Beaucoup de mythes racontent leurs exploits dont les Amazoniennes sont sans doute les plus connues. La figuration sur les rapports du couple divin en dit long sur les rapports entre hommes et femmes. Face au bien, la femme symbolise le mal, un danger pour l'homme. Pendant 2. Saint Augustin renforce cette connotation. La femme devient l'inverse de l'homme. Ceci pourrait justifier l'acharnement "conservateur" de Jean-Paul II.
Le patriarcat absolu voit, dans le mariage, un moyen de pression sur la femme. Leurs convictions intellectuelles n'entrent pas en compte. Ce cercle vicieux ne se termine qu'avec la disparition du patriarcat. Cette prise de conscience entraine une remise en question du patriarcat. Un changement social suffit pour remettre de rigueur les lois civiles et religieuses. Mais ce n'est pas encore pour tout de suite.. Pour reprendre l'expression d'E. Dans son livre "Emile", il justifie la non-instruction indispensable de Sophie future compagne d'Emile : la femme n'ayant besoin d'aucun esprit, qu'elle n'a d'ailleurs sans doute pas.
Il distingue les femmes par l'ardeur de leurs sentiments "beaux sexes". Pour lui, la raison de ces transports est d'ordre anatomo-physiologique. Autrement dit, nous ne serons plus des hommes digne de ce nom ". Mais, ceux que B. Tous les milieux sociaux et professionnels s'y mettent. Elles sont le reflet du pouvoir en place et de la situation actuelle. Elles ont pris conscience de ce qu'elles sont vraiment. Henry de St-Simon, aristocrate "repenti", fut toute sa vie investi d'une mission: sauver les hommes de leurs carcans et de leur "assurer Aux U.
En France, Camille See instaure une loi sur l'enseignement en Puis en , la "National Women Suffrage Convention". Bio-protocol, 8 5 , Chaque rayon du soleil est un bras que l'animal peut chosir d'emprunter. Radial maze, radial arm maze, Olton maze, eight-arm maze. Remembrance of places passed : Spatial memory in rats. Water maze and radial maze learning and the density of binding sites of glutamate, GABA, and serotonin receptors in the hippocampus of inbred mouse strains. Hippocampus 10, LIPP, H. Review A large outdoor radial maze for comparative studies in birds and mammals.
Water maze versus radial maze : differential performance of rats in a spatial delayed match-to-position task and response to scopolamine. Response strategies in the radial arm maze: Running around in circles. Spatial pattern learning in the radial arm maze. Spatial competences in Williams syndrome : a radial arm maze study. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 27 3 , Radial maze performance in young and aged mice : Neurochemical correlates. Spatial memory in dogs Canis familiaris on a radial maze.
Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1 , Maze procedures : the radial-arm and water maze compared. Cognitive Brain Research, 3 , Hamsters' Mesocricetus auratus memory in a radial maze analog : the role of spatial versus olfactory cues. Voir aussi Rat, Labyrinthe, Olton et Laboratoire.
Watermaze, Morris swimming pool, Morris water-maze, swimming pool navigation tasks. Spatial localisation does not depend on the presence of local cues. Visits to starts, routes and places by rats Rattus norvegicus in swimming pool navigation tasks. Journal of Comparative Psychology, , Rats alternate on a dry-land but not a swimming-pool Morris task place task : implications for spatial processing.
Behavioral Neuroscience, , LEE, R. Inescapable shock and attention to internal versus external cues in a water discrimination escape task. Watermaze [Computer software].
UBC Theses and Dissertations
Edinburgh : WaterMaze Software. A comparison of rats and mice in a swimming pool place task and matching to place task : some surprising differences. The effects of pre-exposure on escape from a Morris pool. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54B, Interaction between piloting and beacon homing by rats in a swimming pool.
Applications of the Morris water maze in the study of learning and memory. Brain Research Reviews, 36, Neural Computation, 10 1 , Locating an invisible goal in a water maze requires at least two landmarks. Psychobiology, 26, Beacon training in a water maze can facilitate as well as interfere with subsequent room cue learning.
Blocking in the Morris swimming pool. Analyste de Laplanche, Mannoni, Olivier et Pontalis. Professeur d'Anzieu et de Wilden. Paris : Le Seuil. Les psychoses. Les formations de l'inconscient. Le transfert. Paris : Seuil. The area of faith in Winnicott, Lacan and Bion. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 62, Jacques Lacan : A feminist introduction. New York : Routledge. New York : Other Press. Some remarks on adolescence with particular reference to Winnicott and Lacan.
Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 70, Collaborateur de Rachlin et Schwartz. Psychological conflict and human nature : The case of behaviorism and cognition. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 10, Behaviorism, intentionality, and sociohistorical structure. Behaviorism, 14, On the limits of radical behaviorism : a reply to Leigland's reply.
Teleological behaviorism and altruism. The behavioral scientist qua scientist makes value judgements. Sciences, valeurs et pluralisme chez Hugh Lacey. Dans J. Pierron et M. Parizeau Dirs. Globalization and governance : Aspiring to a fairer globalization. Development, 48 1 , Paris : Odile Jacob. LACK, D.
Evolution of the Galapagos finches. Nature, , The significance of reproductive isolation. Jepsen, E. Simpson Eds , Genetics, paleontology and evolution. The evolution of reproductive rates. Huxley, A. Ford Eds , Evolution as a process. Ecological adaptations for breeding in birds. London : Methuen. The numbers of species of hummingbirds in the West Indies. Evolution, 27, Collaborateur de Vaugeois. Les troubles de Alarme citoyens!
Shawinigan, ans d'histoire. De l'effervescence au renouveau. Sillery : Septentrion. Collaborateur de Cousineau. Stimulus modality and stimulus-resonse compatibility in absolute identification. The roles of stimulus and response set size in the identification and categorisation of unidimensional stimuli. Absolute identification of temporal intervals : Preliminary data. Sommerfeld, R. Lachmann Eds. Leipzig : The International Society for Psychophysics. Choice and response time processes in the identification and categorization of unidimensional stimuli. Decision-tree models of categorization response tmes, choice proportions, and typicality judgments.
Psychological Review, 4 , Lacroix Guy L. Reasoning about apparent contradictions : resolution strategies and positive-negative asymmetries. Redefining the rules : Providing race models with a connectionist learning rule. Connection Science, 15, Attentional blink differences between adolescent dyslexic and normal readers. The origin of exemplar effects in rule-driven categorization. Ladd Gary W. Ladd George Trumbell Ladd.
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LADD, G. The relationship between peer acceptance and children's ideas about helpfulness. Child Development, 50, Having friends, Keeping friends, making friends, and being liked by peers in the classroom : Predictors of children's early school adjustment? Friendship quality as a predictor of young children's early school adjustment.
Child Development, 67, Peer relationships and social competence during early and middle childhood. Annual Review of Psychology Vol. Does chronic classroom peer rejection predict the development of children's classroom participation during the grade school years? Child Development, 79, Collaborateur de Woodworth. Elements of physiological psychology. Philosophy of the mind.
Primer of psychology. Psychology, descriptive and explanatory. NY : Charles Scribner's Sons. HALL, G. Review of G. Ladd, Elements of physiological psychology. American Journal of Psychology, 1, Ladd, Psychology, descriptive and explanatory. American Journal of Psychology, 6, Lader Malcom H. Habituation of the psycho-galvanic reflex in patients with anxiety states and in normal subjects. Benzodiazpines : The opium of the masses? The Neuroscience, 3, Psychological effects of buspirone. Long term effects of benzodiazepines. Neuropharmacology, 22 4 , History of benzodiazepine dependence.
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 8, Problem solving and problem orientation in generalized anxiety disorder. Cognitive treatment of pathological gamblers. Behavior Research Therapy, 36, Symbols presentation modality as a determinant of gambling behavior. Journal of Psychology, 4 , Gambling : The hidden addiction. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49, Controlled gambling for pathological gamblers.
Journal of Gambling Studies, 21, La religion du capital. Vertical integration by corporations, A formal model of the economy. Journal of Business, 44 3 , The number of firms and competition. American Economic Review 62 4 , The ellipse : An explication of the Laffer curve in a two-factor model. In The financial analyst's guide to fiscal policy p.
New York : Greenwood Press. The end of prosperity : how higher taxes will doom the economy--if we let it happen. Threshold Editions. The true nature of sovereignty. Beiner et W. Norman Dirs. Oxford : Oxford University Press. Dans M. Tremblay et R. Pelletier Dirs. L'un des promoteurs de la psychanalyse freudienne en France. Le super-ego individuel et collectif. Lafortune Louise Lafortune Mireille Lafortune. Collaboratrice de Fennema, Gaudet et Potvin.
Bulletin AMQ, 25 2 , Dans L. Lafortune Dir. Psychologie clinique et science. Collaborateur d'Anzieu. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France. La folle du logis : La psychanalyse comme science exacte - Les oeuvres 1 ; Les hallucinations verbales.
La jalousie amoureuse; psychologie descriptive et psychanalyse. Lahey Benjamin B. Collaborateur de Pelham, Rhee, Waldman et Willcutt. Annotation : The development of antisocial behavior : An integrative causal model.
Age and gender differences in oppositional behavior and conduct problems : A cross-sectional household study of middle childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, , Waxing and waning in concert: Dynamic comorbidity of conduct disorder with other disruptive and emotional problems over seven years among clinic-referred boys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, Public health significance of neuroticism. American Psychologist, 64, ROY O. Paris : Stock. Paris : Que sais-je?
Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions, , Collaborateur de Cooper et Esterson. The divided self : An existential study in sanity and madness. Reason and violence : A decade of Sartre's philosophy Sanity, madness, and the family : Families of schizophrenics. Paris : Maspero. The politics of the family and other essays. London : Tavistock Publications.
Wisdom, madness and folly. Macmillan : London. Mother's milk. Psychotropic drugs in mother's milk : a comprehensive review of assay methods, pharmacokinetics and of safety in breast-feeding. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 13, Collaborateur de Bindra. An interpretation of autoshaping and related phenomena in terms of stimulus-incentive contingencies alone.
Guichard Dir. Dans S. Proulx Dir. Pratiques innovatrices de collaboration par Internet : le cybermentorat. Lakatos et Fayerabend. Professeur de Chalmers. Collaborateur de Musgrave. Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes. Musgrave Eds.
The methodology of scientific research programmes : Philosophical Papers Vol. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. Mathematics, science and epistemology : Philosophical Papers Vol. History of science and its rational reconstructions. Hacking Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Imre Lakatos's Philosophy of Science. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 30, World views and their influence on psychological theory and research : Kuhn-Lakatos-Laudan.
Reese Ed. New York : Academic Press. Appraising and amending theories: The strategy of Lakatosian defense and two principles that warrant it. Psychological Inquiry, 1, Corroboration and verisimilitude : Against Lakatos' "sheer leap of faith". Lakatos: An introduction. Collaborateur de Chomsky, Gallese et Turner. Linguistique et logique naturelle.
Conceptual metaphor in everyday language. Journal of Philosophy, 77 8 , Women, fire and dangerous things : what categories reveal about the mind. Chicago : University of Chicago Press. Philosophy in the flesh : The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought.
- Are There Demons? and other matters of faith!
- simple English for presentations!
- Hell on the Solomons.
- Women’s Studies of the Christian and Islamic Traditions.
New York: Basic Books. Where mathematics comes from : How the embodied mind brings mathematics into being. EX: Ta, ta, ta, ma, ma, ma Collaborateur de Borrero, Mace et Vollmer. The paradox of preference for unreliable reinforcement : The role of context and conditioned reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28 3 , WOHN, T. Identification and modification of a response-class hierarchy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 4 , — Treatment of multiply controlled problem behavior.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29 3 , Functional analysis and treatment of eye poking with response blocking. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29 1 , The effect of reinforcer preference on functional analysis outcomes. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31 1 , Lam Dominic H. Collaborateur de Jones. LAM, D. Cognitive therapy for bipolar illness : a pilot study of relapse prevention. Dysfunctional assumptions in bipolar affective disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 79, Relapse prevention in patients with bipolar disorder : cognitive therapy outcome after 2 years.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 2 , What can we conclude from studies on psychotherapy in bipolar disorder? The British Journal of Psychiatry, , Psychological therapies in bipolar disorder : the effect of illness history on relapse prevention - systematic review. Bipolar Disorders, 11, Lamal Peter A. Collaborateur de Chase, Greenspoon et Windholz. A cogent critique of epistemology leaves radical behaviorism unscathed. Behaviorism, 11, Three metacontingencies in the pre-Perestroika Soviet Union. Advancing backwards.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31 4 , Collegiate contingencies. The Behavior Analyst, 23, Higher education : Social institution or business? Recherches sur l'organisation des corps vivants. Zoological philosophy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lamarckian mechanisms in darwinian evolution. Lamb Michael E. LAMB, M. Attachments, social networks, and developmental contexts.
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Human Development, 48, Developmentally appropriate interview techniques. Freeman Eds. Victimization of children with disabilities. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77, CYR, M. Assessing the effectiveness of the NICHD investigative interview Protocol when interviewing French-speaking alleged victims of child sexual abuse in Quebec. The role of the father in child development. Hoboken NJ : Wiley. Collaborateur de Piaget.
Archive de Psychologie, 29 , Archives de Psychologie, 31 , La comparaison des grandeurs projectives chez l'enfant et chez l'adulte. Archives de Psychologie, 33 , Archives de Psychologie, 34 , Archives de Psychologie, 35 , Lambert Michael J. Therapist interpersonal skills. And recommendations for future research. Psychological Bulletin, 85, The effectiveness of psychotherapy. Bergin Eds. Toronto : John Wiley and Sons. Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome. Psychotherapy : Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 38 4 , The efficacy and effectiveness of psycho therapy.
Lambert Ed. Providing feedback to psychotherapists on their patients' progress : Clinical results and practice suggestions. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, Lambon Ralph Matthew A. Word meaning blindness : A new form of acquired dyslexia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 13, 5 , Acquired phonological and deep dyslexia.
Neurocase : The Neural Basis of Cognition, 6 2 , Classical anomia : A neuropsychological perspective on speech production. Neuropsychologia, 38, No right to speak? The relationship between object naming and semantic impairment : Neuropsychological evidence and a computational model.
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Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13 3 , Generalization and differentiation in semantic memory insights from semantic dementia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, , Testing the idea of different storage mecanism in memory. International Journal of Psychology, 34 5 , Predicting free recalls. An improved algorithm for predicting free recalls.
Cognitive psychology, 57 3 , Failure to recall. Psychological Review, 1 , Serial position curves in free recall. Recalling the list-before-last: a cautionary tale. Collaborateur de Wiseman. Magic in theory : an introduction to the theoretical and psychological elements of conjuring. Hatfield : University of Hertfordshire Press. Together they wrote a number of psychoanalytic texts, among others, on the history of psychoanalysis in France.
In she published Le maternel singulier reissued in under the title: Le Maternel au masculin , a study on the autobiographical content of Sigmund Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of his Childhood. In it, she highlighted the "singular maternal" in creativity, which is hidden behind the father theme and above differences of sex and generations. The central theme is the human "appetite of excitation", on which Barande based her discussion of the evolutionary neoteny or lifelong incompleteness of man.
Ilse Barande also translated the complete works of Karl Abraham into French. Laurence Bataille was the only child of the writer and philosopher Georges Bataille Fig. Her parents separated in but did not divorce until Starting in the late s, Sylvia Bataille was a companion of the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, whom she married in , and with whom she had a daughter, Judith Bataille-Lacan.
Laurence grew up close to her stepfather with her half-sister Judith. At the age of sixteen, she became the mistress of the painter Balthus, who made several portraits of her. Laurence Bataille first entered an actress career. After a tour with her theatre company in Algeria in , she was a temporary member of the Communist Party and involved in promoting Algeria's independence. They had one daughter, Sandra, and divorced in Familiar with the ideas of Lacan since her youth, Laurence Bataille studied medicine and entered into training analysis with Conrad Stein in From to she acted as director of the Lacanian journal Ornicar?
In she left the ECF, because she disapproved of the fact that Jacques-Alain Miller used Lacan's circular letters posthumously as legal texts. Laurence Bataille, whom Lacan called his loyal Antigone, died of liver cancer in In her paper of the same title, she described the work of interpretation using as an example a dream which played an important role in her own analysis.
Anne Annette Berman was born into a Jewish family. That year she bought a pharmacy in Paris, where she worked until She graduated as a doctor in , the subject of her thesis was the family of Boraginaceae. In she joined the Soroptimist Club, an international organization for business and professional women. After undergoing analysis with Marie Bonaparte from to , she became her personal secretary in Although no practising analyst, she was elected a full member of the SPP in Anne Berman became known as a translator of numerous psychoanalytical works.
Anne Berman had a lengthy affair - until the end of the s - with Adrien Borel , a French psychiatrist and in co-founder of the SPP. She was the great-granddaughter of a brother of Napoleon Bonaparte. Marie Bonaparte grew up in the care of nannies and governesses and under the severe regiment of her grandmother. As a little girl she believed that her father, whose love she tried in vain to win, had collaborated with the evil grandmother in murdering her mother out of greed. In addition she felt herself responsible by her birth for her mother's death. From the age of seven onwards, she filled five notebooks with cruel fantasy tales, which served later as a basis of her analysis with Sigmund Freud.
Her wish to study medicine remained unfulfilled. Her meeting with Freud in was not only the beginning of an analysis - which lasted with interruptions until -, but also of a close, lifelong friendship between them. She was elected vice president of the SPP in When the Germans occupied France in , Marie Bonaperte decided that there would be no "rescue" of psychoanalysis like in Germany.
Returning to Paris in , she saw herself as the bearer of the Freudian word, and like Anna Freud she opposed the theories of Jacques Lacan and Melanie Klein. She translated Freud's work into French and as a vice president of the IPA she championed lay analysis. The writings of Marie Bonaparte are seen to be not as considerable as her eminent role in the history of French psychoanalytic movement. Bonaparte interpreted this murder as an unconscious death wish against the own mother put into action, and she plead for a therapy of psychologically disturbed criminals.
Bonaparte's study on Edgar Allen Poe is considered to be her most important contribution. She interpreted Poe's oevre as an attempt to come to terms with his dead mother who obsessed over him and rendered him impotent. Her interpretation of Poe implied a self-analysis: the ambivalent attachment to a dead mother was also a childhood trauma of her own and her frigidity a lifelong problem. She stressed that the transition from clitoral fixation to vaginal pleasure could only be reached by a mixture of psychoanalytic treatment and surgical intervention - an operation which she underwent several times without success.
In her later essays on female sexuality Marie Bonaparte continued to take a psycho-biological approach. She was the first to observe an active phallic stage in the young girl, in which the clitoris corresponds to the phallus. This phallic activity toward the mother is sandwiched between two stages of passivity, first toward the mother, then toward the father. For Bonaparte libidinal fixation on the "masculine" clitoris corresponds to a basically biological masculine character incorporated in the feminine organism.
She saw this bisexual constitution of woman as a main obstacle to the development of normal sexuality. Marie Bonaparte died of leukaemia at the age of eighty. Denise Braunschweig-Demay was a proponent of the psychoanalytic psychosomatics in France. She worked several years in child psychiatry, e. Standing in the classic tradition of Sigmund Freud, Denise Braunschweig made an essential contribution to the psychoanalytic theory of female sexuality. Her writings, mostly published along with Michel Fain, focused on subjects like narcissism, fetishism, object change in girls, cathexis of the female sexual organs, and the impact of sexual difference on the relationship to reality.
Denise Braunschweig and Michel Fain conceived the notion of "censoring the lover in her" [censure de l'amante], which means that a mother's life as a lover "censors" the erotic feelings aroused by maternal care. Her daydreams about her love life with the father of the child introduce the third party into the mother-child relation. This early state of triangulation is the basis for the infant's future Oedipal organisation.
She studied medicine at the university of Budapest, where she qualified as a doctor. She survived the German occupation in Bordeaux, where she stayed with a friend of her family. After the end of the war Elsa Breuer returned to Paris, where she practised as a Lacanian analyst. One of her analysands was the philosopher and sociologist Georges Lapassade, who, on the recommendation of Jacques Lacan und Daniel Lagache, began a nine-year analysis with Elsa Breuer at the end of the s.
She lost the trial, because she had made the mistake of treating panel patients and signing the forms with "Dr. Breuer", although her Hungarian certificate was not recognised in France. She was sentenced to a fine of more than Francs and could no more practice psychoanalysis.
Elsa Breuer lived in Paris until The psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Elsa Cayat was born into a Jewish family in Tunisia. Her father, Georges Khayat, was a gastroenterologist, her mother worked in the legal profession. She grew up in Vincennes, a suburb of Paris, and studied medicine. She underwent psychoanalytic training and became a Lacanian analyst running a successful private practice in the 16th arrondissement of Paris. She also worked as a writer and columnist. Among others, she wrote Charlie Divan , a fortnightly column with a wide range of psychological and social issues in the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo.
On 7 January , Elsa Cayat was the only female victim murdered by the brothers Kouachi in their attack on the offices of Charlie Hebdo - presumably because she was Jewish. She left behind her companion, the Dutch shoe designer Paulus Bolten, and their daughter Hortense. Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel, the daughter of immigrant parents from Russia and Poland, was born in Paris.
Her father, Jules Smirgel or Smirguel , was an engineer and a painter. Following the war, Janine Chasseguet studied political science diploma in and psychology at the Sorbonne. From to she underwent psychoanalysis with Bela Grunberger , her future husband. Her work has focused on female sexuality, creativity and perversion, narcissism and the ego ideal as well as the application of psychoanalysis to art, literature, film, and politics.
In one of her first papers Feminine guilt and the Oedipus complex she criticised Sigmund Freud's concept of a female penis envy by claiming that girls do not envy the penis for its own sake, but as a revolt against the omnipotent mother. The wish to appropriate the paternal phallus and to depose the mother is the source of female guilt for Chasseguet-Smirgel.
In her essays about creativity and perversion, Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel compared the authentic work of an artist with the fetishistic "false" object of a pervert. Creativity of an artist implies that he overcomes his regressive desire to return to the perfection of primary narcissism by projecting his ego ideal on paternal models. The pervert, however, succumbs to the "malady of the ideal" and preserves, often confirmed by his mother, the infantile illusion to own the idealized pregenital anal phallus and thus to be equal and even superior to his father.
Chasseguet-Smirgel stressed a structurally necessary polarity of an anal-phallic-destructive maternal world of regression and perversion and a paternal world of structure, law and creativity. The integration of these two worlds by Oedipal maturity, however, fails mostly. Sensitised by the fate of her own Jewish relatives who died in the Holocaust, Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel was particularly interested in psychoanalytic explanations of National Socialism. She interpreted the national socialist race ideology as the wish to expel aliens from the womb and to melt with the omnipotent mother represented by the group.
Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel died of leukaemia at the age of At the end of the First World War, Maryse and her aunt moved to London, where she entered Girton College and studied philosophy and psychology. In she began an analysis with Sigmund Freud in Vienna. After three sessions she broke off the treatment when Freud deduced from her dream that she was an illegitimate child - a fact that was confirmed by her aunt.
She never learned who her parents were and assumed the name "Choisy" "Chosen". In she became a journalist with the magazine L'Intransigeant and occupied an important position in the intellectual and art world of Paris. Maryse Choisy was a pioneer of investigative journalism and researched undercover in a brothel for her book about prostitution, Un mois chez les filles , which caused a scandal upon its publication.
As a leftist and feminist she fought for the women's right to vote. Maryse Choisy married the journalist Maxime Clouzet, the father of her daughter, Colette, born in At the end of the s, she met Teilhard de Chardin and converted to Catholicism. The result of her search for a benediction for psychoanalysis from the Catholic Church was that Pius XII issued an approval of a "serious psychotherapy" as long as it did not look for sexual causes and violate the confession. She hoped this review of psychoanalysis and the human sciences would counter the Freudian atheism with a synthesis of psychoanalysis and spirituality.
Besides psychoanalytic topics, the review discussed the subjects acupuncture, graphology, eastern religions and cultural events. Maryse Choisy published numerous books, novels, poems, essays and reports as well as works popularising psychoanalysis. In , she wrote her doctoral thesis about superstition, legends, manners and customs in in the Limousin region. In she was became a member of the SPP. Anne Clancier was particularly interested in the relationship between psychoanalysis and literature, which was also the subject of her lectures at the University of Nanterre and of numerous publications.
Drawing on Charles Mauron's method of "psychocritique", a psychoanalytic literary criticism, she analysed the unconscious fantasies and personal myths of an author. In analogy to the term of "contre-transfert", countertransference, she created the notion of "contre-texte", referring to the reader's reactions to the unconscious of the author. On the invitation of her aunt, she came for the first time to France at the age of She was analysed by the Swiss analyst Raymond de Saussure, who practised in New York from to In Margaret Clark-Williams came back to France, where she studied psychology with Daniel Lagache and received her clinical training from the child psychiatrist Georges Heuyer.
She underwent training analysis with Georges Parcheminey, her supervising analyst was John Leuba. Marie Bonaparte , who herself was a "lay analyst" without medical training, and Juliette Favez-Boutonier , the former medical director of the Claude-Bernard Centre, supported the case of Margaret Clark-Williams. The trial beginning in caused a sensation. Clark-Williams was first acquitted, but a second verdict in found her guilty - a disaster for lay analysis.
She completed her doctorate on the subject of baby diet and worked during the s as a physician at the Bretonneau hospital in Paris. In she, along with Marie Bonaparte and Georges Parcheminey, were opponents of a medicalisation of psychoanalysis by Sacha Nacht, then nominated director of the new Institut de Psychanalyse. Together with the liberal group of Daniel Lagache, Jacques Lacan and others, they formed a majority against Nacht, but the differences with Lacan were too great.
During a decisive session of the SPP, Odette Codet called for a motion of non-confidence against Lacan, which led to his dismissal as President of the SPP and the withdrawal of numerous members. Odette Codet herself was elected President of the SPP in , but due to illness she had to retire a year later. In it she highlighted the fact that conflicts increase in complexity with the age of the girl, and stressed that parental attitudes have a primordial role in the genesis and treatment of such conflicts. Myriam David was born into a Jewish family in Paris. In she began the study of medicine in Paris, with the focus on paediatrics, and graduated in She was arrested at the end of and deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau, but she survived the concentration camp and returned to Paris in Simultaneously she received her psychoanalytic training at the Boston Psychoanalytic Institute.
She returned to Paris in and, supported by Jenny Aubry , she established a psychotherapeutic consultation service at the Enfants Malades hospital. In she set up a therapeutic institution of foster family placements in Soisy-sur-Seine, which she directed until In she founded a children's unit within the Fondation Rothschild based on the model of the J. Putnam Children's Center. Myriam David, who herself lost her mother at an early age, was a pioneer of infant psychiatry in France and was particularly interested in the consequences of an early separation from the mother.
In the s she researched this subject in the child care centres Parent-de-Rosan and Amyot, here along with John Bowlby. The researchers accompanied these children until their fourth year. Myriam David used the notion of "empty behaviour" to describe depressed babies, which seemed to lack an internal world of representations and fantasies.
From to she was a member of the Centre de formation et de recherches psychanalytiques CFRP. Using psychoanalysis as a critical lever, she highlights, for instance, the weak points in the notion of the universal and shows that the construction of universality in Kant and other thinkers depends on a masculine anthropology of sexual desire.
Born as the fourth of seven children into a Catholic family of the great Parisian middle class, she grew up in a sexually repressive milieu characterised by nationalism and anti-Semitism. Her father, Henri Marette, was an engineer and artillery captain and her mother, Suzanne Demmler, was a trained nurse. A traumatic childhood experience was the death of her elder sister, the favourite of her mother, who became depressed as a result, regretting that her less-beloved daughter was still alive. During her analysis she was able to emancipate herself from her familiar background, with the exception of her Catholic beliefs.
Three years prior she met Jacques Lacan, whose ideas she shared on the central role of language and the linguistic structure of the unconscious. After the war, they became close friends. Referring to Morgenstern's approach, she explained her technique of child analysis in her medical thesis on the subject of psychoanalysis and paediatrics in For her, child analysts should be a spokesperson for children and employ the language of childhood in analysing the child's thoughts. Her report on her analysis is a classical text in the field of child analysis.
Dolto evolved a personal theory focused on the concepts of the "unconscious body image" and the "symbol-generating castrations" The body image is the unconscious symbolic incarnation of the desiring being, before it is able to say "I". It is a representation without words reflecting the first relational experiences that develop from physical and psychical needs.
Symbol-generating castrations mean the necessary separations from beloved partial objects and the renunciation of the symbiotic participation in the mother's body linked with archaic fantasies of omnipotence - for Dolto the condition of symbolization. By means of these castrations, the child becomes a social being able to verbalise, with an unconscious body image corresponding to its physical ripeness. Psychoses, however, are connected with a mutilated body image, they originate in failed castrations, i.
In Dolto opened the first Maison Verte in Paris, where children from birth to age three learn to deal with separation experiences in a protected way. The model set a precedent and today there are Maisons Vertes in many countries. She died at the age of 79 from a serious lung disease. In the mids, her parents, whose ancestors were Alsatian and Spanish Jews, converted to the Christian faith. In the Dormandis emigrated to Paris, where Judith studied medicine after the end of the war and graduated in pathological anatomy in One of her fellow students was Jacques Dupont, in whose printing house she had worked and whom she married in In Judith Dupont began a four-year training analysis with Daniel Lagache and became a member of the Association Psychanalytique de France.
She worked as a child analyst in different institutions, among others at the Centre de Guidance de l'Aisne and the Centre Etienne-Marcel in Paris. In addition, she established a private practice where she treated adult patients. One of the journal's main themes is the history of psychoanalysis, namely Hungarian psychoanalysis. She administers the heritage of Ferenczi in France as well as internationally and, like Maria Torok and Nicolas Abraham, she has fostered the high appreciation of Ferenczi in France. In she received the Sigourney Award for outstanding achievement in psychoanalysis.
From to she taught projective techniques at the Institute of Psychology at the Sorbonne. Later she had a second analysis with Serge Viderman. As well, she was a member of the International Association for the History of Psychanalysis since its foundation in In she was awarded the Maurice Bouvet Prize in psychoanalysis for three of her articles published in the review Topique during the s.
In her book Aux carrefours de la haine published in , re-issued in under the title La souffrance et la haine , Micheline Enriquez provided new insights into paranoia, masochism, and what she referred to, after the Marquis de Sade, as apathy. She showed that paranoiacs and masochists eroticize suffering and hatred, while those who are apathetic reject affects in order to maintain a distance from others, which is essential for them.
She died at the age of 56 in an automobile accident. She was a granddaughter of Behanzin, the last independent king of Abomey. In she and her brother Max were sent to attend school in France. The subject of her thesis was the psychomotor development of African children from Senegal. Another important teacher was Jenny Aubry , whose consultancy at the Fondation Parent-de-Rosan she attended. The EF stands in the tradition of Lacan's return to Freud.
Juliette Boutonier, a daughter of teachers, was born in Grasse in the south of France. She attended school in Grasse and Nice and subsequently studied philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris. In she was one of the first women to take the state doctoral exam in philosophy. She taught at schools in Chartre and Dijon, while studying medicine in Dijon. In she wrote her medical dissertation on ambivalence, and in she qualified as a doctor of philosophy. In she took over the chair of psychology from Daniel Lagache at the University of Strasbourg. Like Lagache she strived for a synthesis of psychology and psychoanalysis.
In she married the psychoanalyst Georges Favez A year later they both left the SPP in protest against the "dictatorship" of Sacha Nacht and his medicalization of psychoanalysis. In Juliette Favez-Boutonier was appointed professor of psychology at the Sorbonne. Her main interest was clinical psychology. Like Lagache, she represented the values of a tradition inherited by Pierre Janet.
In she established the first Laboratory of clinical psychology at the Sorbonne, which she led until her retirement in Marcelle Geber was born in Pavillons-sous-Bois, a suburb of Paris, as the younger of two sisters. In she began her medical study in Paris, specialising in psychiatry under Jean Delay and Georges Heuyer. Shocked by methods of psychiatric treatment like straitjacket and insulin coma therapy, she preferred to specialise in paediatrics.
At the same time she explored, on behalf of the World Health Organization, the development of young children in urban and rural milieu. In she founded the first of three child guidance clinics at Aisne, where she was director until Marcelle Geber became especially known for her research on comparative developmental psychology in Africa between and She started in Kampala, Uganda, where she explored the psychological factors in the aetiology of kwashiorkor a nutritional deficiency disease , by comparing sick and healthy children. In the following years she continued her research in several African countries, becoming part of an international comparative long-term study.
Marcelle Geber found that African children were in a more advanced state of psychomotor development than European children, particularly marked in the first year of life. She suggested that the difference is attributable to the close body contact between African mothers and their babies throughout the first year. Geber was the first to emphasize that kwashiorkor is not only associated with malnutrition but also with a disturbed mother-child relationship. Marcelle Geber was married to the Israeli artist Ben Banay Her father was a physician, her mother a violinist and music professor.
Florence Guignard took singing and piano lessons, before she studied clinical psychology at the university of Geneva. She cooperated with Jean Piaget and conducted research studies within the frame of the Fonds national suisse pour la recherche scientifique. Bion, Herbert Rosenfeld and Donald Meltzer. Florence Guignard lives in Paris as a psychoanalyst for children, adolescents and adults.
The focus of her work lies in the sense of identity, femininity and maternity, the genesis of mental disturbances and problems of the psychoanalytic technique. An important motive in her decision of becoming an analyst was her childhood experience of not having been able to get access to her insane grandmother, whose speaking made no sense to her.
Dominique Guyomard located her theoretical position between Lacan on the one side and Donald W. Winnicott and Melanie Klein on the other. The focus of her work lies in questions of femininity. She stresses that the feminine super-ego is a maternal superego and women are always in danger to remain riveted to the pre-Oedipal mother in the desire for omnipotence. In order to understand the narcissistic bond which is characteristic of motherliness, Guyomard created the notion of the "narcissism of bond" ["narcissisme du lien"], situated in the mother-child-dyade and differentiated from the narcissistic object relation [relation narcissique d'objet].
In she graduated in philosophy and arts at the Catholic University of Louvain and taught French and Classics in Charleroi and Brussels from to Subsequently she moved to Paris to study psychology - with a focus upon psychopathology - and linguistics. At this time she participated in Jacques Lacan's psychoanalytic seminars and became a disciple of his. In the s she conducted research on the difference between the language of women and the language of men. In addition to her teaching activities and her psychoanalytic private practice, she was active in the feminist movement, working together with numerous circles of women from different countries and cultures.
In the s and s she concentrated on the conversion of her theoretical ideas into political practice. Luce Irigaray critiques the phallocentric logic of identity, according to which femininity is the negation of the male subject - psychoanalytically: a cavity of the penis. Irigaray deconstructs this mirror image of sexual difference and develops "femininity" as the radically other independent of the logos and his power of definition, taking on ever-new forms between the concepts and images.
According to Irigary the girl is "expatriated" to the phallic order through the object change from the mother toward the father. Thus she loses the possibility of a female genealogy and a female desire. The only way out for a woman is the strategy of mimesis, which means submitting herself to the masculine views of women in a playful way. The unfaithful repetition of the views makes visible that women are something other than the view expressed.
For Irigaray the autoerotic body experiences of women evade the phallocentric binary oppositions. The result is the "fluidity" and ambiguity of woman's language. While Irigaray first tried to avoid a definition of femininity by consciously using ambiguities, she later sketched essential formulations of femininity.
In An Ethics of Sexual Difference she pleaded for a non-complementary sexual difference, regarding each of the sexes as a whole and different from another. Luce Irigaray even goes so far as to put into play the urgency of female divinity. She earned a university degree in philosophy, before emigrating from occupied France to Mexico in When the party leaders required the members to dissociate themselves from the Freudian theory, the Kestembergs as well as Serge Lebovici signed a manifesto in , in which psychoanalysis was condemned to be a reactionary ideology.
Later they retracted their position and left the Communist party. The same year she and her husband adopted a little girl, Catherine, who later became herself an analyst. She integrated techniques of group therapy into her analytic practice and together with Diatkine, Lebovici and others created individual psychoanalytic psychodrama. In her writings she devoted herself particularly to the problems of adolescents, the anorexia and the "cold psychosis", i.
Typical for the anorexia is the denial of the real body and its idealizing as an unreal and inaccessible object. The satisfactory incorporation is replaced by the lust of hunger and emptiness. With the cold psychosis the ego is pervaded by the ideal ego, and the external object constitutes a projection of the ideal ego.
The only possible relation is a fetishistic relation to the object. Julia Kristeva stands as one of the foremost French proponents of post-structuralism. She was born in Sliven in Bulgaria as the daughter of Stoyan and Christine Kristev; her father was a physician and a theologian. After studying linguistics at the University of Sofia, she came to Paris at the end of Under the supervision of Lucien Goldmann she completed her doctoral thesis Le texte du roman in She joined Tel Quel , a literary journal inspired by Jacques Derrida, and was a leading member of the editorial board from to , the year of the journal's discontinuation.
Hoping to connect the aesthetic avant-garde with the revolutionary political movement, the Tel Quel group was in contact with the Communist Party and visited Mao's China in Following this trip Julia Kristeva wrote her book Des chinoises , in which she compared the role of women in Chinese and Western culture. In the midst of the s she went into analysis with Ilse Barande.
Kristeva's theoretical work centres on the investigation of the social symbolic systems. With the help of psychoanalysis and self-reflective structural linguistics, she explores the unconscious mechanisms of symbolic structures, especially those of the language. For Kristeva the symbolic is not a static system but a process, which only functions by excluding something that she identifies, like Lacan, with the feminine.
The excluded undermines the structures and evades a positive definition. Julia Kristeva presented the basic ideas of her complex thoughts in her most comprehensive theoretical work, Revolution in Poetic Language , which gave her an international reputation. Thus she makes visible the trace of the pre-symbolic - the bodily ground of speech and desire - within the symbolic.
According to her, the unconscious is not only structured like a language, as Lacan postulated, but in addition it also contains the memory of the pre-lingual. Kristeva called this infantile pre-symbolic - first undifferentiated and then accentuated by drive cathexis - the semiotic maternal "chora". After the entry into the symbolic order, the ego remains furthermore exposed to the operations of the semiotic - a source of psychosis as well as of creativity.
Based on her distinction between the semiotic and the symbolic, Kristeva developed her theory of abjection in the s. Abjection originates in the primal repression, when the child has to separate from the mother in order to become subject of the symbolic. What has been the mother, will turn into an abject. The abject, i. Kristeva's later texts are more concrete and more personal: Psychoanalytic case studies and literary analysis complement each other.
Her studies on famous women, especially her trilogy Female genius about the philosopher Hannah Arendt, the psychoanalyst Melanie Klein and the writer Colette, as well as her novels can also be read as autobiographical projects. According to Kristeva, the analyst writes his "secret autobiography" as metamorphized in each of his interpretations The secrets of an analyst.
Paulette Erikson [Erichson, Erickson, Ericson], the daughter of a pharmacist in Colmar in Alsace, was a teacher before she began practising psychoanalysis. In Paulette Laforgue had to undergo a hysterectomy and subsequently could no longer bear children. At the instigation of her husband she also underwent analysis with Sokolnicka and became an analyst herself.
Her control supervisor was Heinz Hartmann. She first taught mathematics, when she married Serge Lebovici in , who later became a psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and president of the IPA. After the end of the war Ruth Lebovici decided to train as a psychoanalyst. She underwent training analysis with Marc Schlumberger and was supervised by Jacques Lacan. Particularly known is Ruth Lebovici's paper Perversion sexuelle transitoire au cours d'un traitement psychanalytique about a patient with phobia, who developed a transitory sexual perversion in the course of a psychoanalytic treatment.
Lacan discussed in an exemplary way Lebovici's case study in his Seminar IV on object-relations , proposing that the analyst's interpretation of the transference triggered the acting out of the patient's perverse fantasy. Such sort of "artefacts pervers", he argued, were the outcome of an analysis in which the place of the symbolic in the relation analyst-analysand was ignored.
At the same time she worked at the Fondation Parent de Rosan in Paris, a public institution for the temporary care of young children who had been abandoned by their mothers. Two of these cases Nadia and Robert were presented by Rosine Lefort at Lacan's Seminar, and they are regarded as remarkably lucid examples of the clinical application of Lacanian concepts. Rosine Lefort worked closely together with her husband, the psychoanalyst Robert Lefort , with whom she published her books. Rosine Lefort's case reports show clearly the existential function of the signifier in the subjectivation.
According to the Lacanian terminology, the psychotic is stuck in an unmediated relationship with the Real and cut off from meaningful structures, which proceed via the signifier of the Other. For Lefort the analysis of the preverbal infant is particularly suited to show that the subject, before it speaks, "speaks in the Other", where it finds its significant place. Anne Levallois was a jurist before she turned to psychology, anthropology and psychoanalysis in the early s. The mother of three children her married name was Colot , she participated at that time in literacy campaigns in Senegal.
After her return to Paris she completed her diploma in clinical psychology and trained as an analyst with Serge Leclaire. Together with Myriam David and others she explored the relation of single mothers to their first child and subsequently worked as a psychologist at a Salvation Army institution for single mothers. In she established a psychoanalytic practice in Paris, shortly before she divorced. From to she directed the journal Psychanalystes. Anne Levallois was particularly interested in the relation between psychoanalysis, biography and history.
Levallois' study on Urbain elucidated the effects of traumatising social conditions on subjectivation. Further main points of Anne Levallois were tranference phantasies and the signifiers of femininity. An anthology of her texts between and was published posthumously under the title Une psychanalyste dans l'histoire. She spent her early childhood in Colombo, Ceylon, where her father was general consul of the Netherlands.
The return of her family to Europe in signified for the little girl the loss of her childhood paradise. She forgot her mother tongue English and the Singhalese words of her nurse when she lived with her French speaking grandfather, and in her unloved new residence in Amsterdam she had to learn Dutch. These experiences shaped Maud Mannoni's central question: how to refind the lost language of childhood.
After attending a convent school in Antwerp, Magdalena van der Spoel studied criminology in Brussels. During World War II she worked with psychotic adolescents at a psychiatric clinic and decided to train as a psychoanalyst. In she married the philosopher and psychoanalyst Octave Mannoni , an analysand of Jacques Lacan and a left-wing intellectual.
During the s Maud Mannoni and her husband engaged themselves in fighting for the independence of Algeria. In she met Jacques Lacan, with whom she had her second analysis, and became a Lacanian. During a stay in London she became acquainted with the concepts of Donald W. Winnicott and Melanie Klein and the anti-psychiatry of Ronald D.
Maud Mannoni was able to realise her ideas in by founding the Experimental school of Bonneuil along with Robert Lefort, a residential community for psychotic, retarded and troubled children and adolescents in Bonneuil-sur-Marne. It was the only anti-psychiatric project in France inspired by the British model.
As the directrice of this school she put into practice Lacanian psychoanalysis, anti-psychiatric ideas and Winnicott's concept of a "supporting environment". For Mannoni the disturbed child is a "spokesperson" for the dysfunctional family, whose history is written in the child's symptoms and expressions. In her view this pathogenic development is reinforced by social exclusion mechanisms. At Bonneuil the children were encouraged to give voice to their fears, destructive feelings and fantasies. Central to Mannoni's therapeutic approach is the cultivation of the capacity to play that makes loss bearable.
She seeks to free the child from the suffocating effect of the anxiety and desires of the Other - first of all his mother - by helping him find a personal language in the symbolic order. Following her study of psychology in Dunedin, Joyce Carrington worked as a vocational and family counsellor in Dunedin and Auckland. In the family settled in England. She met Donald W. Winnicott and attended his course in woman's psychosexuality. She underwent training analysis with Marc Schlumberger and was appointed training and supervising analyst of the SPP in In she became the scientific secretary of the SPP.
She underwent another analysis with Michel Renard.
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In the early s she met Sidney Stewart , an American writer and psychoanalyst, who became her second life partner after her separation from Jimmy McDougall. She established a child-therapeutic practice and analysed, under the supervision of Serge Lebovici, a nine-and-a-half-year-old psychotic boy, whose case she described in her book Dialogue with Sammy. Main themes in here writings are: female homosexuality - for the first time discussed by her in her study Homosexuality in women , as well psychosomatic illness and issues of sexual identity and creativity.
In her first book Plea for a Measure of Abnormality she suggested her renowned revision of the Freudian concept of perversion. In Joyce McDougall's view the classical division into neurosis, psychosis and perversion is too rigid to understand sexual deviations, which are linked with narcissistic personality disorders.
Instead of "perversion" she prefered the term "neosexualities", i. Joyce McDougall was convinced that all sexual behaviour so bizarre and strange as it might be serves for psychic survival. She pleaded to accept "deviant" sexuality and not to adapt it to norms by psychoanalysis. In Joyce McDougall's work psychic reality appears like a stage on which the narcissistic and oedipal dramas are played out. Referring to Melanie Klein and Piera Aulagnier , she conceived the metaphor of an inner theatre particularly in her books Theaters of the Mind and Theaters of the Body.
Her book The Many Faces of Eros deals with the varied forms of human sexuality basing on an inborn bisexuality. For McDougall female homosexuality, for instance, is no pathological deviation, because homosexual wishes of a girl toward her mother are a fundamental component of female development. Only the shaping of these wishes is different in the lives of homosexual and heterosexual women. She died at the age of 91 in London. At the time of Judith's birth her mother was still married to Georges Bataille, whom she divorced in Jacques Lacan got divorced from his first wife in and married Sylvia Bataille in Unlike her half-sister Laurence Bataille who had received formal psychoanalytic training, Judith Bataille-Lacan did not undergo analysis, but formed part of the circle of Lacan's disciples since her teens.
Judith Miller played an important role in the Lacanian movement. She studied philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris, before she began an analysis with Jacques Lacan in , which lasted eight years. During her analysis she became his lover. She left the ECF in She stated that pedagogy which bases on psychoanalysis must end up in a blind alley, because the position of a child analyst is not compatible with that of a pedagogue.
The latter cannot represent a neutral mirror, for he always has - consciously or unconsciously - an educational intention.
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