Adults are nocturnal, and are most active during warm, humid evenings. After a preoviposition period of 3 to 4 days, the female moth normally deposits most of her eggs during the first 4 to 5 days of life, but some oviposition occurs for up to 3 weeks. Duration of adult life is estimated to average about 10 days, with a range of about 7 to 21 days Luginbill, ; Sparks, It has now been confirmed in more than 30 African countries FAO, In , S. Distribution Table Top of page The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status.
Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Phytosanitary Measures Plants for planting should come from a place of production inspected and found free from the pest during the previous months. Jeger et al. It is most commonly recorded from wild and cultivated grasses; from maize, rice, sorghum and sugarcane. However, Montezano et al. Seedlings are fed upon within the whorl.
Larger larvae can cut the base of the plant. Mature plants suffer attack on reproductive structures. On tomato plants, buds and growing points may be eaten and fruits pierced. Maize leaves are eaten and the whorl funnel may be a mass of holes, ragged edges and larval frass. Usually many young larvae will be present on the same plant, but normally one or two older larvae may be found on a single plant, as others will migrate and feed on neighbouring plants.
Later larval instars make larger holes, causing ragged whorl leaves, and produce sawdust-like larval droppings, while fresh feeding produces big lumps. Badly infested fields may look as if they have been hit by a severe hailstorm. Fall armyworm can also destroy silks and developing tassels, thereby limiting fertilization of the ear.
Maize plants may have the cobs attacked by larvae boring through the kernels. Damage to cobs may lead to fungal infection and aflatoxins, and loss of grain quality.
At high densities, large larvae may act as armyworms and disperse in swarms, but they often remain in the locality on wild grasses, if available. Eggs are laid at night on the leaves of the host, stuck to the lower surface of the lower part of the lower leaves, in tight clusters of and sometimes in two layers, usually covered with a protective layer of abdominal bristles. When moth populations are high, the eggs may be laid higher up the plants, on top of the leaves or on nearby vegetation. Hatching requires days usually The mortality rate following emergence may be high in some cases due to climatic factors and attack by predators, parasitoids and pathogens.
In the second and third instar stages, larvae are often cannibalistic and thus one or two larvae per whorl is usual. The rate of larval development through the six instars is controlled by a combination of diet and temperature conditions, and usually takes days. Larger larvae are nocturnal unless they enter the armyworm phase when they swarm and disperse, seeking other food sources.
Pupation takes place inside a loose cocoon in an earthen cell but has also been observed in the kernels of the maize cob, or rarely between leaves on the host plant, and days are required for development. Adults emerge at night, and they typically use their natural pre-oviposition period of days to fly for many kilometres before they settle to oviposit, sometimes migrating for long distances. In the migratory habit, moths can migrate over km miles before oviposition.
On average, adults live for days. A threshold temperature of Sandy-clay or clay-sand soils are suitable for pupation and adult emergence. Emergence in sandy-clay and clay-sand soils was directly proportional to temperature and inversely proportional to humidity. Pupae require a threshold temperature of In the tropics, breeding can be continuous with four to six generations per year, but in northern regions only one or two generations develop; at lower temperatures, activity and development cease, and when freezing occurs all stages are usually killed.
In the USA, S. In mild winters, pupae survive in more northerly locations. The strains are morphologically identical, but can be distinguished by molecular techniques. Recent evidence shows that the diversity of fall armyworm that invaded Africa is greater than previously thought, including a haplotype that has not yet been observed in the Western Hemisphere Nagoshi et al. In Uganda, fall armyworm populations were found to consist of two sympatric sister species of maize-preferred and rice-preferred strains Otim et al.
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There have been some attempts to establish the origin of these strains, and evidence from Ghana Cock et al. Efforts were made to introduce the egg parasitoid, Telenomus remus , into countries where it had not already been found. These introductions have been credited with reducing the numbers of this and other pest Spodoptera occuring alongside it Cock, It is suggested that, in this species, migration has evolved as a major component in the life history strategy.
The use of the pre-oviposition maturation period for widespread dispersal seems to be very effective. In the USA, adult moths have been recorded using a low-level jet stream, which took them from Mississippi to Canada in 30 h. Larvae frequently act as armyworms in late summer or early autumn and local dispersal is thus effected successfully, which helps to reduce larval mortality.
In most years larvae arrive in Europe carried by air-freight on vegetables or fruit from the New World; sometimes they are also intercepted on herbaceous ornamentals Seymour et al. A useful review of this topic was produced by Johnson The rapid spread of fall armyworm where it has recently invaded in Africa has been attributed to the strong flight capacity of the insect. The rapid spread to the Indian Ocean Islands and to Asia is harder to explain by natural flight, so it is possible that the frequent flights to those countries could have played a part.
Cock et al. Wind-assisted flight alone might not have been sufficient for fall armyworm to cross the Atlantic or the Indian Ocean, but once it arrived, all the pathways listed could have occurred. It is still not clear whether there were multiple introduction events, or a single event involving multiple individuals. Damage results from leaf-eating and healthy plants usually recover quite quickly, but a large pest population can cause defoliation and resulting yield losses; the larvae then migrate to adjacent areas in true armyworm fashion.
Left unmanaged, or in the absence of natural biological control, fall armyworm can cause significant yield loss in maize and other crops. There are many variables to consider in determining the potential yield loss due to fall armyworm infestation. In general, how the crop responds to fall armyworm infestation is highly dependent on the population level of the pest and the timing of infestation, natural enemies and pathogen levels that can help to naturally regulate the populations, and the health and vigour of the maize plant nutritional and moisture status.
Baudron et al. Caterpillars of S. Larvae of S. Adults of S. In the male genitalia the valve is almost rectangular and there is no marginal notch at the position of the tip of the harpe; the female bursa lacks a signum. In Africa it can also be confused with S. Due to the variable regulations around de registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control.
Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Introduction The literature on this pest is extensive Ashley et al. This is in part due to the importance of maize, the importance of lepidopteran pests, the quest for alternative control methods following the development of insect resistance to pesticides, and the development of host-plant resistance breeding programmes. Cultural Control Control is largely achieved in the northern range through a winter kill by exposing larvae and pupae within the upper soil surface.
Freezing temperatures cause high larval mortality. Therefore, clean cultivation and weeding are recommended. Handpicking egg masses and caterpillars has been tried in Africa. The efficacy of these methods is not well documented. Agro-ecological options Harrison et al. These include i sustainable soil fertility management, especially measures that maintain or restore soil organic carbon; ii intercropping with appropriately selected companion plants; and iii diversifying the farm environment through management of semi natural habitats at multiple spatial scales.
Biological Control A large number of parasitic Hymenoptera, acting as larval parasitoids, have been reared from S. When applied to damaged leaves of maize seedlings, volicitin induced the seedlings to emit volatile compounds that attracted females of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris.
Mechanical damage of the leaves, without application of this compound, did not trigger release of the same blend of volatiles. Volicitin appears to regulate tritrophic interactions among plants, insect herbivores and natural enemies of S. They are highly host specific, non-pathogenic to beneficial insects and other non-target organisms, and are attractive candidates for integrated pest management. SfMNPV is specific to only fall armyworm. The pest is infected by ingesting the baculovirus. The symptoms of Baculovirus infection include appearance of blemishes, yellowing of the skin, and decline in feeding.
Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have also shown efficacy against eggs and second-instar larvae of fall armyworm Komivi et al. Cumulative mortality of eggs and neonates with M. Bateman et al. Azadirachtin neem is effective against fall armyworm. Oxymatrine and matrine found in Sophora spp. Pyrethrins from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium , formerly Pyrethrum are effective against fall armyworm and registered in many countries, but have non-target risks that require mitigation.
In Mexico, recent studies have shown that extracts of Couroupita guianensis and Myrtillocactus geometrizans could be good candidates for the control of Spodoptera due to their larvicidal activity. Also, extracts from Synedrella nodiflora and Lupinus stipulatus have shown to have biological effects on mature insects of the genus Spodoptera. Host-Plant Resistance Spodoptera spp. Transgenic maize containing genes encoding delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki have been commercialized in the USA and Brazil. Vegetative insecticidal proteins vip have been isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis Bt during the vegetative phase of growth which show a wide spectrum of activities against lepidopteran pests, especially Spodoptera spp.
Estruch et al. Spodoptera spp. Fatoretto et al. Chemical Control In some areas resistance to insecticides may be widespread and control can be difficult Pitre, Recommended insecticides for Spodoptera spp. Togola et al. Pheromonal Control The sex pheromone for S. Mating disruption my be possible given the successes observed for S. Biological controls are prevalent and should be encouraged through reduced spaying of insecticides. Abrahams, P. Evidence Note, 2 , September An elicitor of plant volatiles from beet armyworm oral secretion.
Science Washington , ; 7 ref. First report of the fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J. Smith Lepidoptera, Noctuidae on sugarcane and other crops from Maharashtra, India. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 7 1 , Insect Control Guide. The fall armyworm: a bibliography. Florida Entomologist, 72 1 Bateman, M.
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Assessment of potential biopesticide options for managing fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda in Africa. Journal of Applied Entomology, 9 , Baudron, F. Understanding the factors conditioning fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda J. Smith infestation in African smallholder maize fields and quantifying its impact on yield: a case study in Eastern Zimbabwe.
Crop Protection, , Behle, R.
Invasive Species Compendium
Laboratory and field evaluations of the efficacy of a fast-killing baculovirus isolate from Spodoptera frugiperda. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 2 , Birhanu Sisay, Simiyu, J. First report of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda Lepidoptera: Noctuidae , natural enemies from Africa.
Journal of Applied Entomology, 8 , Bulletin of Entomological Research, 65 2 First report of Trichogramma rojasi parasitizing eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda. Casmuz, A. Chimweta, M. Fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda J. Smith ] damage in maize: management options for flood-recession cropping smallholder farmers.
Chinwada, P. Fall Armyworm Prevalence Assessment in Madagascar. See more Alicia. A linguist works with the military to communicate with alien lifeforms after twelve mysterious spacecraft appear around the world. In a near future, a lonely writer develops an unlikely relationship with an operating system designed to meet his every need. An astronaut becomes stranded on Mars after his team assume him dead, and must rely on his ingenuity to find a way to signal to Earth that he is alive. A frontiersman on a fur trading expedition in the s fights for survival after being mauled by a bear and left for dead by members of his own hunting team.
A committed dancer struggles to maintain her sanity after winning the lead role in a production of Tchaikovsky's "Swan Lake". A young blade runner's discovery of a long-buried secret leads him to track down former blade runner Rick Deckard, who's been missing for thirty years. A look at the relationship between the famous physicist Stephen Hawking and his wife.
A young man who survives a disaster at sea is hurtled into an epic journey of adventure and discovery. While cast away, he forms an unexpected connection with another survivor: a fearsome Bengal tiger. A paraplegic Marine dispatched to the moon Pandora on a unique mission becomes torn between following his orders and protecting the world he feels is his home. In a post-apocalyptic wasteland, a woman rebels against a tyrannical ruler in search for her homeland with the aid of a group of female prisoners, a psychotic worshiper, and a drifter named Max.
Caleb, a 26 year old programmer at the world's largest internet company, wins a competition to spend a week at a private mountain retreat belonging to Nathan, the reclusive CEO of the company. But when Caleb arrives at the remote location he finds that he will have to participate in a strange and fascinating experiment in which he must interact with the world's first true artificial intelligence, housed in the body of a beautiful robot girl. A reclusive CEO of a leading technology company hires a young whiz kid who works for him to test his latest development, a highly advanced android called Ava.
Specifically he is tasked with using the Turing test on her to establish if her AI is sufficiently convincing to pass as human. Despite contributing several scripts for the screen, this is writer Alex Garland's first directorial effort. It's a hard sci-fi movie which examines concepts and ideas above everything else.
That's not to say it isn't dramatic or even thrilling because it is both of those things as well but the focus is squarely on the science fiction speculation, and this is a very welcome thing. The central concept that it examines is artificial intelligence. How we interact with AI as humans, as well as how a seductive machine could in turn manipulate us. The very well written script poses philosophical questions such as is there moral or immoral ways to treat AI. It also considers if sometimes part of being human is that we sometimes subconsciously want to be fooled by an illusion, if it is attractive enough.
In many ways Ex Machina resembles last years Under the Skin. Both feature highly advanced female non-humans.
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In the earlier film Scarlett Johansson played an alien, here Alicia Vikander plays an android. While the very small cast all acquit themselves very well, it is Vikander who stands out in the film's most challenging role. It's a nuanced performance that captures the fine balance between the human-like and machine. Not only this but the marvellous special effects compliment this performance to create a very distinctive character.
Aside from the effects, this is probably quite a modestly budgeted film, as the small little-known cast and limited sets suggest. But these restrictions have been used to the films advantage, as the unknown cast surprise more given little is known of them and the restricted setting gives off a claustrophobic feel which works well, while forcing us to focus in even more on the ideas being put in front of us. A scene setting ambient soundtrack additionally creates just the right off-kilter mood to accentuate the events.
But it's ultimately the very good writing that underpins the success of this film. All-in-all, very impressive science fiction for those who appreciate the genre's more cerebral side. Start your free trial. Find showtimes, watch trailers, browse photos, track your Watchlist and rate your favorite movies and TV shows on your phone or tablet! IMDb More. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends.
Full Cast and Crew. Release Dates. Official Sites. Company Credits. Technical Specs. Topics Science fiction and fantasy films Week in geek. Reuse this content. Order by newest oldest recommendations. Show 25 25 50 All.
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