anders dar. Dieser ist nicht einmal eine erfundene Vgl. Kollatz, K. Der erfolgreichste Panzerkommandant des II.
Anscheinend] suchen sie den Nahkampf, um unsere bessere Panzerung und Bewaffnung aufzuheben. Eine Gefechtsordnung ist nicht mehr vorhanden. Ich kann im letzten Au- genblick noch der fahrenden Bombe ausweichen. Die von Rotmistrov geschilderte Kollision hat es offenkundig gar nicht gegeben. Lemke, B. Simpson, G.
PzBrig am Bahndamm in Brand geschossen worden. PzK mit der 6. PzA in deren rechter Flanke offensiv abzudecken. Am Abend des Juli war es allerdings noch 20 bis 25 km von der Ortschaft entfernt. Zwischen der 4. Das III. In der Nacht vom Juli gelang es der 6. PzK und dem II. SS-PzK, zu bilden. Armee geschaffen. PzK und sah die linke Flanke seiner 5. GdPzA bedroht. In seinen Erinnerun- gen schrieb er, sein Stellvertreter, Generalmajor Trufanov, habe sofort den entsprechenden Befehl erhalten.
GdPzBrig des 2. GdPzK, das PzK zum Stehen bringen sollten. PzK begonnen und es sei zu einem erbitterten Panzergefecht gekommen. GdPzK abge- stellte GdPzBrig und das PzK den ganzen Abend des Juli angegriffen und zum Stehen gebracht, finden sich bereits in den sowjetischen Gefechtsberichten vgl.
PzK, das am Juli eine weitere Panzerschlacht, und zwar zwischen dem III. PD unterstellt worden war. Juli weniger als 60 einsatzbereite Panzer. Die 7. PD am Morgen des SS-PzK entstanden: Die 6. PD stand mit offenen Flanken am Severnyj Donec, die PD war noch nicht aufgeschlossen und die 7. Die 6. Somit standen am Abend des Juli in dem Gebiet, wo General Trufanov mit Teilen der 5. PzK abkommandiert. PzK in Marsch gesetzt. Paul, W. Die Geschichte der 6. Panzerdivision 1. Diese fanden allerdings meist an ihrer rechten Flanke und mehr als 50 km von Prochorovka entfernt statt. Diese wurden von der sowjetischen GdSD und der Armee, nicht zur 5.
PzK aus. Von einer Panzerschlacht mit dem Korps am PzK stattgefunden. PzK in die Flanke der 5. SS-PzK der 5. GdPzA verantwortlich machten. Juli in zweiter Staffel hinter dem PzK und dem 2. GdPzK das II. GdPzA, die im Verlaufe des Juli gegen das III. PzK in Marsch gesetzt wurden, wie die In der Tagesmeldung der Mehner, Die geheimen Tagesberichte, Bd. Juli nicht nur Rotmistrovs 5. GdPzA zum Gegen- angriff antreten, sondern ebenfalls die 1.
PzA sowie die 5. Das gemeinsame Operationsziel war die Einkesselung und Zerschlagung der gesamten deutschen 4. Diese bestand aus dem II. Juli stehen. Panzerarmee und der 6. Daher hatte die 5. Gardepanzerarmee die Hauptlast der Schlacht zu tragen. Seine Armee hatte in den vergangenen Tagen schwere Verluste erlitten. Juli wie befohlen zum Angriff antreten. PzK und das 6. PzK fielen dabei vornehmlich Deckungsaufgaben zu, denn es war besonders Vgl. Das LII. AK, das ebenfalls zur 4. GdA, die in der rechten Flanke der ArmeeAbt Kempf standen, traten wie befohlen zum Angriff an, waren jedoch wenig erfolgreich vgl.
PzA trafen auf die deutsche 3. Die Angriffe der 1. PzA zeichnete sich ab. Die 3. Lediglich die PD des Korps verblieb im Norden. Gegen PzA sowie der 5. Die 1. PzA war dennoch erfolgreicher gewesen als die 5. PzA und Teile der anderen beiden Armeen traten an jenem Tag trotz der an den Vortagen erlittenen schweren Verluste wie befohlen zum Angriff an.
PzA vgl. KTB 4. Geschichte des Panzer-Regiments 15 SS-PzK und der 5. Juli ihren Angriff begonnen hatte, um im Zusammenwirken mit den anderen drei Armeen die deutsche 4. PzA an der Gegenoffensive. Besonders letzterer Punkt erweist sich jedoch, wie oben dargestellt wurde, als haltlos. In Wirklichkeit verlor die gesamte deutsche 4. Alle anderen [sind] tot oder verwundet. Juli Panzer verloren, weil die Rote Armee Vgl. Kompanie, S.
Juli keine exakten Angaben vor, aber im Zeitraum vom PzK hatte von seinen eingesetzten Panzern und Selbstfahrlafetten verloren, davon als Totalverluste. Juli verlor die 5. Healy, M. The Tide turns in the East, London , S. Auf Bl. Dadurch ist auch die Gesamtsumme von Panzern um zwei zu hoch. Besonders hoch waren die Verluste der Offiziere, von denen fast so viele gefallen waren wie von den Mannschaften. Svedenija o bezvozvratnych poterjach tankov [ Sehr hoch waren auch die personellen Verluste der Armee, die bis zum Juli Panzer verloren haben.
SS-PzK war nicht zerschlagen worden. Es konnte am PzK vereinigen, der Tag wurde jedoch als Erfolg gewertet. Manstein, hat den Divisionen des II. Die Erfahrungen der sowjetischen 1. PzA, die bereits am 7. Juli versucht hatte, die deutsche 4. Juli gemacht.
Bei Gegenangriffen sollten die Panzer nur gegen leichte Fahrzeuge oder Infanterie eingesetzt werden. Den Befehl zum operativen Vgl. CAMO 4, S. Markin, die Kursker Schlacht, S. Die Haltung Vasilevskijs ist beson- ders erstaunlich, da er selbst einige Tage zuvor den umstrittenen Befehl, die Panzer der 1. PzA zur Verteidigung einzugraben, bei Stalin mit durchgesetzt hatte. Die Idee zum Nahkampf mit den deutschen Panzern stammte nach seinen eigenen Worten von ihm selbst.
Der Juli endete nicht mit einem Sieg der sowjeti- schen Truppen, sondern mit einer schweren taktischen Niederlage insbesondere der 5. Juli 3. Am Armee, das zum mindesten eine schnelle Entscheidung der Schlacht in Frage stellte. Weltkriegs bei Prochorowka [ Bei Anmerkung des Verfassers: Hier liegt eine Verwechslung vor. Meerbusch , S.
Panzerarmee] entwickelt sich die Krise [am Juli] mit lawinenhafter Geschwindigkeit weiter. Armee auf breiter Front zum Gegenangriff an. Auf Sizilien gewinnen die gelandeten Angloamerikaner gut Boden. Das ist alles sehr bitter. Die Lage bei der 2. Panzerarmee wird immer bedrohlicher. Bei Uljanovo hat der Russe fast schon den Durchbruch erreicht. Armee und der 2. August , bearbeitet von Hauptmann H. Graf v. In: Foerster, R. Bis zum Nach dessen Darlegungen sei Hitler von sich aus bereit gewesen, die Offensive einzustellen vgl. SS-PzK geendet hatte. Der Oberbefehlshaber der 4. Insbeson- dere beim II.
Die 4. PzA hatte sich zum Teil heftiger sowjetischer Angriffe zu erwehren. PD des III. Damit war der Keil zwischen den deutschen Angriffsspitzen beseitigt. Am selben Tag hielt Manstein eine Besprechung mit den Oberbefehlshabern der 4. PzA und der ArmeeAbt Kempf ab. PzA am Donec und die 6. Juli vgl. Kielmansegg, Bemerkungen eines Zeitzeugen, S. Juli die Zustimmung zu diesem begrenzten Schlag gegeben vgl. Juli begann. Diese war vom sowjetischen Oberkommando als Ablenkungsangriff geplant worden und wurde vor den Deutschen absichtlich nicht geheim gehalten. Auch das XXIV.
PzK mit der PzK vom CAMO 7, S. Juli an den Oberbefehlshaber der 1. PzA sandte. Erst jetzt erging der Befehl an das II. SS-PzK, nach Italien zu verlegen. Juli eine sowjetische Offensive begonnen hatte. Dieses Vorhaben wurde jedoch mit der am Juli beginnenden und schon seit einigen Tagen erwarteten sowjetischen Offensive an Donec und Mius gegenstandslos. Die von ihnen herausgestellten, vermeintlich entschei- Vgl. Sie wurde bereits Ende Oktober , mittlerweile in 1. Juli , in der Zeit vom 5. Juli seien 3.
Wolfgang Fleischer und Richard Eiermann schrieben beispielsweise, allein im Juli seien 1. Mostowenko, Panzer gestern und heute, S. Venkov, I. Bekanntlich wurden in Deutschland mehr als Hinzu kamen noch Selbstfahrlafetten anderer Typen. Juli begann, wie bereits beschrieben, eine sowjetische Offensive gegen das Donecbecken.
So verlor beispielsweise die Anmerkung des Verfassers: Die exakten Produktionszahlen des Jahres betrugen 5. Middeldorf, E. In: Wehrwissen- schaftliche Rundschau, Nr. Anlage 5 dieser Arbeit. P II meist keine Frontverluste waren. Chamberlain, P. Lon- don , S. Wenn an der gesamten Ostfront in den zwei Monaten 1. Sie hatten jedoch bereits am Rebentisch, E. Die Geschichte der Panzer-Division , Stuttgart , S. Anlage 6 dieser Arbeit.
Juli zur Offensive gegen Orel antraten. PD seien in keinem viel besseren Zustand gewesen. Die Totalverluste blieben jedoch wesentlich geringer. PD verlor bis zum PD verlor 5 Panzer von , die PD 27 von 76, die 3. PD 9 von 82 und die 7. PD 10 von Juli 25 Panzer in der Instandsetzung, bis zum selben Tag waren jedoch nur 3 total ausgefallen. Rokossowski, Soldatenpflicht, S. Nipe, Decision in the Ukraine, S. Die dramatische Geschichte einer Waffengattung , Stuttgart , S. Dunn, Kursk, S. Im Kriegstagebuch der Quartiermeisterabteilung der 4. Im Februar des folgenden Jahres waren insgesamt 1.
Und im Juli gingen an allen Fronten sogar 2. Die in zwei Monaten an der Ostfront verlorenen 1.
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Jentz, Die deutsche Panzertruppe, Bd. Die erste Dokumentation der offiziellen sowjetischen Angaben zu den Kriegsverlusten Vgl. Wassilewski, Sache des ganzen Lebens, S. Solowjow, B. Juli lediglich Kampfflugzeuge verloren haben. An der gesamten Ostfront gingen im Juli und August zusammen 1. Juli Flugzeuge vgl. Murray, W. The Luftwaffe , Washington D. Wenn z. Die Panzer, die vorigen Sommer abgeschossen waren und standen, fielen ihm im Winter wieder in die Hand! In einigen Wochen laufen vielleicht 50 v. Sokolov, B. Andererseits verbot es sich aber loszuschlagen, bevor der Gegner ausgeblutet war.
Panzerarmee, der 6. Die Woronesher und die Steppenfront erreichten am Juli die Hauptkampflinie des Gegners, konnten aber den Gegenangriff nicht fortsetzen, obwohl der Oberste Befehlshaber das von ihnen forderte. Schtemenko, Im Generalstab, S. Konew, Aufzeichnungen, S. In den vorangegangenen Kapiteln sind diese Ansichten untersucht und in Frage gestellt worden. Deshalb sollen an dieser Stelle nur wenige Gedanken dargelegt werden. Am Angriff gegen die Sowjetunion waren 30 Panzer- und motori- sierte Divisionen sowie 76 Infanteriedivisionen beteiligt gewesen.
Kroener, B. Stuttgart , bes. PzA am Brieger, R. Wendepunkt im Zweiten Weltkrieg, in: Truppendienst, Nr. Glantz, Soviet Operational Intelligence, S. CAMO 7.
Allerdings waren diese Erfolge mit ungeheu- ren Opfern verbunden, die ein Vielfaches der Verluste der Wehrmacht betrugen. Panzerkorps an den Befehls- haber der 5. Gardepanzer- armee in der Zeit vom 7. Panzerarmee in Richtung Belgorod in der Zeit vom 5. Signatur f. Panzer- lage und Panzerbestand Januar Wendt- landt, herausgegeben vom Armeeoberkommando 9. Armeekorps, 1. Armeekorps, Panzerkorps, Teil 2, Panzer- korps, Abteilung Qu, 2. Armeekorps, Ia, 4. Armeekorps, Heft 2, Abtei- lung Ia, Korps, Textband, 1. Der Angriff auf den russischen Stellungsvorsprung bei Kursk. Dokumente des Oberkommandos der Wehrmacht, Erlangen SS-Panzerkorps, Zeitraum 1.
Juni bis 2. Stadler hat nur den Zeitraum vom 1. Juli bis zum 2. Rosenheim Geschichte der sowjetischen Panzertruppen , herausgegeben von F. Berlin DDR In: Military Review, Bd. Folge von Sein Kriegsschicksal im Verbande der In: Wehrkunde, Nr.
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