Fünf Bücher über das höchste Gut und Übel (German Edition)


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Peter Salzburg and Dr. The Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich provided an extremely pleasant working environment for my research and the staff there fetched innumerable books from their own collections or organised them from far away. Furthermore, Dr. Arnim Brinzing, Dr. Ulrich Leisinger, Dr. Anja Morgenstern, Dr.

Eva Neumayr, and Miriam Pfadt of the Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum Salzburg dealt with diverse requests of mine regarding their collections with kindness and promptness and many of them provided valuable feedback on some of my ideas. Briefe und Aufzeichnungen, ed. Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum Salzburg, 8 vols. Sherman and T. Donley Thomas, eds. Internationalen Stiftung Mozarteum Salzburg, vols. Yet, Wolfgang also referred to reading books as his habit at home in Salzburg, which certainly was the truth, as Leopold would plainly know if not. An important aspect of this culture was the social and aesthetic ideal of Empfindsamkeit, or rather the social and aesthetic ideals connected to the high esteem that Empfindsamkeit as a human capacity commanded in the later eighteenth century.

Empfindsamkeit is instead used as pars pro toto of a larger, complex web of modern thought that we term the Enlightenment. While Enlightenment is predominantly associated with an intellectual and political Enlightenment, Empfindsamkeit stresses the enlightening of the hearts, of social and aesthetic sensibility.

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Translations from the family correspondence in this dissertation are based on Letters, but amended to correspond more closely to the German original. Other translations are my own, if not noted otherwise. Gilgen, see e. This challenges several persistent myths in historiography and Mozart biography.

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The large issue at stake throughout this dissertation is the perceived cultural rift between the Protestant North and the Catholic South of the German- speaking countries. In the common view, the northern part was modern, progressive and enlightened, while the South was stuck in its baroque, conservative, reactionary culture. Tied up with questions of identity and religion, this notion has a long tradition reaching back into the eighteenth century itself, when travellers or commentators from the North derided Austria and South Germany for their cultural and political backwardness.

This expulsion received wide publicity in the German speaking countries and it was seen as a gross act of religious intolerance, branding Salzburg as the hotbed of reactionary bigotry. Philosophisch-historische Klasse, cxvi , 54— Wolfgang Hildesheimer and Maynard Solomon retold such an interpretation of events prominently in the later twentieth century — and besides, this story has a tremendous popular appeal.

Kapellmeisters Wolfg. Mozart Prague, Herrlin, , 1— Mozarts Leipzig, Breitkopf, , 1. Mozarts, Mozart, ed. Cliff Eisen, trans. Stewart Spencer New Haven, , 6. If not noted otherwise, references to Abert refer to the English edition of the work. Up to now historical studies on Enlightenment in Salzburg dealt solely with the institutional Enlightenment in the church, in the state administration and at the university.

This development will be summarised briefly, before a detailed documentation of the private interests and erudition of a number of citizens suggests a vibrant intellectual life in the city. An account of the book trade in Salzburg demonstrates the strong cultural exchange between Salzburg and North Germany, after all Salzburg was part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nations and not of Austria. The survey of biographies and intellectual interests within his immediate environment suggests that Leopold was far from the lonely intellectual but part of a lively network. Simon P.

Jahn, W. In addition to the books, which the family owned, I will also document their literary interests in the broadest sense, mainly based on the letters and on the Violinschule. Many musicologists engaged with the literature used by Leopold in the Violinschule before,22 yet, in addition to presenting a more thorough account than hitherto available, I would like to suggest that Leopold had access to and used the libraries of the court, of the university and of the archabbey St. Peter, when writing the Violinschule. A conspicuous proportion of the exact editions, which Leopold cites, were held in one of the three institutional libraries and are still extant today.

After all, several instances of borrowing and lending books are mentioned in the family correspondence. Chapter 4 turns to the currency of the aesthetic and social ideal of Empfindsamkeit in Salzburg. Chapter 5 first examines the sales channels for printed sheet music and books on music in Salzburg and thereafter it documents the availability of music prints and music books from North Germany in the city. Cliff Eisen Oxford, , 85— These catalogues suggest that the Salzburg public craved for the same kinds of music as the North German Liebhaber and they prove that much of the theoretical literature on music and the practical music treatises published in North Germany were available in Salzburg.

Ever since the first comprehensive Mozart biography, written by Otto Jahn and published in four volumes between and , the director of the Viennese court library Gottfried van Swieten is credited with introducing North German music and its aesthetics to Wolfgang around Jahn devotes an entire chapter to van Swieten and the musical life, which he encountered during his stay in Berlin and which he imported to Vienna.

In the musicological literature during the twentieth century, the focus was generally further constricted to J. Mozart, iii, — Mozart, — Sein Charakter. Sein Werk Stockholm, , —7. Even worse, there is a decidedly ideological and nationalist aspect at the root of this biographical trope, which is repeated consciously or not since the nineteenth century: only after the encounter with the true German artform of fugal counterpoint in in Vienna, as epitomised in J.

Mozart, iii, Mozart, It consists of an enormous amphitheatre. Mighty rocks raise their defiant heads towards the sky in the background. Some of these, which are placed somewhat at the side, have the shape of pyramids. This epic mass of rocks trails off gradually into woody mountains and then on both sides into beautiful, partly well cultivated hills. In the middle of this stage, lies the city, above which the castle towers on a high rock. Johann Kaspar Riesbeck, the author of this Arcadian description, came to the city in December Originally he planned only a short stopover on his way to Italy, yet he ended up staying in Salzburg for almost two years before moving to Zurich.

Er bildet ein ungeheures Amphitheater. Einige derselben, die etwas zur Seite stehn, haben die Gestalt von Pyramiden. Burson and Ulrich Lehner, eds. In Jean Mabillon visited Salzburg and met up with the most important scholars of the Salzburg university. Muratori advocated a Catholic church based on the personal piety of the individual and on practical pastoral care for those in need. Alicia C.

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Gallen, In the s and s this group of Salzburg intellectuals clearly stood apart from the official teachings at the university and also defined itself in opposition to this institution. Colloredo reshaped the liturgy in Salzburg, making the celebrations less pompous even on feast days, he introduced a German hymnal and he limited public processions.

Regarding the censorship, too, Salzburg was well known for its liberal system as compared to other Catholic countries. Harm Klueting similarly focuses on archbishop Colloredo and his institutional reforms. This will become evident in the present chapter, which focuses on the private erudition and interests of Salzburg citizens.

It gives short biographical sketches of a range of Salzburg inhabitants with different social backgrounds, which aim at outlining their erudition and interests. In many cases, the emphasis rests on the private libraries, which give an idea of the intellectual horizons of their owners. Notwithstanding all its pitfalls and dangers, the study of historical libraries can provide us with insights into the erudition of their owners.

While we cannot necessarily know their opinion about the books on their bookshelves, nor can we be sure that they actually read all the books, the books give an idea of the breadth of their interests and their intellectual horizon. In describing the libraries, I will focus on the dissemination of Enlightenment and North German titles. An account of the book trade in the town will finish this chapter and it will prove the general availability of Enlightenment books in Salzburg in the second half of the eighteenth century and the wide appeal modern literature, art and science had within Salzburg society.

He noted down his impressions of the city and its inhabitants in great detail in his personal diary. Remarkably, he singled out more or less the same names as Riesbeck. Zinzendorf held Count Kuenburg in particularly high esteem and they discussed north German, Lutheran books on morals and religion. Presumably, Riesbeck refers to the Uffizi collection in Florence with self-portraits, founded by Leopoldo de Medici in Their uncle Leopold Anton von Firmian was archbishop of Salzburg from until and in acts of true nepotism Leopold furnished Vigilius Maria, Franz Laktanz and also two other brothers with high positions at court during his tenure.

Vigilius Maria was born in in Trent. After studying in Innsbruck, Salzburg and Rome, Vigilius Maria was appointed by his uncle as Bischof von Lavant in , but he resigned the post in and became chairperson of the chapter of the Salzburg cathedral. He served in this position until his death in An obituary published in the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung from Jena shows the fame and the esteem, in which he was held in Salzburg and beyond. Allegedly, he attempted to leave Salzburg for the Low Countries illegally, but was caught out.

According to contemporary biographies, Firmian renounced the bishopric Lavant in , because he was tired of the network of intrigues and defamation by conservative catholic circles, which viewed his enlightened world—view with great suspicion. See Walther Killy and Rudolf Vierhaus, eds.

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He [also] strove to instil the love for reading in the young canons. Franz Laktanz was born in , also in Trent. After his studies at the Salzburg university, he joined the secular state administration and was appointed as Obersthofmeister by his uncle in With the death of his uncle in , Franz Laktanz Firmian succeeded him as proprietor of Schloss Leopoldskron and thus as head of the family branch in Salzburg. Over the years this castle was turned into an impressive treasury of pictures, prints and curiosities from all over Europe and it became a main tourist attraction in town.

In particular, Firmian was keen on collecting self-portraits of contemporary artists and portraits of famous artists of the past. Antique statues, originals and replicas, were part of the collections at Schloss Leopoldskron as well as wax statues and carvings of wood and ebony.

Firmian was not only an art enthusiast and collector, but he was himself a proficient painter. He was particularly famous for his portrait drawings, some of which he also engraved himself. Another specialty of his was the art of etching on glass with a diamond ring. Though Firmian was known first and foremost for his art collection, he probably was highly erudite in other areas, too.

The inventory of his home lists an extensive library of volumes. See e. No particulars of the library are mentioned. During these travels he studied the mechanical arts and local factories and acquired a broad knowledge on these subjects. He was born in , but nothing is known about his formal education. Some circumstantial information about Kuenburg can be gathered from accounts of contemporaries, who met the count personally.

He clearly was a person equipped with a sharp intellect and full of joie de vivre. For more information on the garden at Aigen, see Chapter 4. While the book inventories are not dated, the most recent books were printed around Therefore the catalogues can also be assumed to date from that time. There are also quite a few English titles among the books, philosophical treatises as well as sentimental novels. Cameron, a novel published anonymously in Edinburgh in In , he received two canonries, one in Salzburg and the other one in Halberstadt in Thuringia,59 and the following year he was made a canon in Augsburg, too.

Well-respected at court and esteemed by the populace of Salzburg, Waldburg-Zeil had high hopes of being elected as new archbishop of Salzburg in , but due to an intervention of the Viennese court Hieronymus von Colloredo won the election. Later in his life, he was involved in the foundations of the scientific academies in Innsbruck and in Munich, together with his brother Franz Anton. The eleven clocks and watches listed in the inventory were made in England or France, others in Augsburg and their overall value was estimated at more than gulden.

A printed catalogue of the entire library was published on 2 March by the Verlassenschaft-Abhandlungs- Commision in Salzburg. Laurenz Doberschiz Linz, , Salzburg, s. Large quantities of poetry, novels and librettos were in his library, as well as a few musical books, sheet music and literature on music. While Zeil perhaps acquired these antique, historical books from the sixteenth century out of his interest in church history, he clearly was also trying to keep up to date with contemporary protestant Lutheran writings on religion and faith.

In addition, Zeil owned a collection of the philosophical writings by Moses Mendelssohn, a separate edition of his Phaedon and another philosophical essay on the immortality of the soul by Johann Gustav Reinbeck. Zeil harboured a comparable enthusiasm for the Italian theatre, too.

The library catalogue lists a small amount of sheet music and musical books, though presumably he owned a lot more music as he was an amateur musician himself. Two yearly cycles of the Oberdeutsche Staatszeitung, including the supplements Salzburger Intelligenzblatt and Salzburger Kundschaftsblatt, and eight volumes of not specified Viennese newspapers were listed in the inventory. Zeil owned the entire journal Hamburgisches Magazin —62 and its successor Neues Hamburgisches Magazin — For further information on this edition, see Chapter 3.

It offered reports on international politics, European topics and issues from further afield such as the American Revolution, and it provided commercial information as well as entertaining social trifles. Peter For a long time Catholicism and Enlightenment were viewed as two opposing poles in the struggle for cultural and political change in eighteenth-century Europe. As mentioned above, scholars seriously considered a Catholic enlightenment only during recent decades.

These studies document that modern eighteenth-century secular philosophical and social ideals were received and shaped by monks and clerics, too. In particular, the Benedictine monasteries in South Germany with a strong tradition of scholarship and erudition engaged with the challenges of modern times. As noted above, existing studies deal with the institutional reforms at the Benedictine university,83 while the following section is concerned with the personal erudition and opinion in aesthetic matters of several poets and authors among the friars at the Erzabtei St.

The emerging picture demonstrates that the monks were interested in the modern thought world, in sciences and aesthetics, in similar ways as the nobility of the town. Just as in North Germany, Johann Christoph Gottsched was accepted as the main guiding authority in literature within the Salzburg literary circles in the second half of the eighteenth century. Thus, many of the Salzburg authors admired and emulated Gottsched as the yardstick of modern German poetry. Ludwig Wegele Augsburg, , Born in , Scharl was schooled at the monastery of Andechs and displayed a particular talent for music from an early age.

During his time in Salzburg Scharl wrote fifteen works for the university theatre and he also composed the music for many of them. After his return to Andechs in , he installed a mathematical- physical museum and established a collection of natural objects at the monastery.

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Another historical work written in German never got published: in Scharl compiled a geography and history of the state Salzburg. Born in , he studied philosophy at the Salzburg university and after graduation entered the Benedictine order at St. Peter in Augsburg, Gruber, Reichssiegel authored many school plays, some of which took the form of a Singspiel with the music for his plays composed by the court musicians Anton Cajetan Adlgasser and Michael Haydn amongst others.

The library of St. Peter holds a great number of books that can be identified as belonging to the private library, the so-called Handbibliothek, of Pater Florian Reichssiegel. A collection of 95 I am grateful to Mag. He was born as Kajetan Rupert Hagenauer in Peter in and in he was ordained as Pater Dominikus.

After he graduated from the Salzburg university in he served as secondary librarian of the abbey for a year before he became responsible for the kitchen of the monastery. In Pater Dominikus was elected as abbot of St. Peter and he died on 4 June To date, the education and erudition of the Hagenauer family did not received any particular attention within Mozart research, as they were mainly seen as a family of merchants and tradesmen.

Therefore, their business fortunes and trade network were considered more important than their intellectual horizon. Yet, the selection of books from the private library of Dominikus Hagenauer, which is still in the library of the abbey St. Peter, shows an erudite person, broadly interested in contemporary literature and philosophy. Peter in Salzburg.


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The History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides in a French translation was also part of his library. Peter in eighteenth-century Salzburg. Among the lower nobility, the so-called Beamtenadel, were many highly erudite people, too. This social class was made up of high-ranking civil servants, which could be secular magistrates as well as ordained priests. One of these erudite magistrates was Joseph Christoph Anton Mayr. Born in in Salzburg, he studied civil and church law at the university of his native town and was ordained as priest in At his funeral, a musical cantata was performed by a group of court musicians directed by the court organist Anton Cajetan Adlgasser.

Another extraordinary bibliophile member of the Salzburg middle class was Ignaz Johann Nepomuk Kuchardseck. Very little is known about his life he came to Salzburg in as an ordained priest and was preceptor to the Edelknaben, a school for noble boys, from until his death in Beyond a large corpus of catholic theological books the library catalogue lists many philosophical works from Northern Germany and England.

For a list of books from his library and detailed bibliographical information on the books mentioned, see Appendix D. Kuchardseck apparently was greatly interested in the modern phenomenon of moral periodicals: these periodicals originated in England at the beginning of the eighteenth century, the most famous publications being The Tatler, The Spectator and The Guardian.

Their success lead to a great many imitations and translations of excerpts from these periodicals being published on the continent. He was married to Maria Anna Wasner von Wasenau and they had five children. In he returned to Salzburg and became one of the most important advisors and collaborators for archbishop Colloredo in his church reforms in Salzburg.

In line with his strong Enlightenment leanings, he actively promoted Enlightenment ideas and erudition within Salzburg society. Secondly, the Salzburg citizenship strove for a modern educational ideal, which united the education of the heart and the mind. No list of members of the reading society survives. He studied in Salzburg and was awarded a doctorate of civil and church law.

He might have been member of a masonic lodge, but this supposition is not documented. In Schidenhofen lived some time in Vienna and in the following year he was officially employed at the Salzburg court administration, having been an Akzessist, an unpaid employee in the waiting for a salaried position, since He rose to the rank of chancellor of the Salzburg county by and served in this position until Schidenhofen died on 31 January , aged Nowadays, Schidenhofen is primarily remembered for his diary, which he kept between and and which is a rich source of information on cultural life and life in general in Salzburg.

Mozart scholars paid particular attention to these diaries, as Schidenhofen was a close friend of the family. Schidenhofen was an enthusiastic participant of cultural events in the city, be it musical, theatrical or otherwise. Schidenhofen had a lively interest in natural sciences, too: he was friends with Pater Dominikus Beck, whose public lectures on experimental physics he attended. Three visits to book dealers in Salzburg are recorded in the diary, all of which took place during the spring or autumn fairs in Salzburg.

SchidenhofenDiary, Between 28 December and 7 January Schidenhofen went to the auction several times, sometimes twice a day, and on at least one occasion he bought some books. He See Chapter 1. Geneva, Cramer, For detailed bibliographical information on the books, see Appendix E. Only two fairly dated studies deal in detail with book trading and printing in Salzburg.

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This area was hitherto entirely neglected by all authors, even though the participating book traders and their sales stock can be reconstructed to a large degree. Several published sales catalogues document the stock and trade channels of her business. Murray G. Hall Vienna, , Frankfurt, s. Many of the novels sold by Mayr were printed by Christian Gottlieb Schmieder in Karlsruhe, who released a series called Sammlung der besten prosaischen Schriftsteller und Dichter from onwards. The local readership apparently loved Anacreontic poetry and works that we now would consider to be typically sentimental or empfindsam.

Erbin Buchhandlung zu haben sind, 4 vols. Salzburg, Mayr, —4 [D-Mu, 4 H. Mayr advertised a wide selection of writings on the arts and aesthetics. Jahrhunderts Munich, , Furthermore, the interested Salzburg reader was able to acquire two extended reviews by Klein of performances at the Mannheim theatre: one examined a performance of the tragedy Agnes Bernauerin and the other dealt with the Singspiel Rosamunde with a libretto by Wieland set to music by Anton Schweitzer.

The inhabitants of Salzburg filled their leisure time with the same pastimes that burgeoned in Europe during the second half of the eighteenth century. The aesthetic of the picturesque was a formative ideal in gardening during the late eighteenth century, which played on the visual impression of the landscape and the sentiments this could arouse. In addition, the interested reader could purchase treatises by the Scottish botanist John Abercrombie and by Christian Ludwig Krause. The autumn fair was called Ruperti-Dult, as it took place around 24 September, which was the feast day of the patron saint of Salzburg, St.

The date of the fair in spring around 27 March was also linked to the patron saint of the city, as this was the day of his death. The history of both fairs reached back to the fourteenth century and they were important trading opportunities for international merchants from Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Italy.

Grieb, ed. Schwarzkopf did not explicitly state on his catalogues that the books listed were available at the Salzburg fairs, but we can safely assume this for the years, when Schwarzkopf attended the Salzburg fairs. On the whole these catalogues of itinerant book traders visiting the Salzburg fairs confirm that the newest European literature was available in the city during the s.

A large amount of writings by north German philosophers, such as Mendelssohn, Walch, Feder and Gottsched, was available in Salzburg via these book Briefe, i, and Briefe, i, both not in Letters. Helmut Gier and Johannes Janota Wiesbaden, , See Appendix G. The important luminaries of French and English philosophy featured frequently in their catalogues: Lotter for example sold books by Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu, and Wolff advertised writings by Hutcheson, Home and Shaftesbury.

Wolff advertised the complete works by Gottsched on linguistics, poetry and philosophy. A huge amount of novels and theatre plays were available from the itinerant book sellers: Lotter, Wolff and Schwarzkopf all dealt with the newest fiction and librettos. All three dealers traded with sheet music, musical tutors and theory books, too, as Chapter 5.

Mozard, maestro di capella to the Bishop of Salzburg, a refined man of spirit and of the world; and who, I believe, knows his business well, both in music and in other things. Mozard is a very polished and civil man, and the children are very well brought up. Cited in Dokumente, 84—5; Documentary Biography, Cited in Dokumente, 63; Documentary Biography, Cited in Dokumente, 12; Documentary Biography, Cited in Dokumente, 13; Documentary Biography, Cited in Dokumente, ; Documentary Biography, The father who died today was a man of much wit and sagacity, who would have been capable of rendering good service to the State even apart from music.

Valentin deals with the literary interests of Leopold Mozart. Cited in Dokumente, 64; Documentary Biography, Ironically, Leopold is yet again seen as father of his ingenious son in the title of this article. A brief survey of some personal friends of the family and their interests demonstrates the breadth of the intellectual engagement with modernity within the close social circle of the family. In Chapter 2. Chapter 2. Josef Mancal and Wolfgang Plath Augsburg, , 69— Marianne Danckwardt and Johannes Hoyer, xiv , 17— They both enrolled at the Salzburg University on 7 December , Langenmantel in jurisprudence and Leopold Mozart in philosophy.

The Langenmantel family was an extremely wealthy Augsburg dynasty and during the eighteenth century they were the dominant clan among the catholic patricians of the town. Zum Todestag, ed. Wolfram Baer Augsburg, , 9. Hans Friedrich Deininger Augsburg, , He lectured in philosophy, history and ethics and he was the first professor to officially introduce the rational deductive methods of scientific enquiry of the protestant philosophers Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Christian Wolff at the Paridiana.

Born in Salzburg in , he studied in his hometown and, after a short sojourn to Graz and Vienna, he became extraordinary professor at the Paridiana in April As I will describe below, Leopold had wide reading interests, a keen interest in aesthetics, history and geography, and a fascination with natural physics and physical appliances. His time at the university provided him with intellectual stimulation in all these areas. The university inscription register lists Leopold only as a student of philosophy. Johann Georg Mozardt, a Swabian from Augsburg, who from the beginning of this year […] hardly visited the lectures on physics once or twice and who for this reason showed himself not worthy of the name of a student: he was cited before the rector a couple of days before the exams, where he listened to the verdict that he was not longer to be listed in the student register; he accepted this verdict without any petitions as if it would not concern him and went off; for this reason he was not called for the exam.

According to Salzburg law at the time, Leopold was required to leave the city within three days after his dismissal from university, but it is unclear whether this rule was enforced strictly. Leopold himself hinted at this employment being his rescue from hard times in the dedication of the set of six trio sonatas, which he published in LMV XII:1—6.

These ties between Leopold and Salzburg noblemen often went beyond the confined contact of a court employee with his superiors and included some truly amicable friendships. Mozardt August. Suevus, qui ab anni […] initio vix una vel bina vice Physicam frequentavit, et ideo se ipsum nomine studiosi indignum reddidit: fuit is paucis ante examen diebus citatus ad Magnificum, ubi sententiam percepit, se non amplius in numero studiosorum habendum esse, quam sententiam nullis interpositis precibus, acsi haec non curaret, acceptavit et discessit; qua de ratione neque ad examen amplius fuit citatus.

The Mozart family correspondence records plenty of instances in which greetings are sent back and forth between Kuenburg and Leopold Mozart or his children. He was an ardent music lover and played the cello and double bass. For their grand European tour Wolfegg furnished them with letters of recommendation for the court in Ludwigsburg. Briefe, ii, 27; Briefe, ii, 50; or Briefe, ii, None of these greetings are included in Letters. Today, the music collection at Wolfegg Castle in South Germany, which belonged to close relatives of Count Anton Willibald von Wolfegg und Waldsee, holds a number of instrumental works by Leopold in manuscripts of Salzburg provenance.

He rendered a good service to Your Highness on the violin, and he was a sound and good composer. Born in , he was schooled at the Benedictine monastery in Ettal and went to Innsbruck, Salzburg and Leiden for his further studies. Ferdinand Christoph von Waldburg-Zeil Ferdinand Christoph von Waldburg-Zeil, whose extensive library was described above,64 was a great supporter and close friend of the Mozarts in Salzburg, too. A couple of years later, Zeil interceded for Wolfgang at the Munich court, when Wolfgang hoped to acquire a position there in Peter The ties between the Mozart family and the archabbey St.

Peter in Salzburg were examined in detail on multiple occasions. Scharl noted in his diary the anecdote of Wolfgang rushing up to the Empress Maria Theresia in Vienna and embracing her in January , which he heard from Anton Cajetan Adlgasser. How far the personal interaction went between the family and Reichssiegel, remains unclear.

Born in , he was a close friend of Wolfgang and Nannerl since childhood days. Peter in Salzburg zur Zeit Mozarts Salzburg, Cited after Dokumente, ; Documentary Biography, Joachim Ferdinand Schidenhofen, whose extensive interests and library are described above,77 was one of the closest friends of the Mozarts. Among the less well-known friends of the Mozart family are the brothers von Helmreichen zu Brunfeld. Brunfeld treated them to a meal, a 75 See Briefe, i, ; Letters, Peter gemacht? Peter in Salzburg zur Zeit Mozarts, — See Cliff Eisen, ed. Bullinger was educated in Dillingen and Ingolstadt, where he studied philosophy, mathematics and theology, and he entered the Jesuit order in After the dissolution of the order, he came to Salzburg and worked as educator and tutor in the household of the Arco family and during this time he became friends with the Mozarts.

The merchant Mathias Joseph Ranftl and his family were neighbours of the Mozarts in the Getreidegasse and the parents as well as the children stood in frequent contact with the Mozart family throughout their life.

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Mathias Joseph, who was a highly erudite person, arranged the botanical garden at Schloss Leopoldskron for count Firmian. His oldest son, Franz Anton Mathias inherited the business of his father and also his interest in botany. He printed a detailed catalogue of the plants and herbage in his gardens in and added two supplements in and H 62].

H 73]. Karl Ehrenbert von Moll owned an exceptional collection of books and prints. See Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexikon, xix, 4. Johann Andreas Schachtner Augsburg, Wolff, , preface [unpaginated]. Salvator in Augsburg, the same school as Leopold Mozart went to a couple of decades later. He did not finish his university studies, but entered the Salzburg court music establishment in as fourth organist. He moved up in the ranks to the first and only organist by , before being promoted to the head of the court music in Not much is known about the oboist and flautist Christoph Burg apart from the bare facts that he was born in Mannheim around and that he came to Salzburg in Yet, they certainly knew each other from the court and also stood in private contact: Nannerl noted in her diary that Sandmayr came round for some leisurely music making on 29 July , while Wolfgang and Constanze visited Salzburg.

In he was a member of the newly formed Lesegesellschaft in Salzburg. According to a notice in the Salzburger Intelligenzblatt, Sandmayr hosted the closet, where the books could be taken out from and returned to, at his home in the Getreidegasse. Peter as formerly belonging to Haydn. Peter in Salzburg zur Zeit Mozarts Salzburg, , — Hamburg and Leipzig, s. Condition: Very Good. No dust jacket. Red cloth.

Translated by H. Book is in better condition than most examples of this age. Neat, clean, well bound pages with very minimal foxing, tanning and thumbing. Small inscriptions and neat labels may be present. Boards have mild shelf wear with light rubbing and corner bumping. Some light marking and sunning. Seller Inventory TMB. More information about this seller Contact this seller 3. Published by Createspace Independent Publishing Platform New Book. Delivered from our UK warehouse in 4 to 14 business days. Established seller since Seller Inventory IQ More information about this seller Contact this seller 4.

Published by Createspace About this Item: Createspace, More information about this seller Contact this seller 5. Published by William Heinemann Ltd. About this Item: William Heinemann Ltd. Condition: Good. Red cloth with gilt lettering. Bright pages with light tanning and foxing to page edges. Former owner's name on front endpaper, with rub marks and a few small nicks to text block edges. Light tanning and foxing along spine and board edges.

Mild rub wear to surfaces and edges with crushing to spine ends and minor bumps to corners. Seller Inventory LMA. More information about this seller Contact this seller 6. Published by Anaconda Verlag, Germany About this Item: Anaconda Verlag, Germany, Language: German. Brand new Book. Seller Inventory LIB More information about this seller Contact this seller 7. Language: English. The Academic Questions. Marcus Tullius Cicero. Translated by Charles Duke Yonge. Top Ancient philosophy Classics.

Smith: "The history of this work, before it finally quitted the hands of its author, is exceedingly curious and somewhat obscure; but must be clearly understood before we can explain the relative position of those portions of it which have been transmitted to modern times. More information about this seller Contact this seller 7. Language: ger 52 pages. More information about this seller Contact this seller 8. More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. Published by Goldmann, o. About this Item: Goldmann, o. More information about this seller Contact this seller Language: ita 82 pages.

About this Item: This is a reprint of the original work published in We are professionally publishing these works using the classic text and artwork. The content of this print on demand book has not been changed. The book is printed in black and white. Illustrations if any are also in black and white.

Sewn perfect bound for longer life. Fold-outs if any not included. This is a reprint of a very old book so there might be some imperfections like blurred pages poor images or missing pages which we were not able to remove. If the book is a multi volume set then this is only a single volume. We are proud to offer numerous titles all at incredible prices with worldwide delivery to over countries.

Printed on acid free paper. The image if shown any is for reference only so that you can be sure of the book title before buying. Original Publisher: Lipsiae : in aedibus B. Teubneri Language: lat Pages: Seller Inventory S Language: lat pages. Published by Heinemann From: Anybook Ltd. Lincoln, United Kingdom. About this Item: Heinemann, Condition: Poor.

This book has hardback covers. In poor condition, suitable as a reading copy. No dust jacket. Please note the Image in this listing is a stock photo and may not match the covers of the actual item,grams, ISBN: Seller Inventory Published by Reclam Philipp Jun. About this Item: Reclam Philipp Jun. Seller Inventory MG. Cicero, Marcus Tullius,Hutchinson, W.

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Fünf Bücher über das höchste Gut und Übel (German Edition) Fünf Bücher über das höchste Gut und Übel (German Edition)
Fünf Bücher über das höchste Gut und Übel (German Edition) Fünf Bücher über das höchste Gut und Übel (German Edition)
Fünf Bücher über das höchste Gut und Übel (German Edition) Fünf Bücher über das höchste Gut und Übel (German Edition)
Fünf Bücher über das höchste Gut und Übel (German Edition) Fünf Bücher über das höchste Gut und Übel (German Edition)
Fünf Bücher über das höchste Gut und Übel (German Edition) Fünf Bücher über das höchste Gut und Übel (German Edition)
Fünf Bücher über das höchste Gut und Übel (German Edition)

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