To set free in his own language the pure language spellbound in the foreign language, to. His conceptualization of translation is that of a movement subject to the contingency of linguistic and cultural evolution, in which we can only try to indicate what, in principle, is representable. This means that the epistemological and systematic strategy of a critical translation consists of a constant migration between languages and cultures, a process implying an immersion the more complete the better into the works and minds of others.
Thus, the textual form of translation is, by extension, converted into a cultural form. The idea of the interlinear version of the translation proceeds in parallel with the conceptualization of allegory that Benjamin presents as a transmission of images of things dependent on a historical context. However, transmission through an allegory also produces a fragmented result, just as is the case with literal transmission or an interlinear version.
In this way, Benjamin foreshadowed the post-structuralist debate, if we think, for instance, of the function that the modern allegory has in postmodernity, which provides continuity to the transitory, to the indeterminate and to the incomplete. In his idea of an interlinear allegorical version, the source and target texts are brought into contact without ever forming a synthesis. The image is meant to indicate that the language is, after all, an ongoing composition of pieces, the edges and interferences of which remain always within sight.
Modernising and widening the image, we might say that strategic essentialism consists of preserving works of art, identities, cultures, languages, etc. What Benjamin had intended with the translation-as-fragments-of-a-vessel image was a kind of synecdoche, that is, that the pieces remain fragments even when they were considered to form part of a supposed totality, as allegorical parts of a greater language, but excluding the essentialist or foundationalist idea of a whole.
Derrida commented on this allegory in a similar manner:. The synecdoche which avoids the totalitarian construction is also a paradoxical comparison. Metaphorein designates the transmission of meaning through a signifier or uniform image, which would amount to a metaphysical perspective in the philosophy of language. The translation is the fragment of a fragment, is breaking the fragment—so the vessel keeps breaking, constantly—and never reconstitutes itself; there was no vessel in the first place, or we have no knowledge of this vessel, or no awareness, no access to it, so for all intents and purposes there has never been one.
The image of the vessel that Benjamin chose does not allow any symbolization of origin and calls for resistance to its totalitarian connotations. It is a utopian construction that appears en passant in a translation practice that shapes language after language in a continuous collage of fragments. The defragmentation that never reaches a grain of wholeness or completeness is what might be called the episteme Foucault of postmodernity.
The translation practice which derives from this model is a never-ending process of critical translation and paratranslation.
Fernando Pessoa’s Alberto Caeiro as the wise fool: the beginning of an approach
Indeed, the philosophical search for truth would end up severely limited if thought of in terms of a translational process. Continuing the theory of translation that Benjamin outlined, we might conceive cultural history as a succession of translations along with their conditions and contextualization—that is, their paratranslational context. From a metatranslational perspective, paratranslation also means adopting an epistemological pluralism which combines aesthetic, ethical, political, historical and, last but not least, sociobiological perspectives.
It is not only in the act of translation that we separate ourselves from our language in order to achieve a position in what Homi K. The actual reading of texts, like almost all perception of the phenomena of the real world, occurs in such a transition or translation zone. In this, translation shares with poetry the fact that both are a critique and a resistance to the essentialist conceptualization of language and, ultimately, to the claim to objectivity in traditional philosophy.
Even in its paratranslational dimension the book is an intentional rewriting: the cover shows a postcard from the beginning of the 20th century depicting a group of Galician women at a fountain. This paratext evokes, on the one hand, that Alberto Caeiro, following Pessoa, was born in Galicia, but, on the other hand, it conveys a much more concrete dimension to the philosophical bucolism of the source text and draws our attention to personal and gender-specific aspects that the original lacks. Within the vast range of heteronyms created by Fernando Pessoa, Alberto Caeiro was supposed to be the master, who argues for an absolute nominalism by which he claims to have eliminated metaphysics and revealed what is false in philosophy and poetry.
Until his death, he never ceased to add more and more variations to his verses, a habit which should be seen less as a modernist habit of work-in-progress than as a continuing resistance to the totalitarian status of the original by an ongoing process of self- translation and paratranslation. What we are used to reading as variations in a manuscript also represents attempts at different translations of the modernist horror vacui , of the generalized fear of loss of master narratives giving meaning and orientation, a problem that the figure and work of Caeiro was supposed to resolve.
As with the Brazilian concrete poets of the sixties and seventies, the translator is elevated to the status of co- author, appropriating for herself the original text to bring us closer to its geographical, ideological and subjective reality. She literally cannibalizes the source text in the sense of Brazilian cultural anthropophagy by adding to her translation moments of dialogue, ironical, critical-reflexive tones, etc. Que as coisas sejam realmente o que parecem ser Do we need a concept just yet, Mr.
Another persistent strategy of interventions is that of autobiographical contextualization:. Lembra-me a voz da criada velha Some times I think of all the babysitters. What we see of things are things.
FERNANDO PESSOA, 120 ANOS DE POESIA.
But this sad the way we cloak our souls! Sendo por isso que lhes chamamos estrelas e flores. I translated Pessoa by responding to him as a person. In this paratranslational space, aesthetic resistance is practiced as an attempt to overcome the division between experience and language, between phenomenon and semiotics. Baltrusch and G. Benjamin, Walter, Gesammelte Schriften , vol. Tiedemann and H. Harry Zohn, M.
Bullock and M. Jennings eds.
FERNANDO PESSOA, ANOS DE POESIA. | ( cartaz de Carlos Ro… | Flickr
Steven Rendall, TTR , no. Fernanda Bernardo, Porto, Campo das Letras, Gadamer, Hans-Georg, Truth and Method, trans. Joel Weinsheimer and Donald G. Marshall, London, Continuum, Samuel eds. Rose ed.
Behler et al. Huyssen ed. Landry and G. MacLean eds. Schlegel, KFSA , vol. Walter Benjamin, Gesammelte Schriften , vol. Benjamin, GS, vol. Novalis, WT, vol. Hans-Georg Gadamer, Truth and Method, trans. The latter subject matter in particular was included in the first, larger section of the book, entitled Poesia de Pessoa: editar e ler , which has been supplemented by material of various origin but continues for the most part to be prevalently dedicated to methodological considerations connected to the work on Guardador. The additional contributions, however, broaden the field in the direction of increasingly more general considerations of greater methodological interest, not exclusively Pessoan.
At the same time, the essays belonging to the first part of the original edition have been included in the second section of the book, entitled simply Equipa Pessoa and also supplemented by new contributions which enlarge on the original themes. Despite the division into sections, the book is very cohesive and the more important issues reappear in different parts of the volume.
Within the former perspective can be read in particular the contributions that contain indications on the process of putting together the editions or on the critical results that can be obtained with the application of a rigorous ecdotic method as shown in the pages dedicated to the documents revealing the true facts behind the myth of the dia triunfal , the triumphal day.
The method is founded in particular on the model of French genetic criticism and on the textual criticism of the North American school, but is also open to suggestions from Italian critica delle varianti. The modus operandi is based on a careful study of the originals, aimed at reconstructing the chronology of the textual variants present in the manuscripts and based on choice of the last in chronological order as the variant to be included in the established text.
2. The wise fool’s strategies
The decision proceeds from theoretical premises, but it also relies on a statistical study of the decisions effectively taken by the author in the relatively few cases in which he managed to publish his writing during his lifetime. Such a model does present one weakness, in my opinion, which lies in the editorial treatment of the alternative variants, which are placed in appendices alongside all the other typologies.
This would also help to give emphasis to the critical worth of the editions in comparison with their purely genetical value. In this direction, the use of new computer tools and the preparation of digital editions, suggested more than once by Castro himself, could in the future represent a useful compromise solution between documentary completeness, synoptic interpretation of the various textual stages and accessibility.
Literature • Nonfiction • Coursework & Children's Books • Classics
The recent discovery of original material by Pessoa still in the hands of the family which had never been handed over to the Biblioteca Nacional of Lisbon, despite the agreement stipulated when the archive was sold to the Portuguese State, and the even more objectionable decision to auction them off have marked a deep and partly irreparable fracture in the history of Pessoan studies. The belated definition of the archive as a national treasure, which occurred in , accompanied by the prohibition of taking any material which could be related to Pessoa out of the country, failed to resolve the issue, which continues to have its obscure points and above all casts doubt on the completeness of any genetic dossier present in past or future editions.
In conclusion, the new edition of Editar Pessoa offers a necessary and useful update, and a work which, despite its partially fragmentary and repetitive nature defects which could have been avoided by carrying out a task of harmonization and re-organization, aimed at a more cohesive and complete text , contains the essence of broad scientific knowledge, technique and methodology, filtered through constant and prolonged contact with the original papers, a contact that represents the one and only premise for any attempt to approach that incredible and complex legacy of human knowledge which is the work of Fernando Pessoa.
Contents - Previous document - Next document.
Related O Guardador de Rebanhos [com índice] (Portuguese Edition)
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved