Located in the middle of a region threatened by re-catholicization, these churches became gathering places for Lutherans, and their services regularly attracted large segments of the population from officially Catholic dominions. There, so-called Border Churches were built or renovated in Polish, Brandenburg and Lusatian territories.
Journeys like these to church services could, in the long term, lead to actual emigrations. Silesia, however, also served for a long time as a gateway to the Holy Roman Empire and as a relay of confessional exchange eastward. In the late 17th century, during the so-called Mourning Decade a decade of almost complete, if temporary, abolishment of Lutheranism with military and prosecutorial measures , this had an impact on the exiled Protestant clergy from Upper Hungary Slovakia , who often only narrowly escaped the galleys and now entered the empire through Silesia.
Some of them undertook important literary work there, reporting on the hardships of re-catholicization in Upper Hungary during the period of Emperor Leopold I — Silesia's relay function also boosted the influence of the Grace Church of Cieszyn Upper Silesia in officially Catholic areas in the south and east, which contributed not least to the spread of Lutheran Pietism in central Europe. The emigration of Salzburg Protestants in the s is also part of this long tradition of central European migrations since the Reformation.
Forced to leave his children behind, he moved to Nuremberg, where many migrants from the Habsburg territories had already settled, and published edifying writings, whose specific impact on the mobilization of Protestants in the Alps , however, is debated. Intermediaries like Schaitberger, though, made sure that the confessional situation in the bishopric was widely known.
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Prince Bishop Leopold Anton von Firmian — , a social and administrative reformer, carried out confessional examinations of Salzburg subjects which led to a worsening of the situation. Additionally, traditional forms of social protest increased the sectarian-political tensions.
As a result, delegations of Salzburg Protestants took up their concerns with the Diet of Regensburg. This led to what became a famous petition from 19, people, and, by the end of , resulted in expulsions and emigrations that continued into the summer of the following year. Notwithstanding the provisions of the Treaty of Westphalia, which had actually never been ratified by Salzburg, the Protestants were not granted regulated terms for their departure.
At the same time, the Prussian envoy at the Diet tried to attract as many emigrants as possible to colonize Prussia's depopulated north-eastern territory. Brandenburg-Prussia quickly began to channel the migration into the kingdom, to lend support to the immigrants and to finally place the majority in north-eastern Prussia. The Salzburgers were usually spread out over ethnically mixed areas.
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This not only meant social adjustments, but also massive changes in the organization of feudal labour and farming methods. For the Hohenzollern state and the empire's Protestants in general, the Salzburgers' emigration was a very welcome occasion to spread propaganda that emphasized the moral superiority of the Reformation and denounced the inhumanity of the Catholic side.
Although the emperor sent troops to help with the expulsion of the Salzburg Protestants, he abstained from other foreign policy measures in order to avoid upsetting the empire's political balance. As soon as the empire's authorities became involved in the defence of the Protestants, the Catholic powers based their arguments on positions that were already familiar from the time of the early emigrations of the Counter-Reformation.
These included the view that the emigrants were heretics, who did not belong to the tolerated belief systems, or the contention that religion was in fact not an issue at all, but rather political rebellion. The fact that the Salzburgers' emigration could become a display of Protestantism that involved both Reformed Protestants and Orthodox Lutherans and especially Lutheran Pietists was due to a specific overlapping of confessional and political interests.
In pietistic circles, in particular, important advocates for the Salzburg emigrants could be found. Among these were the pastor Samuel Urlsperger — , who was himself a descendant of Styrian immigrants. From his location in Augsburg, he became one of the most important propagandists for the cause of the Salzburgers.
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Through his contacts to Halle Pietism, but also to the religious societies of Great Britain such as the London Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge , he arranged for several hundred Salzburgers to obtain permission to emigrate to the colony of Georgia. Everyone involved in this latter undertaking regarded the support of the Salzburg Protestants as their own prestigious project and all were disappointed when there were initially not enough Salzburgers to fill the ships to America.
Afterwards, the authorities of the Alpine lands strove to advance religious homogenisation somewhat more quietly. Success, however, was only limited in the case of the so-called transmigrations. In several regions of the hereditary lands officially ordered deportations were carried out in the s under Charles VI — , but also under Maria Theresa — in the s and s and Protestants unwilling to convert were forced to leave for Transylvania. This area was suited as a target destination, as the eastern lands outside the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire had served the Habsburg administration for some time as a bulwark against foreign powers.
However, because it was outside of imperial-legal influence and largely unnoticed by the rest of the empire, its border location also meant that it could enjoy certain religious concessions. In any case, one should not overlook the fact that the resettlements occasionally tore apart families in painful ways and were partly enforced with massive military intervention. The re-catholicization measures in the early modern period by no means led to a complete separation of Protestant from Catholic Europe.
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The manifold connections between the areas of departure and the host countries, the transfers of goods, money, ideas and people were in large part due to the Lutheran emigrants. Much like in the 16th century, when Strasbourg , Geneva and Frankfurt am Main had become hubs of information and exchange for Reformed exiles, in the 17th century cities like Nuremberg, Regensburg, Dresden, Hamburg and Leipzig became national, multinational and sometimes even multi-confessional centres of transfer.
Furthermore, there was the appeal of universities such as Wittenberg, Leipzig and Altdorf , which traditionally attracted a large number of Protestant students from the Habsburg territories where no Lutheran educational institutions existed. Trade links that were not limited to local border traffic and included the exchange of information, also connected Protestant and Catholic Europe. These were not curtailed in any way by re-catholicization. Protestant churches outside the Habsburg sphere of influence regularly attracted a large number of believers from neighbouring Catholic and re-catholicized territories to church services.
The migrations themselves were frequently not hurried flights, but often based on the transmission of information and knowledge that had long preceded the relocation. Thus the migration process could be well prepared for in advance in the country of origin — through inquiries, travel and correspondence or through the sale or lease of property whose earnings one might continue to live off while residing in the host country. Such planning, however, did not automatically mean that the settlement and integration would be successful. How quickly or easily one was able to set down roots at the target destination often depended less on confessional than economic or linguistic conditions, and not least on a willingness, or need, to consider making the temporary place of exile a permanent home.
This consequently influenced the readiness to obtain citizenship and affected marital relationships and family reunifications. Various difficulties pertaining to the structures of the early modern corporative state, however, could hinder settlement or cause it to fail altogether. Failed migrant careers were therefore hardly rare: The maintenance of contacts in the former homeland was frequently useful. Migrants with specific geographic knowledge or language skills were active in trade or diplomacy.
They were of vital importance for contacts and exchange between the home country and the place of migration. The lucrative, and mostly illegal, sale of devotional literature between Protestant southern and central Germany and the Habsburg territories in the 17th century was often organized by migrants. Only occasionally one finds a few derogatory remarks about them, such as that someone had fallen from true Lutheranism, decided in favour of the "fleshpots of Egypt" and returned to the "papacy".
However, there are many signs that return migrations must have been very common, not only from southern and central Germany, but irrespective of the geographical distance between the new and old homelands. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Categorie : Miniserie televisive del Miniserie televisive statunitensi Miniserie televisive d'avventura Miniserie televisive fantastiche Miniserie televisive di fantascienza Miniserie televisive di Syfy Opere basate su Il mago di Oz. Menu di navigazione Strumenti personali Accesso non effettuato discussioni contributi registrati entra.
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