There are some limitations in this study.
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Firstly, we employed systematic sampling along with the main road. It must be valid in Siem Reap situations; however, some houses which were not on the main road might have been missed. Secondly, when no eligible respondents were available at the selected house, and we skipped a house and when the household head was not available, we interviewed somebody else. Although this strategy was practical, it may have caused selection bias.
Thirdly, we chose only one person from one household; however, different people might have had different knowledge and experience.
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Fourthly, we obtained personal experience and behaviors. In addition, we could not have made clear definitions for some terms used in the questionnaire. Lastly, because face-to-face interviews were employed for the data collections by trained local interviewers in local language, we believe that little misunderstanding due to language would happen. However, some question was difficult to ask people in the community, as discussed before. This may also have caused information bias. In conclusion, it was found that there was a high dog population, inadequate knowledge of rabies, low recognition of human rabies, and poor dog management.
It was also suggested that although PEP was not available at the health center or referral hospital public health services , people did not know this. All of these facts could lead to a high rabies burden in Siem Reap province. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the authorities provincial, district, commune and village inform dog owners directly to keep their dog in a cage or tied up, vaccinated, and also to reduce the number of stray dogs in the community.
The most effective method of rabies prevention after a dog bite is PEP, which was not known well. The Ministry of Health and National Immunization Program should provide free PEP to dog bite victims through the existing routine vaccination channels. Health education should be developed and disseminated, particularly targeting high-risk groups such as farmers. At the same time, compulsory dog vaccination along with dog registration should also be done to achieve the WHO goal for eliminating rabies by the year We are grateful to the staffs of the Technical Bureau at Siem Reap Provincial Health Department for their generous assistance in the data collection and also to the health center staffs and VHSG who facilitated data collection in all villages.
Our sincere gratitude to the National Institute of Public Health, the Cambodian Ministry of Health, and the local administrative authority, the Siem Reap Provincial Health Department for official permission to conduct this study. Our special thanks to all the respondents who generously took the time to participate in the study. We also would like to thank all staffs of the Department of Healthcare Administration, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine who have always so generously facilitated our study.
SS designed the study, collected, analyzed, and interpreted data. MH advised on the study design and data collection, and analyzed and interpreted data. MABS analyzed and interpreted data. NH analyzed and interpreted data.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript. All respondents were orally informed of the study objectives and procedures before participation.
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Consent for publication was obtained from study participant during data collection. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Trop Med Health v. Trop Med Health. Published online Jun 8. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Mar 8; Accepted May Associated Data Data Availability Statement The dataset generated and analyzed during the current study are available from the first author on reasonable request.
Abstract Background The rabies incidence and number of dogs in Cambodia are much higher than in nearby countries. Methods Four-stage sampling was employed to identify villages and households. Results Only 9. Conclusions High dog population, inadequate knowledge of rabies, low recognition of human rabies, and poor dog management were found to be serious challenges for controlling rabies. Background Rabies is an ancient viral zoonotic disease that can be transmitted to humans from infected animals such as dogs, cats, and other types of wildlife.
Methods Study design and setting of the study A cross-sectional study was carried out in Siem Reap Province, Cambodia, from December 24, to January 13, Participants Thirty respondents were chosen from each village. Data collection A structured questionnaire was developed based on previous studies [ 13 , 17 — 19 ], and modified to suit the local context by consulting with experts. Results Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents Among selected households, the mean number of people per family was 5. Open in a separate window. Yes Yes 96 Yes 76 Experience related to rabies and dogs Of the respondents, Yes 66 Yes 28 7.
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Behaviors related to dog Among the dog owners, only Discussion This study suggested that more than four-fifths of the respondents knew that rabies was a disease that could be transmitted, and nearly two-thirds said it could be prevented. Conclusions In conclusion, it was found that there was a high dog population, inadequate knowledge of rabies, low recognition of human rabies, and poor dog management. Acknowledgements We are grateful to the staffs of the Technical Bureau at Siem Reap Provincial Health Department for their generous assistance in the data collection and also to the health center staffs and VHSG who facilitated data collection in all villages.
Availability of data and materials The dataset generated and analyzed during the current study are available from the first author on reasonable request. Consent for publication Consent for publication was obtained from study participant during data collection. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. References 1. World Health Organization: What is rabies? Accessed 11 May Gongal G, Wright AE.
Adv Prev Med.
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World Health Organization: Rabies. Key facts. Knowledge and attitudes about tetanus and rabies: a population-based survey from Karachi. Pakistan J Pak Med Assoc. Knowledge, attitude and practice about rabies among children receiving formal and informal education in Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria. Glob J Health Sci. Fu ZF. The rabies situation in Far East Asia.
Dev Biol Basel ; — Rabies trend in China and post-exposure prophylaxis in the Guangdong province. BMC Infect Dis. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey of rabies in a community in Sri Lanka. Environ Health Prev Med. World globe An icon of the world globe, indicating different international options. Search icon A magnifying glass.
It indicates, "Click to perform a search". Close icon Two crossed lines that form an 'X'. It indicates a way to close an interaction, or dismiss a notification. Lindsay Dodgson. Facebook Icon The letter F. Link icon An image of a chain link. It symobilizes a website link url. Email icon An envelope. It indicates the ability to send an email. Twitter icon A stylized bird with an open mouth, tweeting. Since this is the hormone largely responsible for social bonding, this hormonal "love injection" boosts our psychological well-being.
Previous studies analyzed in the review have revealed that dog owners have more positive social interactions, and that the presence of canine friends makes people more trusting Moreover, dogs appear to reduce symptoms of depression and render people more resilient to stress. That is why dogs are often used as therapy animals. Researchers hypothesize that therapy dogs can improve the psychological well-being of children going through cancer therapy, as well as help individuals diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD deal with disruptive symptoms or even prevent the onset of PTSD episodes.
Our canine companions could also give us clues and open new avenues of research when it comes to clinical research concerning our own health problems. A study that MNT covered earlier this year reveals that dogs share certain metabolic conditions — such as obesity — with their human owners.
Thus, learning more about dogs' gut microbiota and how they are affected by diet could help us understand how best to tackle our own eating habits. Like humans, dogs can also develop some forms of cancer.
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Much like us, dogs can get brain tumors to similarly destructive effect, so learning which genes predispose our canine companions to gliomas may also be translated into cancer research for human patients. Moreover, a contagious form of canine cancer could shed light into how forms of cancer found in humans have come to develop. Dogs can also experience certain features characteristic of dementia , such as impaired problem-solving abilities. Researchers explain that by understanding how cognitive tasks are affected in these quadrupeds, we may become better equipped to solve the riddle of dementia in the case of humans, too.
Dogs are not just incredibly loveable and often very funny friends whose antics fuel the Internet's store of memes continuously; their company also keeps us in good physical shape. Also, their health problems — sadly but endearingly — often mirror our own. Most of all, however, we welcome them into our lives — and have done so since time immemorial — because they instantly bring us the sort of joy and calm that we would otherwise have to work hard to obtain. Author Dean Koontz summarized this perfectly in his memoir of his own much-loved dog:.
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