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Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala : an andean view of the Peruvian Viceroyalty, - Persée
Read Free For 30 Days. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Alex Littlefield.
Colleen Rodebaugh. Javier Nahum. Marguerite Paizis. Degee Gonzales. Kristi Anne Cuellar Castillo. Jasbir Singh. Muhammad Afnaan. Timothy Schmoyer. Effat Saleh. Imam Yudi. The Robin Chapel. Janen Bendecio. This effort, however, varied in intensity through the first eighty years of the Colony. The early missionaries in Peru, though they stressed the importance of proselytizing in the native languages, were frequently somewhat casual in their conversion techniques ; simple baptism was the primary evangelizing activity and a generally positive mood prevailed towards the indigenous population.
The Andean reaction to this missionary style can be seen in Guaman Poma's high praise for the work of those first missionaries This benevolent attitude changed radically in the late 's with the Takiy Unquy uprising.
The Church inspector Cristobal de Albornoz undertook a violent campaign to stamp out this millenarian movement, and was able to gain support for his policy from the colonists. Events in Europe may have served to galvanize this support for a more demanding evangelization. Spain herself had to conquer by war the recalcitrant moriscos of Granada in , and by had expelled this last major group within its borders which. This is, of course, the same period in which the " heresies of the North " had stimulated the institutionalized reactions of the Church in the Council of Trent Guaman Poma's writings provide an Andean insight both into this first period of repressive proselytization and into a later one in the next century.
A comparison of his attitude towards the two sets of events reveals his own changing preception of the position of Andean, people. As mentioned above, Guaman Poma had served as interpreter for the visitador Albornoz , who spent years in Guaman Poma's province of Lucanas in an effort to destroy the Takiy Unquy movement Duviols states that Guaman Poma worked for Albornoz during the period , citing as evidence the description of a novel punishment for idolatry that appears both in Guaman Poma and in an Albornoz text The similarity of these descriptions is not coincidental, for twenty pages after Guaman Poma describes this punishment to be served on those who fail to attend mass, we find a picture of an Indian enduring this castigo, and the supervising priest standing nearby is identified by Guaman Poma as the same Cristobal de Albornoz Fig.
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The four or five which he considered to be particularly dangerous because of their prevalence were the same ones set forth by Guaman Poma in his chapters on the guacas of the Incas and common witchcraft practices of that period When Guaman Poma described the particular guacas of the various regions of Chinchaysuyu , he listed fourteen different provinces, all of which were included in Albornoz' catalogue of the provinces which he had visited on his inspection tour It appears that the entirety of Guaman Poma's exposition on ancient Inca practices was based on data which he gathered while part of Albornoz' inspection team in the late.
Guaman Poma's reaction to the early work of Albornoz in Lucanas was positive. He declared his admiration for the inspector, calling him " llano st0 hombre " and " brabo jues " His insistence that the practitioners of idolatry should be punished " cin misericordia " confirmed his approval of Albornoz' judgments and castigos as stern and rigorous, but fairly administered.
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- Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala : an andean view of the Peruvian Viceroyalty, 1565-1615.
That this approval was actually emulation can be seen at the end of Guaman Poma's chapter on Inca rites and religious practices ; there he declared that he had written the preceding exposition in order that idolatrous practices harmful to Catholic beliefs could be sought out and punished In this way, Guaman Poma converted his exposition of ancient superstitions into a guide to be used by contemporary visitadores ; he imitated the kind of report that his one-time employer Albornoz was accustomed to making. Guaman Poma's text bears further resemblance to Albornoz' work in the prohibition of certain Andean practices.
One of these pictorial expositions is entitled " borrachera ",' and shows an Andean in crouching position, vomiting, while a winged demon with horns and tail kneels on the drunken man's back ; a woman standing nearby beats a drum Fig. Without mentioning Takiy Urtquy by name, Guaman Poma's accompanying description of this picture refers to those practices associated with the revitalization movement, as is verified by a comparison with Albornoz' instructional text M. Guaman Poma identified this practice as an ancient superstition Which should be punished by fifty lashes ; he also advised that animals should be slaughtered only by decapitation and that herds, throughout the kingdom, should be care-.
After the decapitation of the Takiy Unquy movement, the Peruvian viceroyalty was calm for some time during the tenure of Toribio de Mogrovejo as Archbishop of Lima Mogrovejo, who was liberal and pro-Indian, undertook inspection tours personally ; Guaman Poma admired his work as visitador Upon Mogrovejo's death in , a new period of severe proselytization began.
Guaman Poma's attitude had changed dramatically in the course of the years he spent writing. By and afterward, when the major extirpation campaigns were underway, Guaman Poma viewed the movement to crush Andean religions as one of the most bitter experiences suffered by the Andean people. In a section near the conclusion of the book, in a chapter that was probably the last to be written, Guaman Poma narrated his own travels from village to village, during which he interviewed both Andeans and Spaniards.
Ironically, the coroza punishment which Albornoz had used and Guaman Poma had endorsed as form of public humiliation to curb both idolatry and laxness in the performance of Christian religious duties was the very means by which Avila allegedly persecuted innocent Andeans , and Guaman Poma reflected upon it with bitterness. The severe injustice of the extirpation movement of the second decade of the seventeenth century was one of the chief causes that changed Guaman Poma's earlier reformist optimism into a bleak attitude, making this last autobiographical chapter of his book a recital of despair Even though the Jesuits figured prominently in the war against idolatry, there is, interestingly, no textual evidence of a change in Guaman Poma's positive and cordial attitude toward them as a group.
Even though we can gauge the Andean reaction to specific events in the colonial period, it is my broader contention that Guaman Poma's response to the colonized society in which he lived was in reality the creation of his book. As interpreter and secretary, the written word was an important part of his life from early on. Beyond that, the people whom he admired most were all the authors of books , Guaman Poma probly knew the Franciscan as a youth, since the Ayala family had ties to Ore's Guaman Poma's work, again like Ore's, discussed the history of the Indies from the origin of the inhabitants of the Andes after the Flood up to the contemporary geographic and demographic descriptions of the provinces, cities, and towns of the Vice- royalty 5e.
Judging from what Guaman Poma had to say about all the other roles and functions in colonial society, it seems fair to conclude that Ore and others like him were not just Guaman Poma's literary heroes, but also his only heroes in a milieu which he preceived, by , to be hopelessly corrupt. Guaman Poma's remarlable page treatise had no single goal, but rather strove toward many ends. As he saw the evangelization of the Andeans as the most useful stratagem for facilitating their participation in the new society, he emulated the efforts of Acosta and Ore and composed a religious manual with devotional exercises in Quechua.
To guide the reform of colonial society, he wrote an encyclopedic handbook for every different social category. In each of these tasks, Guaman Poma created for himself, through his writing, a social role that was not available to him in the external world of everyday affairs. Fig- 1. John V. Nathan Wachtel, La vision des vaincus. Paris : L'Institut d'Ethnologie, AU citations of the text will refer to this edition, and will be given as parenthetical references consisting of the page number only, following the author's original pagination which is reproduced in the facsimile text.
Murra, p. Ossio A. Juan M. Paris : Libreria de Rosa y Bouret, , p. New York, , pp. He quoted a comment made by Toledo about Guamanga on the occasion of the latter's arrival to that city C, , p. Pietschmann, in Tello, p. The possibility that Guaman Poma was following a written source that was already outdated by the time he used it must be considered. However, since Guaman Poma was involved with the ecclesiastical establishment during his adult years, he would have been familiar with the papal succession. Given his attention to accuracy of historical detail, it is likely that he would have added those subsequent names to his list of Popes if he were writing, and not merely recopying, his chapter on papal history after Loaysa advised that not only the encomenderos, but also their wives, widows and heirs, mayordomos and the merchants who received goods produced by the native population, were responsible for restitution.
Principio I : AU infidels have jurisdiction over their possessions and territories ; with it go all the privileges of sovereignty. The reference is to a quotation from Romans 13, cited by Las Casas in Principio I : Christians under the jurisduction of even a gentile king most honor that monarch. Principio II : Infidels living among Christians are subject to Christian kings, as for example the Jews and Moors who used to live in Castile ; they were obligated to obey the just laws of that realm.
Principio II : The Indians of the New World, as infidels who never usurped Christian territories nor harmed the Christian nations in any way, possess their own kingdoms and exercise their own jurisdiction legitimately ; any foreign sovereign's intervention would be a violation of natural law. Second edition.
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