If you're an industrialist and you're trying to make a profit, if you try to improve your chimneys, if you try to clean up the amount of smoke that's going out from the chimney, it's going to cost you money. It means you have to put in new equipment. It means you have to train your stokers to combust the fire quicker, so this is going to cost you money. So of course you're going to be reluctant to an act passed, especially when you yourself as a wealthy industrialist can actually go out and live in the country.
You don't have to breathe London's air. PALMER: And, then, of course, we had interruptions like wars and slumps and the like, and so there were always reasons why this got interrupted. CORTON: We had the First World War, but after that, of course, then the country was trying to get back on its feet, and, of course, the last thing it wanted to think about was to spend more money on converting people's grates. Then, of course, we have the Second World War. Again in the late s, there's a real effort to produce a really strong Clean Air Act. But the coal industry has been nationalized, and there's a deep suspicion that for the domestic market, the Coal Board is actually supplying a lot of very cheap, dirty coal which is actually producing more smoke, and we're actually sending our more expensive coal abroad because we need the money.
So, again, governments are very reluctant to interfere with that. It was really the smoke that made all the difference.
Caspar David Friedrich
I mean, for your listeners who don't really know anything about Gerald Nabarro, he was actually quite a character. He was against joining the European Union. He was a racist. He was actually caught going around the roundabout the wrong way by a policeman who took a photograph, and he said well it wasn't me who went round the roundabout, it was my secretary and the policeman said well she must have a very fine moustache just like yours, because he had this very distinguished handlebar moustache.
- 2012, LE DERNIER SOUFFLE (French Edition)!
- As The Heartbones Break.
- Phileas Fogg.
So, he's not immediately someone that you would actually say was a hero, but in terms of clean air, he was a hero. He decided that he would push the Clean Air Act through, so he took advice from the smoke abatement societies that were around at the time.
Fog - Wikipedia
He actually introduced a ten-point plan. He had a franking machine for his post that said support the clean air act, so he really put a lot of effort behind it. The only thing was, the government fell, but both Labour and Conservative parties had clean air measures in their manifestos because I think they saw the tide had turned. People were no longer going to accept a London that actually was covered in smoke. That for as many as three weeks out of every year over a period of winter, you would have to walk in pitch black darkness during the day.
I think also, post Second World War, people wanted a cleaner, better way of living. PALMER: The fact that it took the fog so long to get cleaned up and the fact that the fog was ultimately, mostly cleaned up due to, well, the insistence of a few people and the changes in technology, do you think this has a lesson for us in terms of addressing global warming now?
She worked for many years at publishing houses in London. Photo: William Knight. I think governments can sit on their hands and just hope it will go away, and I think that's the story of London Fog. Governments were very reluctant to pass acts, even the Clean Air Act. This is poison. We have to do something about it.
And just as we see our ministers today, and I can only talk, obviously, of the London, England, Great Britain situation, they're very reluctant to interfere with the rights of the driver because we all like to use our cars, and yet we don't want to breathe in the pollution that the exhaust fumes produce. So it's a very similar story to coal fires. London Fog: The Biography. About Dr. Christine L Corton. Donate to Living on Earth! Living on Earth is an independent media program and relies entirely on contributions from listeners and institutions supporting public service. Please donate now to preserve an independent environmental voice.
Newsletter Living on Earth offers a weekly delivery of the show's rundown to your mailbox. Sign up for our newsletter today! Sailors For The Sea : Be the change you want to sea. The palette is dark and muted and the questioning of life and fascination with nature is long gone in this canvas. Joseph Mallord William Turner. Norham Castle on the Tweed Sunrise. Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows. John Constable. Though his teachers were not well known, they inspired in young Friedrich the love of nature and ability to see God in nature.
He combined what he learned from each of them to form his signature; to express God's divinity through nature.
Hometown influences: In Friedrich began his private studies at the University of Greifswald under the tutelage of Johann Gottfried Quistorp who taught him to draw from life outdoors. Equally important was his introduction to another particularly significant influence; Ludwig Gotthard Kosegarten.
Kosegarten was a theologian who believed nature was a revelation of God. This idea coincided particularly with the ideals of the budding Romanticism, and can be seen extensively in Friedrich's work. Though his teachers were considered masters of Danish Neoclassicism, they instilled in Friedrich the concepts of early Romanticism. Although Friedrich's artistic influences helped develop his love for the outside world, nature and God in nature, he did not directly gain from their styles.
After reaching maturity, Friedrich competently created his own themes and techniques and revived an interest in German landscapes. Greater known influences: Though their styles differed greatly, Friedrich, J. Turner and John Constable were all indirectly influenced by another. As Romantic landscapists, each artist grew up during a time when there was a growing disillusionment of an over-materialistic society.
This churned in each artist a new appreciation for spiritualism and an increased interest in nature. Born just a year apart, Turner and Friedrich often painted mountains surrounded in a mist or haze, a favorite scene among romantic landscape artists. The difference between the two artists, however, is that Friedrich paid a careful attention to the details of an almost Neoclassical landscape technique while Turner painted in a crazy swirl, completely devoid of any technicality his classical training may have granted him.
Some critics say that because of this, Turner's art is more advanced and well ahead of its time in comparison to Friedrich's. Although Friedrich's art is allegorical, they believe he paints in a highly traditional matter. Constable paints humbler realities though there is a presence of spiritual reality, as seen in Constable's Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows. Both Friedrich and Constable show visionary qualities. During life: For the most part, Friedrich remained relatively misunderstood during his time but the turn of the century brought a revived interest in Friedrich's work as Norwegian art historian Andreas Aubert rediscovered his landscapes.
Aubert's writing caught the attention of the Symbolist painters, a budding new group of artists who could identify with his representative landscapes. Friedrich also influenced the Surrealist movement. Friedrich was later featured in a Surrealist journal which exposed his work to a greater audience. After death: A more recent artist said to have admired Friedrich is Thomas Kinkade.
Compare Kinkade's Sunrise with Friedrich's Cross in the Mountains or Morning in Riesengebirge and it is not hard to see the uncanny similarities.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
The major difference between Kinkade and his inspirer is that Kinkade has found enormous success through his landscapes which seek virtues of a simpler lifestyle and his spiritual themes. The Abbey in the Oakwood. The Cross Beside The Baltic. During Life: Friedrich executed religious and spiritual themes through landscapes.
The Cross in the Mountains, an altarpiece, was his first work shown to a large audience and it was coldly received. Critics were outraged that Christ's crucifixion cross remained an afterthought to the landscape instead of the focal point it had been in traditional art. For the first time in Christian art nature dominated the scene. Friedrich's friends rose to his defense and he himself defended The Cross in the Mountains in a commentary a year later. He compared the sunrays to the light of God saying the painting represented man's continuous faith and hope in Jesus Christ still amidst the decline in formalized religion.
Regardless of public opinion of the work, the controversy it stirred increased Friedrich's popularity. Despite the overall lack of understanding of his allegorical landscapes by the general public and critics alike he had several faithful patrons in his middle years, including members of the Russian Royal family. Unfortunately, reception of his work continued to deteriorate as he aged. After Death: 20th Century: During the s the work of Friedrich took another unfortunate turn.
- Phileas Fogg - Wikipedia.
- Discovery of microscopic life.
- eccellente recensione per il sistema cardiovascolare (Italian Edition).
- Caspar David Friedrich | esicywowyq.tk?
- Caspar David Friedrich Artistic Context.
- Roald Amundsen.
Due to its blaring sense of German nationalism it was used as Nazi propaganda. Because of such strong associations Friedrich's art declined in popularity and was viewed with disdain. It wasn't until art critics Werner Hofmann, Helmut Borsch-Supan and Singrid Hunz defended his work against political associations that his art was freed from Nazi chains. Finally, by the s his work was being displayed in galleries and receiving new favor.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek used single-lens microscopes , which he made, to make the first observations of bacteria and protozoa. His extensive research on the growth of small animals such as fleas , mussels , and eels helped disprove the theory of spontaneous generation of life. Through his microscopic observations of organisms such as bacteria and protozoa , Antonie van Leeuwenhoek effectively began the discipline of microbiology. His studies of insects , mollusks , and fish showed that these animals did not begin their life cycle with spontaneous generation , from nonliving matter.
At a young age, Leeuwenhoek lost his biological father. His mother later married painter Jacob Jansz Molijn. When his stepfather died in , Leeuwenhoek was sent to Amsterdam to become an apprentice to a linen draper. Returning to Delft when he was 20, he established himself as a draper and haberdasher. By the time of her death, in , the couple had five children, only one of whom survived childhood. Leeuwenhoek remarried in ; his second wife died in In Leeuwenhoek obtained a position as chamberlain to the sheriffs of Delft.
His income was thus secure, and it was thereafter that he began to devote much of his time to his hobby of grinding lenses and using them to study tiny objects. Leeuwenhoek made microscopes consisting of a single high-quality lens of very short focal length; at the time, such simple microscopes were preferable to the compound microscope, which increased the problem of chromatic aberration. In he likely observed protozoa for the first time and several years later bacteria. He also calculated their sizes. In he described for the first time the spermatozoa from insects, dogs, and man, though Stephen Hamm probably was a codiscoverer.
Leeuwenhoek studied the structure of the optic lens, striations in muscles, the mouthparts of insects, and the fine structure of plants and discovered parthenogenesis in aphids. In he noticed that yeasts consist of minute globular particles. In his observations on rotifers in , Leeuwenhoek remarked that.
For these animalcules can be carried over by the wind, along with the bits of dust floating in the air. A friend of Leeuwenhoek put him in touch with the Royal Society of England, to which he communicated by means of informal letters from until most of his discoveries and to which he was elected a fellow in The first representation of bacteria is to be found in a drawing by Leeuwenhoek in that publication in His researches on the life histories of various low forms of animal life were in opposition to the doctrine that they could be produced spontaneously or bred from corruption.
Thus, he showed that the weevils of granaries in his time commonly supposed to be bred from wheat as well as in it are really grubs hatched from eggs deposited by winged insects. He argued that the sea mussel and other shellfish were not generated out of sand found at the seashore or mud in the beds of rivers at low water but from spawn, by the regular course of generation. Similarly, he investigated the generation of eels , which were at that time supposed to be produced from dew without the ordinary process of generation.
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