When robbed of them by a foe Whom you almost took for your own son, A satyr mingling with gods. Thus you did much of your building And buried many a thing. For you are hated by those whom You, powerful beyond time. Had drawn forth into hght. Now you know and, knowing, relax: For gladly rests down below.
So it may ripen, the anxiously caring world. Denn feme kommend haben Hieher, zur Abendstunde, Sich liebende Gaste beschieden. Nichts vor dir, [ Nur Fines weiss ich, Sterbliches bist du nicht. Ein Weiser mag mir manches erhellen; wo aber Ein Gott auch noch erscheint, Da ist doch andere Klarheit. Das ist, sie horen das Werk, Langst vorbereitend, von Morgen nach Abend, jetzt erst, Denn un- ermesslich brausst, in der Tief e verhallend, Des Donnerers Echo, das tausendjahrige Wetter, Zu schlaf en, iibertont von Friedens- lauten, hinunter.
Und manchen mocht' ich laden, aber o du, Der freundlichemst den Menschen zugethan, Dort unter syrischer Pahne, Wo nahe lag die Stadt, am Brunnen geme war; Das Komf eld rauschte rings, still athmete die Kiihlung Vom Schatten des geweihetenGebirges; I Und die lieben Freunde, das treue Gewolk, Umschatteten dich auch, damit der heiligkiihne Durch Wildniss mild dein Straal zu Menschen kam, o JiinglingI Ach' aber dunkler umschattete, mit- ten im Wort, dich I Furchtbarentscheidend ein todtlich Verhang- nis.
So ist schnell Verganglich alles Himmlische; aber umsonst nicht; Denn schonend riihrt des Maases allzeit kundig Nur einen Augenblick die Wohnimgen der Menschen Ein Gott an, imver- selm, und keiner weiss es, wenn? Auch dart alsdann das Freche driiber gehn Und kommen muss zum heilgen Ort das Wilde Von Enden fern, iibt rauhbetastend den Wahn, Und trif t daran ein Schicksal, aber Dank, Nie folgt der gleich hemach dem gott- gegebenen Geschenke; I Tiefpriif end ist es zu f assen. Des Gottlichen aber empfiengen wir Doch viel. Und es lehret Gestim dich, das Vor Augen dir ist, doch nimnier kannst du ihm gleichen.
Denn langst war der zum Herm der Zeit zu gross Und weit aus reichte sein Feld; wann hats ihn aber erschopfet? Einmal mag aber ein Gott auch Tagewerk erwahlen, Gleich sterblichen und theilen alles Schicksal. Schicksalgesetz ist diss, dass alle sich erfahren, Dass, wenn die Stille kehrt, auch eine Sprache sei. I Wo aber wirkt der Geist, sind auch wir mit, und streiten, Was wohl das Beste sei. So diinkt mir jezt das Beste, Wenn nun vollendet sein Bild und fertig ist der Meister, Und selbst ver- klart davon aus seiner Werkstatt tritt, Der stille Gott der Zeit und nur der Liebe Gesez Das schonausgleichende gilt von hier an bis zum Himmel.
Und das Zeitbild, das der grosse Geist entfaltet, Ein Zeichen liegts vor uns, das zwischen ihm und andem Ein Biindnis zwi- schen ihm und andem Machten ist. Nicht er allein, die Uner- zeugten, Ew'gen Sind kennbar alle daran, gleichwie auch an den Pflanzen Zulezt ist aber doch, ihr heiligen Machte, fiir euch Das Liebeszeichen, das Zeugnis Dass ihrs noch seiet, der Festtag.
So hast du manches gebaut, Und manches begraben, Denn es hasst dich, was Du, vor der Zeit Allkraftige, zum Lichte gezogen. Nun kennest, nun lassest du diss; I Denn gerne fiihllos ruht, Bis dass es reift, furchtsam- geschaftiges drunten. What here we are, far oflF a god amends With harmonies, everlasting recompense, and peace. For a while, especially during his sojourn in Jena, he was subjected to Schiller's influence. In Leipzig he met Friedrich Schlegel and became deeply attached to him and his new ideas.
After his graduation from the Wit- tenberg law school , he moved to Tennstedt, in Thuringia, to train for a pubHc post and met there in the thirteen-year-old Sophie von Kiihn with whom he fell in love. At her death the poet was imconsolable, and out of his grief sprang his Hymns to the Night in which he expressed a mystical death wish, granted soon there- after: he died of consimiption in , when scarcely twenty-nine.
In addition to the Hymns, considered a land- mark in the history of German poetry, Novahs wrote two lyrical novels— The Novices of Sais and Henry of Ofter- dingen, wherein the symboHc 'l lue flower" of the Roman- tics first blossomed— an essay, "Christianity or Europe," in which he glorified the medieval spirit, and finally his Spir- itual SongSy inspired by the rituals and festivals of the church and praising the Virgin Mary as the great symbol of the Infinite.
When numbers, figures, no more hold the key To solve the living creatures' mystery, When those who kiss and sing have knowledge more Than all the deeply learned scholars' store. And when in poesy and faerie Men read the world's eternal story, Then will a secret word obhge to flee All of this mad perversity. Gifted with feehng, Bestows not his love On the all-joyful light? As life's inmost soul It is breathed By the giant world Of restless stars Who swim in its blue ocean.
By the sparkling stone, The peaceful plant. By the creatures' Many-fashioned Ever-moving Hfe. It is breathed by the clouds Many-hued, by the zephyrs. And, above all, By the glorious strangers, With the thoughtful eyes. The swinging gait, And the sounding lips.
As a king It summons each power Of terrestrial nature To numberless changes, And alone doth its presence Reveal the full splendor Of earth. Sunk in deep vault; How dreary, forlorn her abode! Deep melancholy Stirs in the chords of the breast. Far-off memories. Wishes of youth. Far oflF lies the world With its motley of pleasures. Elsewhere doth the Hght Pitch its airy encampment. What if it never returned To its faithful children, To its gardens In its glorious house? Yet what flows so cool. So refreshing, So full of hid tidings To our hearts, And absorbs the soft air Of melancholy?
Hast thou too A human heart, O dark Night? What boldest thou Under thy mantle Which steals unseen Upon my soul, Giving it strength? Thou seemest but fearful- Precious balm Drops from thy hand. From the bundle of poppies. In sweet intoxication Thou unfoldest the soul's heavy wings, And givest us joys Dark, inexpressible. Secret as thou, Joys which are promise of heaven. How joyful and bless'd The departure of day. It is but because Night withdraws those who serve thee That thou sowest In the wide realms of space Shining spheres. To proclaim in the times of thine absence Thine omnipotence, Thy returning again.
More heavenly than those flashing stars In those wide spaces, Seem to us the infinite eyes Which the Night In us opens. Farther see they Than the palest Of that numberless host. Unneedful of light. They look through the depths Of a love-enfiUed heart Which fills with unspeakable joy A loftier space. Praise to the world's Queen! To the lofty proclaimer Of holy world, To the nurturer Of blissful love. Thou comest. The Night is here- Rapt away is my soul- Finished the earthly way. Once more art thou mine. I gaze into the depths of thy dark eyes. See naught but love and bhssfulness therein; We sink upon Night's altar.
Must ever the morning return? Endeth never the thraldom of earth? Unhallowed aflFairs swallow up The heavenly coming of Night? Will never love's offering bum Eternal and hid? To the light was appointed its time, A time to its watching— But timeless the rule of the Night; Without end the duration of sleep. Holy Sleepl Bless not too seldom Night's consecrated ones— In this earth's daily round. Only the foolish mistake thee And know of no sleep But the shadows, Which thou in compassion Castest upon us In that twilight Of the true Night.
They feel thee not In the golden flood of the grape, In the almond tree's Magic oil, In the brown juice of the poppy. They know not It is thou That hoverest over the breast Of the tender maiden, And makest her bosom a heaven— They guess not That out of old histories Thou comest to meet us. And bearest the key To the dwellings of the bless'd: A silent messenger Of infinite mysteries.
Melancholy flowed into a new unfathomable world; thou, O inspiration of night, slumber of heaven, camest o'er me. All that lay round me softly arose, and above it hovered my unbound, newly bom spirit. As a dust cloud became the mound; through the cloud I beheld the glorified features of the Be- loved. In her eyes rested eternity. I grasped her hands and my tears became a sparkling indestructible cord. Thousands of years drew away down into the distance as a thunder- storm.
On her neck I wept enchanted tears for the new life. That was the first dream in thee. It passed, but its image remained— the eternal, imshakable behef in the heaven of night, and its sim, the Beloved. IV Now know I when the last morning will be— when the Hght will no longer scare away love and the night, when slumber will be eternal and only one inexhaustible dream. Heavenly weariness deserts me now no more. Long and toilsome was the way to the Holy Sepulchre, and the Cross was heavy.
He whose lips have once been moistened by the NOVALIS 61 crystal wave which, unseen by common sight, has its source in the dark womb of the mound at whose foot breaks the earthly tide, he who has stood above upon this boundary of the world, and has looked across into the new land, into the dwelling place of the night— he, of a truth, turns not back to the aflFairs of the world in the land where light holds sway, and eternal unrest makes its home.
Up above he builds himself tabernacles, dwellings of peace, he longs and loves, gazes across, until the most welcome of all hours draws him down into the wells of the foimt. All that is earthly floats on the surface, and is washed down from the heights; but what has become holy through contact of love runs released into hidden ways in yonder realm, where cloudlike it mingles with the slumber-wrapped loved ones.
Still thou awakest The weary to work, O cheerful Light— Thou inspirest me with joyful life. But thou allurest me not From remembering That moss-grown monument. Canst thou show me An ever-true heart? Has thy sun Friendly eyes Which know me? Do thy stars grasp My longing hand And give me in turn A tender pressure?
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Hast thou bedecked her With color And Hght outhne? Or was it she Who gave to thine adornment Higher and loveher meaning? What delight And what pleasures Offers thy life Which outweigh The enchantments of death? Doth not all that inspires us Bear the color of night? She beareth thee as a mother. And to her thou dost owe All of thy splendor. Thou wouldst vanish Into thyself, Thou wouldst dissolve Into endless space Did she not hold thee— Not bind thee, So that thou grewest warm.
And flaming Begottest the world. Verily I was, ere thou wert. Not yet have they ripened, Those thoughts of the gods. As yet are the traces but few In our age. One day thy clock will depict The ending of time. When thou wilt become As one of us, And full of longing. Melt away and die. Blessed return. I discern thy removal In wild grief From our home.
Thy resistance To the glorious Ancient heaven. In vain is thy fury. Thy raging. Indestructible Stands the Cross, Triumphant banner Of our race. I wander across And every pain Will turn to a pricking Of joy again. Unending life Comes over me, And I look from above Down below upon thee. Thy brightness fades On that httle hill, A shade is bringing The chaplet cool. Oh, drink. Beloved, Of me drink deep.
That soon I be wrapped In eternal sleep. I feel death's encroaching. Youth-giving wave, And wait through life's stresses Full stalwart and brave. Over the widespread race Of man There formerly ruled An iron destiny. With silent might. A dark and heavy band Lay round their Anxious souls.
The Life of August Wilhelm Schlegel
Infinite was the earth, Abode of the gods And their home. Rich in treasures And glorious wonders. Since eternity Stood her mysterious frame. An ancient giant Supported the blissful world.
LABORATORY FOR VISIONARY ARCHITECTURE
And the befriended Joyful mankind. The dark blue depths Of the sea Was the womb of a goddess. Heavenly hosts Dwelt in joyful delight In the grottoes of crystal- Trees and brooks, Blossoms and beasts Had human sense; Sweeter tasted the wine. For a god in youthful bloom Gave it to man. The full sheaves Of golden com Were divinely bestowed; The rapturous joys of love A sacred service To heavenly beauty. Thus was life An eternal festival Of gods and men. Only there was one thought Which frightful to the festive tables trod, And in wild panic fear all hearts enveiled.
Here words of counsel even failed each god. Which with sweet comfort could their hearts have filled; Mysterious was this monster's dreadful road, Whose rage no gift, no anxious prayer availed— For it was Death, who this gay banquet scene Broke up in pain and tears and anguish keen.
Forever now from all things separated Which here do stir the heart in sweet delight— From loved ones parted, whom, down here, belated. Vain longings and an endless grief incite— Dull dream the lot to which the dead seemed fated, Unconscious struggling deemed their dreary plight. Broken and shattered was the wave of pleasure Upon the rock of misery without measure. With daring mind, and lofty feeling's zest, Did man embellish that grim mask unkind, A pale wan youth puts out the light to rest, Soft is the end, as harp strings touched by wind, And memory melts in shadow-flood at last: Thus poets eased the need of troubled mind.
Yet still unfathomed stayed eternal night. The solemn symbol of a far-off might. To its end inclined The ancient world. The happy garden Of the youthful race Withered away; Out into freer spaces Strove the full-grown, Unchildhke mankind. Laws arose, And in ideas As in dust and air Fell to pieces The measureless prime Of the thousandfold life.
Fled away Were all-powerful faith And fantasy. All-transforming, AU-imiting, Heavenly comrade. Unfriendly blew A cold north wind Over the frozen plains, And the wonderland home Passed away in the ether. The infinite distance Of heaven Was filled with shining worlds. Into a deeper sanctuary. Into the mind's higher realms. Drew the soul of the world With her powers. There to reign Till the new day Should break.
The loftier world-glory. No longer was Hght The abode of the gods. And a heavenly token- Around them they drew The curtain of night. In the midst of mankind. In a folk Despised above all. Too soon grown ripe, And proudly estranged From the blessed innocence Of youth. Before all others Did the eastern wisdom, Rich flowering, full of foreseeing. Know the approach Of the new age. A star pointed the way To the King's humble cradle. In the name of the far future They paid him homage. With the splendor and perfumes Of the highest wonders of nature. Unfolded the heavenly heart In sohtude To a glowing bosom of love, Turned toward The Father's lofty countenance, And resting on the holy foreboding breast Of the gracious earnest Mother.
With worshiping ardor The prophetic eye Of the blossoming child Looked into future times. Soon the most childhke natures, Wondrously gripped By the almighty love. Gathered aroimd him. A strange new life Flowered forth In his presence- Inexhaustible words. Most joyful of tidings. Fell hke sparks Of divine spirit From his gracious lips. From far coasts, Bom under serene skies Of Hellas Came a singer To Palestine And surrendered his heart To the miraculous child: Thou art that youthful form our tombs display Standing above them, deep in contemplation, ConsoHng emblem in our darkest day Of higher manhood's joyful new foundation.
What once had sunk us down, to grief a prey. Now draws us thence with longing's sweet elation. In Death was germ of hfe eternal found, Thyself art Death, and first doth make us sound. So that a thousand hearts Inchned themselves to him. And the glad gospel Upward waxed Branching a thousandfold. But yet short time After the singer passed, The precious life Became a sacrifice For the deep fall of man- Young in years he died, Tom away From the loved world, From the weeping Mother, From his friends. The holy mouth Emptied the dark cup Of untold sorrow. In dreadful anguish Drew nigh to him the birth hour Of the new world.
Hard wrestled he with the horrors Of ancient death. Heavy upon him lay The weight of the old world. Once more he gently looked upon the Mother- Then came the loosening hand Of eternal love— And he fell asleep. Few were the days Hung a deep veil Over the roaring sea, over the dark heaving land. Uncounted tears Wept the beloved ones.
Awaked to new godlike glory He ascended to the heights Of the rejuvenated, new-bom world. And the old world Which with him had died. With his own hand he bm'ied In the forsaken cave. And with almighty strength he laid above The stone which thence no power should ever move. Still weep thy loved ones Tears of joy, Tears of emotion. And unending thanks Before thy grave— And ever still With shock of joy See thee ascend. Themselves with thee— See thee with ardor sweet Weep on the Mother's bosom And on the friends' true hearts.
Hasten, filled with longing, Into the Father s arms, Bringing the young Childlike humanity And the inexhaustible draft Of the golden future. The Mother followed thee soon In heavenly tTiim:iph. She was the first In the new home At thy side. Long ages Have flowed by since then. Thousands from pain and grief Draw nigh to thee Full of faith, longing, And fidehty, And rule with thee And the heavenly Virgin In the kingdom of love.
And serve in the temple Of the heavenly death. Uplifted is the stone. Mankind is now arisen, We chng to thee alone, And feel no bond of prison. Death to the marriage calls, The lamps are shining steady. The virgins all are ready, No lack of oil befalls. Far distances are ringing With tidings of thy train! And stars the summons singing With human tongue and strain! To thee, Maria, lifteth Of thousand hearts the plea. Whose hfe in shadow drifteth They long to come to thee. Consumed with bitter pain, This dreary earth-world spuming.
Have turned to thee again. Their aid to us was given When pain and want befell. We join them now in heaven And ever with them dwell. For none with faith who careth On grave need sorely grieve, The treasure that he loveth From him will none bereave. For angels true of heaven His heart in safety keep. His longing grief to leaven Inspireth night his sleep. Our life with courage ending Eternal life draws near, With inner glow expanding Transfigured sense grows clear.
The star-world now is flowing As living golden wine, Its joys on us bestowing, Ourselves as stars shall shine. For love is freely given And partings ne'er may be. The flood of life is driven Like an unbounded sea- Unending night delights us. Eternity's romance. And all the sim that lights us Is God's own countenance. Within a narrow boat we come And hasten to the heavenly home. All hail, then, to eternal night, All hail, eternal sleeping, Warmed have we been by daily light. Withered by grief's long weeping. Strange lands no longer joys arouse.
We want to reach our Father s house. In this world's hfe what shall we do With love and faith devoted? What should we care about the new? The old is no more noted. Ohl lonely stands he, deeply sore. Whose love reveres the days of yore. The days of yore when, himian sense High flaming, brightly burning. The Father's hand and countenance Mankind was still discerning. Many of higher senses ripe Resembled still their prototype. The days of yore, when ancient stem Bore many youthful flowers. And children craved the heavenly home Beyond life's anguished hours. And e'en when hfe and pleasure spake Love caused full many a heart to break.
The days of yore, when God revealed Himself, young, ardent, glowing; To early death his life he sealed. Deep love and courage showing. Sparing himself no painful smart, He grew still dearer to our heart. We must repair to heavenly place If we would see those sacred days. What then doth hinder our return?
The loved ones long have slumbered, Their grave enfolds our life's concern, With anxious grief we're cumbered. We have no more to seek down here. The heart wants naught, the world is bare. Eternal and from hidden spring A sweet shower through us streameth; An echo of our grief did ring From distance far, meseemeth; The loved ones have the same desire. And with their longing us inspire. O downward then to Bride so sweetl To Jesus, the Beloved! A dream doth break our bonds apart.
And sinks us on the Father's heart. Abwarts wend ich mich Zu der heiligen, unaussprechlichen Geheimnis- vollen Nacht— Fernab liegt die Welt, Wie versenkt in eine tiefe Gruft, Wie wiist und einsam ihre Stelle! Tiefe Wehmut Weht in den Saiten der Bnist. I Fernab liegt die Welt Mit ihren bunten Geniissen. Muss immer der Morgen wieder kommen? Endet nie deS Irdi- schen Gewalt? Zusam- men floss die Wehmut in eine neue unergriindUche Welt— du Nachtbegeisterung, Schliunmer des Himmels, kamst iiber mich.
Die Gegend hob sich sacht empor— iiber der Gegend schwebte mein entbundner, neugebomer Geist. In ihren Augen ruhte die Ewigkeit— ich fasste ihre Hande, und die Tranen wurden ein funkelndes, unzerreissliches Band. Jahrtausende zogen abwarts in die Feme, wie Ungewitter. An ihrem Halse weint'ich dem neuen Leben entziickende Tranen— das war der erste Traum in dir.
Er zog voriiber, aber sein Abglanz blieb, der ewige, unerschiitterliche Glauben an den Nachthimmel und seine Sonne, die Geliebte. IV Nun weiss ich, wenn der letzte Morgen sein wird— wenn das Licht nicht mehr die Nacht und die Liebe scheucht, wenn der Schlummer ewig, und ein unerschopflicher Traum sein wird. Himmlische Miidigkeit verlasst mich nun nicht wieder.
Wessen Mund einmal die kristallene Woge netzte, die, gemeinen Sinnen unsichtbar, quillt in des Hiigels dunkelm Schoos, an dessen Fuss die irdische Flut bricht, wer oben stand auf diesem Grenzgebirge der Welt und hiniibersah in das neue Land, in der Nacht Wohnsitz; wahrlich, der kehrt nicht in das Treiben der Welt 2:iiriick, in das Land, wo das Licht regiert und ewige Unnih haust.
Oben baut er sich Hiitten, Hiitten des Frie- dens, sehnt sich und liebt, schaut hiniiber, bis die willkommenste aller Stunden hinunter ihn— in den Brunnen der Quelle zieht. AUes Irdische schwimmt obenauf und wird von der Hohe hinab- gespiilt, aber was heilig ward durch der Liebe Beriihrung, rinnt aufgelost in verborgnen Gangen auf das jenseitige Gebiet, wo es, wie Wolken, sich mit entschlummerten Lieben mischt. Aber du lockst mich Von der Erinnerung Moosigem Denkmal nicht. Kannst du mir zeigen Ein ewig treues Herz? Hat deine Sonne Freund- liche Augen, Die mich erkennen?
Fassen deine Sterne Meine verlangende Hand? Geben mir wieder Den zartlichen Druck? Oder war sie es, Die deinem Schmuck Hohere, liebere Be- deutung gab? Zu geben Menschlichen Sinn Deinen Schopfungen. Noch reiften sie nicht, Diese gottlichen Gedanken. Noch sind der Spuren Unsrer Gegenwart Wenig. Umsonst ist deine Wut, Dein Toben. Reich an Kleinoden Und herrlichen Wundern. Seit Ewigkeiten Stand ihr geheimnisvoller Ban. Ein alter Riese Trug die sehge Welt. I Gesetze wurden. Bald sammelten die kindlichsten Gemiiter, Von allmachtiger Liebe Wundersam ergriffen, j Sich um ihn her.
Im Tode ward das ew'ge Leben kund, Du bist der Tod und machst uns erst gesund. Der Sanger zog Vol! Entsiegelt ward das Geheimnis. Gehoben ist der Stein. Die Menschheit ist erstanden. Wir alle bleiben dein Und fiihlen keine Banden. So manche, die sich gliihend In bittrer Qual verzehrt Und dieser Welt entfliehend Nur dir sich zugekehrt; Die hilfreich uns erschienen In mancher Not und Pein— Wir konimen nun zu ihnen, Um ewig da zu sein. Nun weint an keinem Grabe Fiir Schmerz, wer liebend glaubt. I Der Liebe siisse Habe Wird keinem nicht geraubt.
I Wir kommen in dem engen Kahn Geschwind am Him- melsufer an. Wir miissen nach der Heimat gehn, Um diese heil'ge Zeit zu sehn. Was halt noch unsre Riickkehr auf— Die Liebsten ruhn schon lange. Ihr Grab schliesst unsern Lebenslauf, Nun wird uns weh und bange. Zu suchen haben wir nichts mehr— Das Herz ist satt, die Welt ist leer.
Die Lieben sehnen sich wohl auch Und sandten uns der Sehn- sucht Hauch. Though all are faithless growing. Yet will I faithful be. That one on earth is showing His thankfulness to Thee. For me Thou cam'st to suffer For me Thou had'st to smart. And now with joy I offer To Thee my thankful heart. Forgot and passed Thee by. With naught but love unsparing Thou cam'st for them and me. They let Thee die, uncaring. And thought no more of Thee. Yet true love ever winneth, At last the world will see. When weeping each one cHngeth, A child before Thy knee.
When now at last I find Thee, O leave me not alone! But ever closer bind me And let me be Thine ownl My brothers too, beholding, Will soon in Heav'n find rest. And then Thy love enfolding Will sink upon Thy breast. Wenn alle untreu werden, So bleib ich dir doch treu, Dass Dankbarkeit auf Erden Nicht ausgestorben sei. Oft muss ich bitter weinen, Dass du gestorben bist Und mancher von den Deinen Dich lebenslang vergisst.
Von Liebe nur durchdrungen, Hast du so viel getan, Und doch bist du verklungen, Und keiner denkt daran. Du stehst vol! Ich habe dich empfunden, OI lasse nicht von mir; Lass innig mich verbunden Auf ewig sein mit dir. So heavy grows our cheer. When all from far o'erpowers Our hearts with ghostly fear.
There come wild terrors creeping With stealthy silent tread, And night's dark mantle sweeping O'erweighs the soul with dread. Our pillars strong are shaking. No hold remaineth sure, Our thoughts in whirlpools breaking Obey our will no more. Then madness comes and claims us And none withstands his will, A senses' dullness maims us, The pulse of life stands still. Who raised the Cross, bestowing A refuge for each heart?
Who lives in heaven all-knowing And healeth pain and smart? Go thou where stands that Wonder And to thy heart give ear. His flames shall force asunder And quell thy nightmare fear. An angel bendeth o'er thee And bears thee to the strand. And, filled with joy, before thee Thou seest the Promised Land. Der Wahnsinn naht und locket Unwiderstehlich bin. I singled out that specific detail with my total being, with my total past. Another often quoted commentator on the filmic autobiography, Catherine Portuges, makes similar claims with regards to the recovery of the past.
Understood as the story of Antaeus, the real ques- tion of the autobiographical self then becomes where do I belong? But let us return to the notion, suggested by Barthes, that the experience of film viewing is protensive. If, as Barthes claims, the protension of the filmic image prevents it from being nostalgic, how does autobiography in its filmic form take up the temporal flow of existence?
The filmic image is always per se a representa- tion in the present tense, that is, of the diegetic present, unless a formal device, such as the flashback, demarcates the edges of a particular segment and codifies them as images of the past. As such, film would seem to be rather ill-suited to subjective contemplations of the past, in that such a conjunction of subjectivity and the past tense would require a multitude of devices of demarcation.
While films that attempt to represent a subjective recollection of the past, using such demarcations, indeed exist in quantity, it is important to note that that which is commonly achieved by the literary autobiography is not second nature to filmic autobiography. Indeed, according to P. Hercules finally conquers him by lifting him into the air.
In a similar fashion to Barthes, he identifies in the filmic image a different ontology from that of the photograph. However, that ontology, when tied to the question of representation in the context of auto- biographic cinema, produces, according to Sitney, a situation in which the film viewer commits herself to an effective illusion, upheld by the image itself. Making the comparison between the literary and the filmic autobiography, he writes, more specific to the cinema is the fact that all continuous images on film are illusions.
If being, or presence, is no longer than the atomistic division of filmic continuity, one twenty- fourth of a second, then it has the ontological status of a single still photograph. Indeed it is precisely this state in which the film viewer finds herself, as the sub- ject of a voluntary illusion, that is at issue in a theory of autobiographical recep- tion. Such a reception could be considered illusory. In The Cinematic Body, Steven Shaviro critiques the tradition of psychoanalytic film theory and its emphasis on the illusory nature of film reception, one that is based on the assumption of a misapprehension on the part of the viewer.
Sitney first and foremost addresses the specifics of the filmic autobiography in the con- text of the American avant-garde, which reduces its applicability to other cultural and historical contexts. Cinema produces real effects in the viewer, rather than merely presenting phantasmatic reflections to the viewer The viewer of autobiographical films is in the paradoxical position of experien- cing a kind of visceral empathy with another subject, even if the viewer is scep- tical about the viability of the subject and its accessibility in the form of a film.
I argue that the pleasure of the autobiographical text is rooted in its appeal as a phenomenological experience and the paradoxical state of exhilaration combined with proximity caused by the cinema. The responses registered in the body of the viewer are real. Thus, what Shaviro suggests here is a more expansive notion of involvement with the filmic image than character-based theories of empathy are normally thought to imply. While it is a self-evident fact that a human figure is visible in photographs that accompany literary autobiog- raphies, such as those described by Haverty-Rugg, this is not necessarily the case in filmic autobiography.
Intersubjectivity Such a sense of proximity has two sources, which are potentially present in all films: first, the engagement with another human who may or may not be visible in the image; and second, the proximity to the body of the film itself, as suggested by Sobchack. Both sorts of empathetic response are possible within autobiograph- ical film.
In the former case one is free to empathize with a figure, whether that figure is visible in the image or only suggested as an organizing consciousness, in the same way that one empathizes with a fictional character. However the latter possibility, which is inherent in the experience of proximity to the filmic image, and which is, of course, possible in any kind of film viewing experience, takes on particular connotations in the case of a film that is perceived as autobiographical.
Finally, I con- sider what the repercussions of such inclusive models of intersubjectivity must be for the notion of autobiography in film. While two recent studies of filmic empathy by Ed S. Tan and Murray Smith focus their attention explicitly on the manner in which the viewer feels for a fic- tional character, they each make reference to an understanding of empathy that considers non-figural aspects of empathetic experience.
In his Emotion and the Structure of Narrative Film: Film as an Emotion Machine, Tan primarily examines the manner in which fictional figures focus emotion in narrative films; however he also considers the way in which various aesthetic elements of narrative film may move the viewer. It is a capacity innate to human beings, one with broad impli- cations. Instead, the relationship between the movements and expres- sions of the face, and the kinaesthetic image are learned; Lipps continues, it is only in the manner in which such impulses as these have an effect, that is, in that they cause corresponding movements and impressions of movement to emerge, that a linkage of such impulses with the corresponding impressions of movement come into being.
In this fashion the impulse, which was heretofore blind, gains a content; its operation and effect is 59 I will quote Lipps at some length here, since his writings in German are both plentiful and lengthy and have only been translated into English in a fragmentary and limited fashion. The presence of such neurons would go a long way to accounting for the manner in which complex systems such as language are acquired phylogenetically. Such mirror neurons would account for the inclina- tion of humans to experience empathy in both fictional and non-fictional contexts. The nature of our particular achievement, however, consists in the production of cer- tain operations in the muscles, sinew, joints and finally the skin as well.
Of the completed action in its entirety we retain, in short, only a kinaesthetic image. At the turn of the 20th century in Vienna, a heated debate was underway about the manner in which the subjectivity of perception could be contained; accord- ingly, the risk of solipsism and its repercussions for perception concerned a variety of disciplines. These two modes of vision work together to integrate subjective and objective knowledge. By alternating between the attempt to validate the existence of objective reality and a subjective point-of-view, a viewer may distinguish between the two realms and, in turn, validate that which is perceived subjectively.
Thus, the impression of palpability, ascertained purely on the basis of vision, is sufficient for an intersubjective relationship with an object.
Hugo von Hofmannsthal
He sought to validate artistic images by tracing their formal attributes to the optical and tactile senses. If the viewer could be convinced that he could touch an object, he would believe in its reality, and hence its abil- ity to enter into a n optical relationship The viewer does not only seek to assume a state of attentiveness with regards to the work; she expects it from the work in return. Riegl makes this argument most explicitly in his study of The Group Portraiture of Holland; the notion that a painting may demonstrate a state of attentiveness to the viewer may not seem inconceiv- able in the case of portraiture.
I propose that the most productive approach to the phenomenon of inter- subjectivity in the cinema in general, and the autobiographical film in particular, must take into consideration both the breadth of situations offering empathetic experience, as suggested by Lipps, and the kind of reciprocal attentiveness that is suggested by Riegl. Their notions of empathetic experience and reciprocal atten- tiveness both depend on the relationship between vision and the tactile capacities of the human body, which are in turn embedded within the body and depend on its surface, the skin.
The notions of the haptic, the kinaesthetic, and the proprio- ceptic, and their repercussions for aesthetic experience, also attracted a great deal of attention in Central Europe in the early years of the 20th century. Although the two latter terms are often subsumed under the general term of the haptic, or that which is perceived by tactile sensation on the surface of or within the body, it would be prudent to consider the manner in which they each function separately.
Proprio- ception is transmitted by means of receptors on muscles, joints, and tendons that offer data about the position of the body in space, its relationship to gravity, and its general connectedness. However, it is not necessary that our bodies come into direct contact with matter; our vision is fundamentally influenced by and capable of recollecting the experiences of the other senses. In this regard, Sobchack suggests, my sense of sight, then, is a modality of perception that is commutable to my other senses, and vice-versa.
My sight is never only sight — it sees what my ear can hear, my hand can touch, my nose can smell, and my tongue can taste. My entire bodily existence is implicated in my vision Thus it would follow that the sensation of embodied selfhood, which is so contin- gent on haptic, kinaesthetic and proprioceptic impressions, would also be repro- duced in film by means of haptic visuality.
He likens the impact of film images on the viewer indeed, the quality of this new medium on the whole to that of a bullet, thereby lending the medium itself a tactile quality Benjamin continues that the shock produced by this experience in the case of film reception exceeds that with which he was initially comparing it: the effect produced by the Dadaist work of art.
Following Benjamin, I suggest that the experience of film viewing is, in essence, a tactile one that enables a situation of proximity to an other, whether that other be taken for a historical subject — as I argue is the case with autobiographical recep- tion — or not. In her Atlas of Emotion. Journeys in Art, Architecture, and Film Bruno charts an entirely different type of emotional experience from that focused on by the scholars of empathy noted above. In The Skin of the Film: Intercultural Cinema, Embodiment, and the Senses, Laura Marks points out an additional manner in which the filmic image may be haptic: that which is depicted within the film image may be blurred or otherwise represented in such a fashion as to suggest that it is at such close proximity to the viewer that she may not be able to make out its representational content.
In her book The Skin of the Film Laura Marks glosses over this matter entirely, never aligning herself explicitly with either side. Indeed, her account suggests it would be prudent to consider the specific manner in which filmic autobiography is perceived as such by the viewer, and what repercussions the filmic medium itself have on the notion of autobiography. Much of what is usually considered filmic autobiography, represented here by both Lane and the brief overviews of the work of Renov and James, functions on the basis of conventions of representation that allow the filmmaker to illustrate her recollection of the past and its impact on the present.
As I have pointed out, while these acts of consciousness may be depicted convincingly on the basis of several types of standardized tools of demarcation one cannot make a case for the referentiality of such formal devices. Nonetheless, there is a type of referentiality in operation within the filmic auto- biography that pertains not to the specificity of the autos, but to the bios depicted there.
However it is, as Hav- erty-Rugg argues, as capable as the photograph of locating the subject in time and space — whether or not the subject is present in the image. Thus, in film the bios — or, the notion that life is represented in autobiography — may be understood to be present in the image itself, in the way in which a historical time and place leave their indexical traces on the image as signifiers of the ramifications of life in that precise situation.
The viewer is immersed in the protension of the filmic image, in the precise manner in which a given film extends itself forward tem- porally and spatially, and is thus absorbed within the experience offered by that particular moment. If, as Bruss has claimed, the autobiography is predicated on the distinction between the self and the other and the empathetic relationship that the reader willingly enters into with that other, then film offers an alternate kind of inter- subjective experience. As Sobchack suggests, the film experience not only represents and reflects upon the prior direct perceptual experi- ence of the filmmaker by means of the modes and structures of direct and reflective experi- ence, but also presents the direct and reflective experience of a perceptual and expressive existence as the film.
In its presence and activity of perception and expression, the film tran- scends the filmmaker to constitute and locate its own address, its own perceptual and expres- sive experience of being and becoming As a medium capable of offering a particular set of corporeal sensations, such as the haptic, the kinaes- thetic, and the proprioceptic, film leads the viewer back to those perceptions that are essential to her own sense of being an embodied subject. In the case of auto- biographical film, one is offered the opportunity not only to enter into a situation of intersubjectivity with a filmic body, but to locate the subjectivity implied in that body in a given time and space as a historical subject.
The precise repercussions of such an act of location will be taken up throughout the remainder of this book. Visible behind him, passers-by stop and stare. His face is marked by a look of pained detachment from the world around him, and he seems to be equally troubled by, and oblivious to, its life. He neither looks in the camera directly nor at the others on the street.
He is intent on his motion through that space. He speaks to no one, until the end of the 8- minute film, when he is seen to speak a few words to someone standing beyond the edges of the frame; subsequently he is handed a bratwurst, which he proceeds to consume. With that act of submission to the needs of the body, a film otherwise marked by a distinct sense of otherworldliness and disembodiment, ends. This short film highlights a set of oppositions fundamental to many of the films at issue in the following chapters, between observation and participation, between engagement and analytical detachment.
Can the situation of the self be separated from the manner in which self and other interact? Can one ever view oneself in utter isolation? Paul John Eakin has suggested that there is no iden- tity that is not relational, and conversely, that every identity is contingent on the manner in which the self is upheld in the web of relationships with other selves in its proximity. However, as these selves are indeed products of a particular time and place, the manner in which relational identity is regarded and represented varies widely. On the basis of the films at issue in the following chapters, I suggest that rela- tional identity is a particularly fraught issue in the German context.
Many of these works ponder how the self may interact with the world as it moves through the space of that world, indeed, how self and other meet within the space they are obliged to share? Furthermore, the form taken in such interaction between self and other may also vary. On the basis of the evidence suggested by the body of films at issue here, I also suggest that the link between corporeality and identity has long been of particular significance within German culture and that a closer examination of the nature of that link clarifies what is at stake in these works.
In fact, as I suggested earlier, the autobiographical film takes on a particular form in Germany, one which largely abandons the investigation of the manner in which the autos has evolved in favour of a focus on the bios. Such films repeatedly offer an immersion into the manner in which an individual body produces meaning within its own particular temporal and spatial parameters. In this second part of my study, I approach a range of films as autobiographies that all attempt, in various ways, to situate the individual and her perception of self in relation to an other within the context of 20th century Germany.
The particu- lar form taken by the filmic autobiography in Germany offers access to a range of discourses of ongoing significance within that culture, discourses that may other- wise have remained intangible. These works act as a hinge between an assort- ment of virulent and suggestive issues, including the tension between the private and the public, between the obligation to remember and the urge to forget, and between the relative significance of the individual and that of the group; finally, they mediate the distinction between here and there, now and then.
Given that the notion of filmic autobiography that was set forth in Chapter 2 is contingent on performativity, referentiality and intersubjectivity rather than on the identification of a set of textual markers by which one may identify a given work as autobiographical, I will not argue that the films in question here display a particular set of formal characteristics, nor that they necessarily have been con- ventionally viewed as autobiographical.
In keeping with the arguments put forth in my previous chapters, I will also not argue that the referentiality of filmic auto- biography pertains to the life of an empirical author, nor that these films offer privileged access to the consciousness of that author, a concept that has been pivotal in discussions of New German Cinema. Thus, the films under investigation in the following chapters offer insights into the fraught nature of intersubjectivity, embodiment and empathy within German culture.
The manner in which these virulent issues find representation filmically offers a par- ticularly ambivalent kind of engagement, both with the body of the film and with the historical subjects depicted within it. Both within these works and within German culture at large, the body and cor- poreal experience play a prominent role in the negotiation of selfhood, providing the most fundamental anchor for the self to its situation in time and place.
Indeed this anchoring is effected both on the levels of representation and reception. While most literature on the significance of corporeal experience in German culture tends to focus on post-World War II West Germany, Uli Linke argues in German Bodies: Race and Representation After Hitler that the German body has been key in a var- iety of cultural practices that have facilitated the differentiation of self from other throughout the 20th century.
She writes, 71 As mentioned previously in the Introduction, I will not be including fictional films in my analysis here. The distinction between the fictional and the non-fictional realms are, of course, as con- tentious as the distinction between the autobiographical account and the purely fictional. For a treatment of the distinction between fiction film and the documentary, which is analogous to my description of the autobiographical, see Odin.
I am concerned in this book to trace such markers with regards to the viability of the notion of autobiography in German film. While Scarry focuses in her own study, The Body in Pain: The Making and the Unmaking of the World, on the significance of pain in a variety of social and historical contexts, the substantiation she describes here need not only have negative experiential connotations, but may well also enlist more pleasurable corporeal capacities. Indeed, in an enormously influential text published in West Germany in , Erfahrungshunger.
Initially, literature seemed to offer a remedy to the problem of visceral atrophy and the distance from reality, which that atrophy seems to imply.
Rutschky depicts the complex emotional state characteristic of that period as follows: The seventies are a time of fog, not a cold one but rather a warm one. Something is sought which might drive this fog away. Perhaps terror or pain might act as indices of the truth. Or to put it more precisely: perhaps reality would appear in their midst. What was at issue was the gaining of experience — with questions of morality or appropriate behaviour suspended.
And it was writing that was to offer this experience; writing seemed to be the only activity which was worth undertaking. Es wird etwas ersehnt, das ihn vertreibt. Vielleicht sind es Schrecken oder Schmerz, als der Index der Wahrheit, genauer: in ihnen erschiene endlich die Wirklichkeit. Es ging darum, endlich eine Erfahrung zu machen — dabei ist die Frage nach der Wahrheit eigentlich ebenso suspendiert wie die nach der Moral, dem richtigen Handeln.
This fog, however, is not the product of disillusion- ment with a particular political approach but rather with the potential of theoriza- tion or generalization per se. Rutschky describes this dilemma: No one can say precisely what it was that we lost in the Seventies. What I have described as a utopia of theoretical generalizations was not the result of a conviction produced by means of a particular theory, but rather by the unspecific faith in the capacity to theorize itself, or to generalize about every one of my own impulses completely and utterly until it yielded a universal truth.
Accordingly, the relationship between self and other becomes shrouded; indeed the self becomes lost, according to Rutschky, within such generalizations. He continues: And this utopia has a dark flip side: every one of my impulses is actually something gener- alizable, and for that precise reason I cannot trust any of my impulses to be my own. The socialized individual dissolves into a mass of teeming, threatening discourses. Such a dis- solution causes one to search for self-actualization and self-determination beyond the realm of language, in perception and sensuality, in the body, indeed, if necessary, in horror and pain.
Finally, it is only the cinema that offers the kind of experienced longed for but ultimately not found within literature. It was not only Eugen for whom the cinema opened up this possibility in the seventies to go beyond the realm of generalized concepts, which could still the hunger for experience, and calm the urge for the many diffuse quests.
More accurately, one could speak of different sensibilisms being con- structed through different filmic means. They are distinct from each other not by their degree of realism or fantasy, but chiefly by the degree of melancholy, fatalism, pathos, irony or loss and what these came to signify I too am less concerned to distinguish between these inclinations in German films, than to point out both the surprising manner in which these ostensibly very dif- ferent impulses display subtle similarities with regards to the significance of the self and its relationship to the other, and the manner in which such a subtle play between empathy and inscrutability is made tangible in the various forms taken by a broad range of German films that attempt to broach this divide.
In an attempt to find a form that would allow workers to speak for themselves in an unmediated manner and armed with a tape recorder, Runge interviewed a number of working class Germans about their lives and transcribed these interviews directly to paper. As such, intervention by the author was kept to an absolute minimum in order to maximize the impression of objectivity.
Yet empirical analysis neglected to take gender relations, subjectivity, and the personal into account Indeed, by the early s the documentary text was faulted for those same claims to objectivity. In its stead the autobiographical text had come to hold particular promise, for it alone seemed to offer the hoped-for immediacy and the access to visceral experience, without raising the spectre of ethnographic arrogance, which came to be seen as a risk implicit in the documentary form.
By Runge would state that she wished she had made her own position as author and subject within the situation documented by the Protokolle more tangible. I was not capable of it, although I had the need to do it. I wanted to speak of myself, my own wishes and difficulties, but I was afraid to expose myself Runge qtd. Why is Mrs. For an overview of the goals and failings of the Arbeiterfilm see Collins and Porter. Thus, a number of highly ambivalent elements, which are key to the particular meaning of the self, corpor- eal experience and the notions of political and moral agency during that particular period in West Germany, circulate within the autobiography as a cultural form.
In an atmosphere coloured by an increasing sense of urgency, both with regards to the relationship between the state and the individual, and the meaning of the past for the present, the vacillation between an acute sense of responsibility and despondency comes to the fore.
However, precisely this combination of personal experience and documentary i. As Susan G. Figge has suggested, autobiography has been equally associated with a de-professionalization of literature, particularly when critics addressed works by female authors. Citing critic Reinhart Baumgart specifically, Figge writes that autobiographies, represent a confusion of life and literature, replacing what Bernwart Vesper had termed the aesthetics of domination of self and object with an aesthetics of self-revelation, vulnerability, and the ecstasy of powerlessness.
This critique touches on one of the key questions raised by autobiography during that period in West Germany: To what extent do these works of literature and indeed, by extension, the films in question in my own study stage a powerless- ness of the individual in the face of the structures that surround and define her, familial and social? Is it possible to examine both social and familial structures critically and yet simultaneously conceive of the individual as being in possession of agency?
Can political engagement retain any significance within this examina- tion of self and other? In his detailed analysis of the significance of the self in post-war West German culture, Politics of the Self: Feminism and the Postmodern in West German Literature and Film, Richard McCormick uses the framework of these developments to locate a postmodern impulse implicit in the urge for self-expression, whether in the form of film or literature. McCormick defines the sudden interest in the subject within the specific form taken by postmodern discourse in West Germany as the continua- tion of a long debate around modernism and its political motives — and an ongoing oscillation between the lures of the rational and the irrational in particular.
This, he argues, is a peculiarity of the German reception of modernism, which eter- nally hovers between these two poles. In particular, he situates the early s son, 30 within that society, the possibility of individual agency Dittberner, 71 , and both the significance of German identity and the means by which it may be ascertained Adelson, xv. Developments and tendencies in film aesthetics are not always as closely linked to literary history as has often been suggested. I am concerned here to address the manner in which a variety of films have taken up the issue of subjectivity in a much broader fashion than most previous works on filmic autobiography in West Germany such as those by McCormick, Barbara Kosta or Susan Linville have suggested.
While keeping in mind that the rise of the literary autobiography in the early s in West Germany is closely linked to the development of the literary documen- tary, and that both are viewed as attempts to address the relationship between the individual subject and political and social conditions at a given historical moment, it is important to remember that the complexities of the autobiographical impulse in German film cannot be restricted to either the developments of the s or to West Germany.
Moreover, many of the phenomena taken up in the debates of the s around subjectivity and experience can be found to be equally preva- lent in works of earlier periods. Accordingly, in Chapter Three I address the rela- tionship between avant-garde form and political critique, taking up both works from the s and s and from the German Democratic Republic, which all attempt to account for the manner in which one experiences situations of disloca- tion, whether they be real or imagined interactions with the foreign — or with the situation of being foreign oneself.
In the chapters to follow, it will become clear that the autobiographical tendency in German film has been met with, and is the expression of, great ambivalence. Key to their musings, which take a variety of forms, is however, the attempt to distinguish self from other by implicitly asking both what sets one apart and what binds one to others? All of these works attempt to define the limits of community, even as they locate moments of commonality in the strangest places. The relationship between self and other implicit in the notion of the stranger is not as simple as one might think.
Georg Simmel makes a case for a far greater intimacy between the stranger and the local than was commonly thought to be the case. Rather than simply representing the itinerant per se, the stranger in his account is both known and unknown, familiar and strange. And yet the degree to which this figure is familiar to the local is not his most essential feature. This is another indication that spatial relations not only are determining conditions of relationships among men, but are also symbolic of those relationships. The stranger will thus not be considered here in the usual sense of the term, as the wanderer who comes today and goes tomorrow, but rather as the man who comes today and stays tomorrow — the potential wanderer, so to speak, who, although he has gone no further, has not quite got over the freedom of coming and going.
He is fixed within a certain spatial circle — or within a group whose boundaries are analogous to spatial boundaries — but his position within it is fundamentally affected by the fact that he does not belong in it initially and that he brings qualities into it that are not, and cannot be, indigenous to it While the majority of the films at issue in this chapter have not typically been classified as autobiographical, recall that, as I suggested in Chapter One, one must be alert to the possibility that even Western selfhood may not necessarily be either as unitary or as explicitly demarcated as traditional research would have suggested.
The Life of August Wilhelm Schlegel
Furthermore, as I suggested in Chapter Two, the reception of a film as autobiographical offers the viewer the opportunity to enter into a situation of intersubjectivity with a filmic body, and moreover, to locate the subjectivity implied in that body in a given time and space, indeed to perceive that subjectivity as aligned with the experience of a historical subject. The situation of estrangement that is central to these works is contingent both on spatial and interpersonal perception and on the manner in which each supports and defines the self in question.
In this context, I would briefly like to recall the short film, Kassel 9. This documentation of alienation in a charm- less German city takes great pains in its title to locate the event of its recording in precise geographical and temporal terms. Thus, while the film does not make any attempt to situate the seemingly insignificant event of traversing the city on a particular day in December in the flow of events in the life of the protagonist, it most emphatically locates its protagonist in time and space. Winkelmann draws the attention of those he passes but seems himself to be utterly disinterested in their lives.
In Kassel 9. However, in the case of this particular film, which offers a rare perspective in which the protagonist both con- trols the camera and is visible in its range, the viewer can only imagine such visual kinesthesis; it is not made visible to her. Since the camera is trained on the protag- onist himself, rather than on what lies before him, the film emphasizes the with- drawal of the interpersonal self over the experience of the ecological self.
Travel and the traversal of space are key features of the films in question here, in that they seek to facilitate the localization of the self within space through the dis- tinctions they make between here and there, self and other. But in what fashion is the activity of tourism related to that of film reception? In her Atlas of Emotion: Journeys in Art, Architecture, and Film, Giuliana Bruno suggests that the spatial effects evoked both by the traversal of urban space and by film viewing are each capable of producing a similar kind of experience. She writes, the spatial culture that film has developed, offering its own vedute, is a mobile architectonics of travelled space.
Like the tourist who may seek to gain an overview of the realm that is open to her, the film viewer is offered a range of perspectives, which are suggestive of a similar kind of traversal, and therefore offer a means of situating the self both spatially and culturally. Is it aware of the study quoted by the Minister on the adverse impact on employment which he claims will be caused by the changeover to backloading? Is the Council aware of the study referred to by the Minister and, if so, what is its opinion of it?
Which energy programmes has Greece used to improve the energy performance of industry and the economy and with what results? The study has not been discussed at Ministerial level. The Commission is not aware of the Council's opinion on the study. The Commission cannot confirm the results presented in the executive summary since it has only limited information on the methodology and calculations. The proposal for backloading was accompanied by an impact assessment which considered the effects on electricity prices but did not reveal such impacts.
In addition, the backloading of allowances does not affect the amount of free allocation to the industry. Nevertheless, the Commission is aware of the particular situation of the Greek economy, in view of the consequences of the financial and economic crisis. However, the Greek industry is more energy intensive. This implies that energy is more important as a cost driver in manufacturing in Greece than in most EU countries.
This suggests that there is further room for improvement in terms of energy efficiency in the Greek industry. Oggetto: Turchia, maglia nera per i diritti umani. In una relazione presentata nel mese di gennaio scorso, l'Osservatorio internazionale per i diritti umani ha rilevato che il governo turco ha dimostrato, e continua a dimostrare, una crescente intolleranza nei confronti dell'opposizione politica, delle manifestazioni pubbliche e delle critiche dei media.
Il governo di Ankara ha espulso un giornalista azero accusandolo di aver scritto tweet critici nei confronti di Erdogan. Come intende la Commissione intervenire sul governo turco dopo questo ennesimo episodio di intolleranza nei confronti di un giornalista critico? As the Commission will be aware, the Turkish Government is still violating human rights. A report published in January by the international human rights organisation UPR Watch has revealed that the Turkish Government has been, and continues to be, increasingly intolerant of political opposition, public demonstrations and media criticism.
The most serious allegations concern the repression of mass protests, media censorship, unfair trials and a rather flawed criminal justice system. The Ankara Government has expelled an Azerbaijani journalist accused of tweeting disparaging comments about Prime Minister Erdogan. The reporter, who was working for the Zaman newspaper and had been in Turkey for five years, was put on a plane to Azerbaijan by the police.
The Ministry of the Interior has not only refused to renew his residence permit, but also placed him on the blacklist of foreigners prohibited from entering Turkey. What sort of representations will the Commission make to the Turkish Government in the light of this, the umpteenth case of intolerance towards a critical journalist? The report reflects the Commission's concerns with regard to freedom of expression, including imprisonment of journalists, and the excessive use of force during demonstrations.
These findings remain largely valid and the Commission continues to raise them in its meetings with the Turkish authorities. Una prima versione di prova dovrebbe essere pronta per il , mentre l'immissione sul mercato dovrebbe avvenire nel Intende investire nello sviluppo di una rete simile a quella delineata dalla Repubblica di Corea? A trial network would be available by , with a full rollout by The Ministry also confirmed that it intended to develop advanced features for the new network including, amongst other things, Ultra-HD streaming and hologram transmission.
The programme will be implemented in collaboration with major public and private telephone operators in Korea, and with producers of telecommunications technology and software. One such company has already carried out a number of tests and, according to internal sources, has successfully produced a 1, Gigabit per second signal which can be received at a distance of up to two kilometres.
In the context of the above, can the Commission advise whether it is aware of the announcement made by the Korean Ministry and of the initial tests that have been carried out? Does it intend to invest in the development of a network similar to the one planned by the Republic of Korea? The Commission is well aware of the 5G plans in Korea and elsewhere , anticipating the need to rapidly focus European research and developments on 5G.
Commission services have been working for more than a year with all major industrial and research actors of the sector on the setting up of a 5G Public Private Partnership 5G PPP. This initiative complements the Connected Continent package for a comprehensive approach towards the European telecom sector. The MWC was also the occasion for industrial leaders to reaffirm their full support to the plans. Regarding the tests in Korea, the announcements so far concern millimeter wave transmission and are per se not revolutionary, and certainly not beyond capabilities of European actors.
Considering that networks develop globally with very high requirements towards interoperability, the Commission intends to support international cooperation with South Korea, e. Una delle persone aggredite, una donna, ha riportato una frattura scomposta al braccio, mentre gli altri tre sono stati feriti alla testa e alle gambe. Le forze di polizia incaricate dell'indagine propendono per la pista xenofoba. One of the persons assaulted, a woman, suffered a displaced fracture of the arm, whereas the other three received injuries to the head and legs. The police officers leading the enquiry are inclined to believe it was a racially-motivated attack.
At its plenary session in January, the European Parliament approved the proposed resolution on the homelessness strategy, but this is still far from becoming a reality. To this effect, can the Commission clarify whether episodes of racial violence against homeless people have occurred in other Member States, and whether any measures are already in place to ensure protection and legal assistance for these people? However, it is, and will remain, for national authorities to investigate individual cases to determine whether they represent cases of racially motivated hate crime.
Oggetto: Contaminazione da cloruro di vinile monomero dell'acqua potabile nell'acquedotto della frazione di Bertesina nel comune di Vicenza. Nel dicembre del la stampa locale ha riportato la notizia della temporanea chiusura a fini di messa in sicurezza di un pozzo che serve un importante acquedotto del comune di Vicenza, ubicato nella frazione di Bertesina. The contaminated water main serves users to the east of Vicenza city and in some parts of other municipalities, such as Bolzano Vicentino, Montebello and Torri di Quartesolo.
Much higher groundwater levels of this pollutant — The emergency now appears to be over: the authorities have decontaminated the water main and it is back in use. Nevertheless, what has happened is still a cause of concern for the water users in question and local people in general. I would remind the Commission of the previous question that I tabled — E — on similar cases of contamination in Verona province. In its answer, the Commission said it would wait until it had assessed the data included in the synthesis report on drinking water quality that it will publish by the end of , to be based on the latest reports by the individual Member States, before deciding whether to take action.
Does it not believe that cases of drinking water and other water contamination have become so serious and so frequent in the Veneto region that urgent action is warranted without waiting until ? The Commission is not aware of the specific case of vinyl chloride contamination in Bertesina, Italy, referred to by the Honourable Member of Parliament. In case of non-compliance with parametric values, Member States shall take remedial action to restore the quality of water. From the information provided by the Honourable Member, it appears that the Italian Authorities have taken the necessary remedial action to restore water quality after having found values exceeding this threshold.
The Commission has no further information that would indicate a violation of the requirements of the directive in the Veneto area. Chrom VI -Verbindungen sind gentoxische Karzinogene. Falls nicht, weshalb nicht? Hexavalent chromium compounds are genotoxic carcinogens. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency has not set a maximum contaminant level but it is currently investigating such legislation.
In California, on the other hand, there is a goal of limiting Chromium VI to 0. Is there any particular reason why a specific limit for hexavalent chromium has not been set? Is the Commission considering setting a possible limit? If not, why? Should the WHO guidance change or scientific and technical progress warrant it, the Commission would carefully assess the information available and decide on the appropriate course of action. Furthermore, does the Commission intend to address the issue of the longevity of timeshare contracts in the review?
If not, what is the Commission doing to address these forms of contract, which can be detrimental to consumers? Inter alia, an interview programme is currently carried out with the relevant national authorities and the consumer and trader representatives as part of an external evaluation study. If the timeshare seller fails to provide this or other mandatory information as required by the directive, the period during which the consumer can withdraw from the timeshare contract without giving any reason, is extended to three months and 14 calendar days.
It is also proposing requirements for a certain level of credit enhancement for ratings on securitisations that exceed the sovereign rating by even one notch. The current regulatory framework for credit ratings agencies, i. In addition, rating agencies habitually consult publicly on planned revisions to their rating methodologies so all market participants can express views on the proposed changes.
Fl, l-ECC-Net tratta madwar 2, ilment relatati ma' timeshare u klabbs tal-btajjel. However, there are still several instances of abuses in the selling of timeshares to tourists who visit Malta on holiday. Is the Commission aware of any similar problems being faced by consumers in the selling of timeshares in any other Member State? In particular, the directive contains strict rules on the right of withdrawal and information requirements, which protect consumers from concluding timeshare contracts that they might actually not want and ensure that they enter into such transactions with full knowledge of the relevant terms and conditions.
The evaluation of the application of the directive is currently underway and the Commission will report to the European Parliament and the Council in The Commission is aware of consumer complaints about timeshare sellers in several Member States. In , the ECC-Net dealt with about complaints related to timeshare and holiday clubs. The ECC-Net is regularly carrying out awareness raising activities on the risks that consumers can face with such products. The Council also called for the mobilisation of all efforts in order to implement the actions proposed in this communication within a clear timeframe, which should be indicated by the Commission.
In view of this, what specific action has the Commission taken to date in relation to the outlined operational actions? Has the Commission already set clear timeframes for the proposed operational actions? As set out in the communication on the work of the Task Force, the Commission has started implementing several activities falling within its remit, including: concluding the readmission agreement with Turkey; finalising negotiations on the Mobility Partnership with Tunisia; and expanding the Regional Protection Programme in North Africa, while financing the Sahara Mediterranean Project in Libya.
Frontex has reinforced its operations in the Mediterranean, and the co-legislators have agreed on a compromise text on rules of border surveillance at the external sea border. Finally, to support Member States, emergency funds have been mobilised. The communication included a call for voluntary relocation by Member States. The Commission remains committed to the policy of relocation. Relocation will no longer be limited to assisting Malta and could be used for other Member States. What does the Commission intend to do to ensure that the LIFE programme works more effectively to achieve its objective of acting as a catalyst for environmental change?
In particular, the concept of Integrated projects with four priority areas nature, air, water and waste will allow using LIFE to lever other funds public or private to support large scale projects and improve the enforcement of EU policy and thus the state of environment. The new information and governance strand under this new LIFE Programme will allow actors in the field to contribute to a common implementation of EU environmental requirements.
In addition, the possibility to earmark money for preparatory actions, capacity building as well as technical assistance to design integrated projects will facilitate a more homogenous participation of stakeholders in the Programme, and thus increase its efficiency. Finally, the possibility to use innovative financial instruments as loans, guarantees or equity under the new LIFE Programme will attract greater funding for nature and climate actions, in partnership with the private sector and financial institutions EIB — EIF.
This scheme pays compensation where a licensed investment firm is unable, or is likely to be unable, to pay claims against it. In general, this happens when the licensed firm stops trading or becomes insolvent. Moreover, what is the Commission doing to ensure that the reserves accumulated in such a scheme are sufficient to provide compensation to all European consumers? The current Investor Compensation Schemes Directive does not mandate the collection of ex ante contributions for investor compensation schemes and does not require national compensation schemes to communicate the level of their available financial means to the Commission.
That proposal also requires Member States to annually inform the European Securities Markets Authority of the level of funding of their investor compensation schemes. This proposal stands before the co-legislators and the Commission would encourage them to resume discussions in view of a legislative agreement. Can the Commission provide an update on the progress made on the proposal for a directive on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing?
Significant progess has been achieved under the Lithuanian Presidency on the proposal for a directive. The Commission understands that the Greek Presidency will seek to achieve a general approach on this file as soon as possible. However, the ESU has also defined key policy areas where improvements can be made, namely equal treatment and the right to mobility. How does the Commission intend to improve such policy areas as part of its international strategy for higher education in Europe?
The Commission's role in the field of education, as defined by the Lisbon Treaty, is to contribute to quality education by supporting and supplementing the Member States in their activities. Student mobility remains the competence of the individual Member States. The programme foresees higher grants for students and staff with special needs so that they can take full advantage of the mobility opportunities offered by the programme. The European Central Bank has released statistics on the number of counterfeit banknotes withdrawn from circulation.
The European Central Bank deemed the figure very low considering the number of genuine euro banknotes in circulation at any one time. What will the Commission do to assist the European Central Bank and the Eurosystem to ensure that euro banknotes remain a trusted and safe means of payment?
The eligible actions will also include grants to finance equipment to be used by specialised anti-counterfeiting authorities. To this end, what does the Commission intend to do to further reduce mortality rates for breast and any other types of cancer? Moreover, is the Commission planning to increase funding for breast cancer research? The Commission helps Member States to reduce cancer incidence, through coordination of action on all cancer-related fronts, such as national cancer plans, prevention, screening, research and comparable data collection.
EU research funding is granted on the basis of competitive calls for proposals, following an independent peer-review evaluation. Wenn nein, weshalb nicht, und wenn ja, wie viel? Die Kommission unternimmt beispiellose Anstrengungen, den Verhandlungsprozess transparenter zu gestalten. A stakeholder meeting took place last week as part of the third round of the TTIP negotiations. Are trade associations and industry lobbyists entirely entitled to claim back travel expenses within the framework of the Civil Society Dialogue? Which participants have had travel expenses reimbursed for the meeting in question and for previous meetings, and how much were they reimbursed?
Are national media journalists reimbursed travel expenses? If not, why not, and if so, how much? Why do US business representatives, in particular, receive access to all the relevant documents from the TTIP negotiations but European civil society does not? From precisely which budget line is the reimbursement of travel expenses for the participants in the stakeholder meetings being financed?
Payment of travel arrangements for attendance to CSD meetings is only for organisations not based in Brussels. When travel expenses are paid, it is indicated funded in the list of participants. The Commission is making unprecedented efforts to improve transparency of the negotiating process through the publication of its position papers, the organisation of regular stakeholder events and the decision to launch a public consultation on investment protection provisions. The Geneva II talks are currently taking place between the Syrian Government and various representatives of the opposition.
This movement has declared the independence of the province of Al-Hasakah and has driven out both the Syrian army and Islamist militias from this region. It is therefore a key player in the situation in Syria. According to statements by spokespeople for the PYD, they asked the sponsors of the conference if they could participate, but were vetoed by the USA.
Does the Commission know whether the PYD or representatives for Western Kurdistan have asked the sponsors of the conference if they can be present at the talks? Does the Commission know whether the presence of the PYD has been vetoed by any of the sponsors? Has the Commission taken any stance with regard to this veto, if such a veto exists? If so, what steps will the Commission take to ensure that the PYD is present at the current talks and any future talks aimed at the democratic resolution of the conflict in Syria? The Commission is not aware whether the PYD or representatives for Western Kurdistan asked the organisers of the Geneva conference on Syria to participate in the conference.
The Commission has also not been approached by any of these representatives and is not aware of any actions by the organisers with regard to such an initiative. The SOC delegation included the Kurdish representatives. This paper includes proposals for Member States to design and approve drought plans for all river basins, in which factors such as the time of year, the input to waterways and the amount of water reserves available, both surface and subterranean, should be taken into account in order to determine how resources should be distributed and what measures should be adopted at any given time in order to minimise the effects of droughts and ensure the preservation of water eco-systems at all times.
Another proposal is that buffer zones should be created that are free from fertilisers and pesticides and wide enough to ensure their effectiveness as barriers against diffuse agricultural pollution. Algunas normas relativas al agua forman parte ya de la condicionalidad. Specifically, does the Commission think that these recommendations have been appropriately incorporated into the new CAP? Does the Commission take the view that the Water Framework Directive ought to take precedence over any other kind of legislation relating to territorial, agricultural or industrial policies?
As regards the European Regional Development Fund ERDF and the Cohesion Fund, the regulations for the programming period include a specific investment priority on water management. In addition, as a new development, the use of ERDF or Cohesion Fund on water management is subject to an ex-ante conditionality related to specific Articles of the Water Framework Directive.
Some standards on water are already part of Cross-compliance. Moreover, the greening practices together with measures applied under Rural Development Programmes have very significant potential to address agriculture's impact on water. The CAP is equipped of a monitoring and evaluation system which assesses the results and the impact of measures on the environment. However, the primary instrument for managing waters at the river basin level is the Water Framework Directive with the River Basin Management Plans that enact that directive's requirements.
Set-aside, also referred to as crop rotation, is a tried and tested method of giving cultivated soil the opportunity to regenerate. In order to meet the constantly increasing demand for food, however, the rate has not been put back up since then. It has now been proven that strategic set-aside plays a crucial role in biodiversity, however. What statistics can the Commission produce in order to prove that the full suspension of set-aside was necessary? How can the Commission explain why the set-aside rate has not yet been increased, despite the fact that there is a surplus in food production across Europe, and in light of the fact that, on a global level, 1.
This step has been undertaken because the reasoning to set-aside agricultural land was no longer valid. Instead of agricultural surpluses EU agriculture faces nowadays a constantly increasing demand for food, feed and biomass. Therefore, the available agricultural area will be needed for primary production. Nevertheless, the positive impact that set-aside can have on soil functionality and biodiversity is well acknowledged. Fallow land is one type of land that counts as ecological focus area. In addition, voluntary set-aside of agricultural land for environmental purposes can be supported by agri-environmental-climate measures as part of Rural Development.
Hence, the CAP offers also in the future incentives to set-aside land where it is needed. In connection with the foregoing, does the Commission intend to take any steps to assist this imprisoned member of the Belarus opposition? The Commission is aware of the case of J. The EU takes every opportunity to ensure that the authorities are made aware of the EU's concerns, including of this case, and prompted to address these concerns.
How will the Commission ensure that existing cross-border partnerships continue to receive in the long term the level of financial support from EaSI that they need? How will the Commission ensure a smooth transition for cross-border partnerships from the current to the forthcoming funding period?
When will the contracts between the Commission and the main applicants for EURES cross-border partnerships be available for signature? When does the funding period begin for the first call for proposals under EaSI? Will existing cross-border partnership be affected by a funding gap, and if so, how will it be closed? How will the Commission ensure that cross-border partnerships under EaSI will be recognised as cross-border operators and included in the EURES network as independent institutions which are not subject to national priorities? In order to simplify administration for the beneficiaries, support under the call for proposals will be granted only for expenditure incurred in the calendar year.
It is subject to approval by Parliament and the Council and has no bearing on the funding under the calls for proposals for EaSI. Assunto: Ano Internacional da Agricultura Familiar. The United Nations has designated as the International Year of Family Farming, in recognition of this type of farming's fundamental contribution to world food security. Unlike other more intensive forms of agriculture, which are essentially motivated by profit, one of the hallmarks of family farming is its unparalleled emotional link to the land, expressed in greater concern for the environment, which leads it to develop more sustainable and lasting forms of land use and contribute positively to maintaining rural populations, revitalising the countryside, promoting territorial and social cohesion, employment, management of natural resources, environmental protection and, in general, to the development and sustainable use of rural areas.
Does the Commission recognise the specific difficulties faced by family farmers in terms of access to land and credit, excessive bureaucracy, technical training and promoting their products in the current context of imbalances along the agro-food chain? What specific measures does the Commission plan to draw up during this international year of Family Farming? Daher ersuchen wir die Kommission um die Beantwortung der folgenden Frage:. Eine Reihe sicherheitsrelevanter Reaktorforschungsprojekte wurde z. We therefore ask the Commission to answer the following question:. Promoting reactor safety research in Europe has been an essential objective of the successive Euratom Research and Training Programmes, supported both through indirect actions and direct actions of the Commission's Joint Research Centre.
Even more so after Fukushima, all reactor research activities funded by Euratom are characterised by the overriding concern to ensure continuous improvements of nuclear safety. The Italian investment bank, Mediobanca, like a number of other entities and experts, believes that the Castor gas storage facility would lead to a considerable rise in gas tariffs for Spanish consumers if it begins its commercial operations. The consensus among investment banks means that it will be beneficial for the final tariffs paid by consumers and act as a curb on the gas tariff deficit if Castor does not come into operation.
What information did the Commission have regarding the risks associated with the Castor project before the EIB approved the issuing of bonds to fund it? Is the Commission concerned that energy poverty could increase as a result of this rise? These risks are normally assessed by the project promoters and the corresponding National authorities who provide the required permits and authorisations.
As a part of the Spanish energy infrastructure plan, the project was included in the Strategic Environmental Assessment carried out by the Spanish Energy Ministry in In its recent communication COM 15 — A policy framework for climate and energy in the period from to , one of the key elements set out by the Commission is competitive, affordable and secure energy. The Commission has proposed a set of key indicators to assess progress over time and to provide a factual base for potential policy response. These indicators relate to, for example, energy price differentials with major trading partners, supply diversification and reliance on indigenous energy sources, as well as the interconnection capacity between Member States.
Through these indicators, policies will ensure a competitive and secure energy system in a perspective. On the basis of the information available, the Commission is not in a position to comment on the impact of this project on energy poverty. Na ravni EU pa je bila In its communication on the promotion of cooperative societies in Europe COM , the Commission recognised that social enterprises play an important role in the European economy and contribute to overcoming the crisis.
Social enterprises often receive support through calls for tender published by the management authorities in the Member States under the European Social Fund. It is regrettable that the chapter on social entrepreneurship has been entirely left out of the Slovenian operational programmes under the ERDF in the multiannual financial framework. Will social enterprises also be eligible for financing under other calls for tender for small and medium-sized enterprises, and to what extent will they benefit from positive discrimination?
To what extent will the sustainable nature of social enterprises be included among the financing conditions in calls for tender as regards eligibility for funding? Will it be possible to include the purchase of used equipment as eligible costs rather than new equipment? What has been the experience so far with setting up European social entrepreneurship funds, and what role could the national public authorities play in this regard?
Contracting authorities may lay down special conditions economic, innovation-related, environmental, social or employment-related to the performance of a contract. Establishing a new fund vehicle means prospecting potential investors and obtaining sufficient capital to justify the start of operations. As with private equity or venture capital, significant time is needed for new fund vehicles.
The Commission expects progress in this area to be incremental. Enako velja za potrdila v zvezi s standardi za okoljsko upravljanje. Public procurement has a considerable influence on economic growth and the market. It has therefore often been used in the past decade as a way of achieving aims related to the environment, social policy, development and innovation, encouraging entrepreneurship, and the creation of new green jobs. In Slovenia public procurement is gradually being greened as the Green Procurement Regulation is being enforced. Because of the present economic situation, in which the crisis is making itself acutely felt, and of the limited supply of environmentally more acceptable products, the environmental criteria in the Green Procurement Regulation have to some extent been adjusted.
As far as other green procurement indicators are concerned, Slovenia again ranks among the worst Member States. There are also differences as regards the validity of environmental certificates awarded in Member States: certificates issued in one Member State are either not valid in other countries or else do not suffice for tendering purposes. What progress is being made in ascertaining whether public procurement is being greened in in Member States as far as is appropriate, and what steps will the Commission take if green procurement criteria are not met?
What is the position as regards the uniform validity of environmental certificates awarded in Member States when a firm submits a tender under an open procedure in a country that does not specially issue any such certificates? What incentives or frameworks has the Commission planned with a view to increasing the proportion of green procurement? The Commission is currently considering further measures to help assess the progress on GPP in the various Member States more accurately, e.
If a product bearing an eco-label from any particular country fulfils the criteria required by a public authority, the authority may decide to accept that the eco-label is sufficient proof that these criteria are met. Voluntary green purchaser networks should be developed, and the Commission will increase support to procurer networks to encourage sharing of good practice.
Is de Commissie van mening dat blasfemiewetten het principe van vrijheid van meningsuiting schenden? In dat opzicht is het dus alleen aan de lidstaten om ervoor te zorgen dat hun verplichtingen met betrekking tot de grondrechten — die voortkomen uit internationale overeenkomsten en uit hun nationale wetgeving — worden nageleefd.
Is the Commission of the opinion that blasphemy laws violate the principle of freedom of expression? In this matter, it is thus for Member States alone to ensure that their obligations regarding fundamental rights — as resulting from international agreements and from their internal legislation — are respected. In this context, the Commission recalls that according to the European Court of Human Rights, the freedom of expression constitutes one of the essential foundations of democratic societies and that this right protects not only information or ideas that are favourably received or regarded as inoffensive or as a matter of indifference, but also those that offend, shock or disturb.
Si tratta con tutta evidenza di una pratica discriminatoria nei confronti dei cittadini UE che non sono di madrelingua inglese. Le candidature possono essere presentate in una qualsiasi delle lingue ufficiali dell'UE. Pertanto, la Commissione non ritiene che alcun gruppo di candidati potenziali sia stato posto in una situazione di svantaggio. In effetti, un simile ritardo avrebbe avuto un impatto negativo sostanziale sui cittadini e sulle organizzazioni dell'UE desiderosi di partecipare al programma. That being said, can the Commission confirm that April is the publication date for the programme in all official languages of the EU?
Does it intend to translate the programme into these languages as soon as possible, in order to avoid the unfair treatment of citizens who do not speak English? Does it intend to adopt any specific measures to avoid this situation repeating itself in the future, thereby guaranteeing equal opportunities for all Europeans? The guide is currently being translated by the Commission's services, which are also translating similar guides for the other new Union programmes. The Guide will be made available in all languages as soon as possible. Applications can be submitted in any official EU language.
Thus the Commission does not consider that any group of potential applicants has been put at a disadvantage. Indeed, any such delay would have had a substantial negative impact on EU citizens and organisations wishing to participate in the programme. The Commission expects that the translations will be posted on the website during April and May. Quest'ultimo fa parte del Corridoio europeo TAV n. La direttrice dell'Arpa Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione dell'Ambiente di Brescia ha dichiarato che nel caso del cromo la concentrazione presente nel sottosuolo sarebbe addirittura 1.
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