Lobbying by a non-member would be a criminal offence.
All open-door meetings would be streamed on the internet and a transcript published in Hansard. Closed-door meetings on the other hand would be entirely private; however, the ministers and officials participating in them would be forbidden from subsequently taking a job with the organisations represented on the other side of the table.
As with the by-elections mentioned above, time for meetings in ministerial diaries would be auctioned-off — a much fairer and above board way of allocating this precious resource. The proceeds would, of course, go to straight to the public purse, more than recouping the cost of the complementary tea and biscuits. The answer, of course, is not very.
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Further investigations—including bloodmeal analyses, use of mosquito sampling methods that focus collections on competent rather than dead-end host species present in an area, and JEV competence experiments—would improve our understanding of the host and vector species driving JEV transmission.
Quantifying the relative contributions of species involved in JEV transmission, and the role of birds in particular, would improve assessments of both the potential for JEV to spread to new geographic regions [ 14 , 28 , 29 ] and the potential impact of particular farming systems, including duck farming in rice paddies [ 41 ]. Japanese encephalitis is a vaccine-preventable disease and has been successfully controlled by national human immunization programs in Japan, Taiwan, China, and Korea [ 1 ]; however, the disease is still a major public health problem in many regions of Asia, including Bangladesh and India [ 1 ].
The cost of national immunization programs and the logistics of vaccinating all individuals in at-risk areas currently restrict use in some JE-endemic regions [ 42 ].
Furthermore, as human infection does not contribute to transmission and the human vaccine does not reduce transmission of JEV in the reservoir community, no herd immunity is generated, and vaccination has to be sustained indefinitely. Implicating host and vector species would improve understanding of transmission risk in space and time, and could, therefore, inform targeted vaccination efforts toward those at highest risk.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Funding: At the time of writing this manuscript JSL was a postdoctoral research associate in the Pulliam Lab at the University of Florida. Current Understanding Japanese encephalitis virus JEV is an important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with an estimated 67, cases annually [ 1 ].
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Study locations in Japan A and Bangladesh B where host community composition has been estimated Fig 2. Fig 2. Considering Transmission Context The Cx. Table 1. Summary of potential sources of bias and heterogeneity that may influence estimation of parameters used to implicate host and vector species in Japanese encephalitis virus transmission. Implications for Control Quantifying the relative contributions of species involved in JEV transmission, and the role of birds in particular, would improve assessments of both the potential for JEV to spread to new geographic regions [ 14 , 28 , 29 ] and the potential impact of particular farming systems, including duck farming in rice paddies [ 41 ].
References 1. Estimated global incidence of Japanese encephalitis: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ. Factors influencing transmission of Japanese B encephalitis virus by a colonized strain of Culex tritaeniorhynchus giles, from infected pigs and chicks to susceptible pigs and birds. Am J Trop Med Hyg. Ecologic studies of Japanese encephalitis in Japan.
Ecologic studies of Japanese encephalitis virus in Japan. Mosquito infection. Mosquito factors. Ecologic studies of Japanese encephalitis virus in Japan: IV. Avian infection. Avian factors. View Article Google Scholar 8. Swine Infection. Am J Prev Med.
View Article Google Scholar 9. Survey for infection of wild rodents. Buescher E, Scherer W. Epidemiologic correlations and conclusions. Japanese encephalitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.
Transmission cycles, host range, evolution and emergence of arboviral disease. Nat Rev Microbiol. Emerging flaviviruses: the spread and resurgence of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and dengue viruses. Nat Rev Med. View Article Google Scholar Ecology and geographical expansion of Japanese encephalitis virus. Annu Rev Entomol.
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Review of climate, landscape, and viral genetics as drivers of the Japanese encephalitis virus ecology. Nahar N. Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions. Vet Ital. The skins begin creeping and the flesh bellowing upon the spits, both the roast and raw, and there is a sound like the voice of cattle. For six days, Odysseus's company feast on the kine of Helios. On the seventh day, the wind changes. After they set sail, Zeus keeps his word and the ship is destroyed by lightning during a storm and all of his men die.
Odysseus escapes by swimming to Calypso 's island. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archimedes' cattle problem. Categories : Greek legendary creatures Characters in the Odyssey Cattle in art.
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